Skip to main content

Full text of "The geography of Herodotus ... illustrated from modern researches and discoveries"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 






In the fifth century before Christ, an imaginary Biography founded on 
fact, and intended to illustrate the manners, religion, and social con- 
dition of the Greeks, Aegyptians, Hebrews, Phoenicians, Babylonians, 
Persians, Scythians, and other nations of the ancient world, as they were 
in the days of Pericles and Nehemiah. 














The object of the accompanying work is to pre- 
sent the student with a full development and ex- 
planation of the Geography of Herodotus ; and at 
the same time to enable the general reader to sur- 
vey the ancient world at one of the most important 
periods of its history. Accordingly, in the first 
place, all the geographical notices and allusions 
throughout Herodotus have been brought together 
and digested into one continuous system ; and se- 
condly, such descriptions and illustrations have 
been borrowed from modern geography, as would 
correct his errors, reconcile his contradictions, ex- 
plain his obscurities, and enable us to identify 
ancient sites with existing localities. 

The want of such a work has long been felt both 
by the Classical and the Biblical student. Herodo- 
tus tells of the glorious deeds of Hellas at Marathon 
and at Thermopylae, at Salamis and at Plataea ; 
and at the same time he describes Babylon and the 
great Persian empire as they were in the days of 
Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and Aegypt as she 
probably appeared in the primeval times of the 
patriarchs and Pharaohs. But he relates the story 
in his own way, and follows a far more natural but 


intricate arrangement than would have been adopted 
by the modern historian. His geographical descrip- 
tions are scattered about in the form of digressions, 
and a vast body of information also exists in the 
shape of brief notices, allusions, or illustrations.^ It 
was therefore impossible for the student to avail 
himself of Herodotus's stock of geographical know- 
ledge, unless he had thoroughly mastered the entire 
history ; whilst a real comprehension of its charac- 
ter, as compared with modern geography, was only 
to be attained by a labour similar to that which has 
been expended on the present volume. 

It would be invidious for the author to mention 
the defects of his predecessors, but he must confess 
that from Rennell's Geography of Herodotus,^ and 
from Niebuhr's two well-known Dissertations,^ he 
has been unable to derive the assistance he had ex- 
pected. Rennell omits the geography of European 
and Asiatic Greece, Macedonia, Thrace, Aegypt, 
Aethiopia, and the isles of the Aegean, whilst much 

^ It may be remarked that the Herodotean geography of Greece 
mainly consists of these brief and scattered notices, for as Herodotus pre- 
sumed that its various countries were famiUar to his readers, he rarely 
alludes to them, excepting when he seeks to illustrate the geography 
of other regions. 

2 The Geographical System of Herodotus examined and illusti-ated, by 
Major James Rennell, F. R. S. Explained by eleven maps. 2 vols. 8vo, 
second edition, revised, London, 1830. Rennell's work is not a develop- 
ment of the Geogi-aphy of Herodotus, but a series of disquisitions upon 
certain portions of it. It thus comprises dissertations upon the itinerary 
stade of the Greeks, the Scythian expedition of Darius Hystaspes, the 
site and remains of ancient Babylon, the captivity of the ten tribes, the 
floods, alluvions, and mouths of the Nile, etc. The most valuable are 
those on Scythia, the twenty satrapies of Darius, the Libyan tribes, and 
the circumnavigation of Africa by the Phoenicians. 

3 Dissertation on the Geography of Herodotus, with a map ; and Re- 
searches into the History of the Scythians, Getae, and Sarmatians. 
Translated from the German of B. G. Niebuhr, 8vo, Oxford, 1830. 


of his information concerning other regions is either 
imperfect or obsolete. Niebuhr's Dissertations are 
more valuable, but exceedingly meagre ; and it will 
also be seen that his theory concerning the supposed 
course of the Ister and the Scythian square, is no 
more to be reconciled with the description of Herod- 
otus than with the actual geography of the country. 
The '' Geographic des Herodot," by Hermann Bo- 
brik,' is a far more important contribution to this 
branch of science, but unfortunately so limited in its 
design as to be of little use to the English student. 
It consists of an admirable arrangement of Herod- 
otus's geographical notices, but borrows no illustra- 
tion from any other ancient or modern author. It 
also omits the mythology, manners, and peculiar in- 
stitutions of the Aegyptians, and numerous other 
particulars which it has been thought advisable to 
include in the present volume. Indeed the one 
object of Hermann Bobrik has been to develope the 
Herodotean ideas, without attempting to reconcile 
them with modern geography ; and thus far the 
present author has derived much advantage from 
comparing and verifying his own digestion of Herod- 
otus's geograpliical notices, with the labours of Bo- 
brik. Other small works have likewise been consult- 
ed, but with much less advantage. Of these may be 
specified the " Greographia et Uranologia Herodoti," 
by Bredow; the " Commentatio de Geographia 
Herodoti," by Donniges ; a little " Geography of 
Herodotus, with Maps," published at Cambridge; 

' Geographie des Herodot, vorzugsweise aus dem Schriftsteller selbst 
dargestellt von Hermann Bobrik, 8vo. Nebst einem Atlasse von zehn 
karten. Konigsberg, 1838. 


and the ^' Maps and Plans illustrative of Herodotus," 
published at Oxford. 

In preparing tlie present Greography, the author 
has thus found it necessary to proceed independently 
of the labours of any of his predecessors. In the 
first place, he was obliged to make for himself a com- 
plete geographical index of Herodotus, arranged 
according to subjects ; for though this task had been 
already executed by Bobrik, yet the latter had 
laboured for a different object, and had therefore 
excluded from his work many topics which belonged 
to the present design. When this mass of material 
had been sufficiently digested and classified, the 
whole had to be explained and illustrated by the 
light of modern geography. Accordingly general 
surveys and descriptions of each country have been 
introduced as prefaces to the accounts of Herodotus, 
and explanatory matter has been incorporated 
wherever it was deemed necessary ; but in order to 
prevent confusion in the mind of the reader, those 
portions which were derived from Herodotus have 
been generally separated from the results of modern 
researches. The references at the foot of each page 
will in most cases indicate the authorities which 
have been consulted ; but a large body of informa- 
tion has been long regarded as the common property 
of all geographers, and it is impossible to give the 
original authority for every statement. The follow- 
ing works however may be generally specified as 
those to which the writer has been chiefly indebted. 
The several commentaries upon Herodotus, espe- 
cially those of Baehr and Larcher; the geographies 
of Macculloch, Murray, Malte Brun, and Ritter; 


the researches of Remiell, Niebuhr, Leake, Cramer, 
Kiepert, Thirlwall, Grote, Miiller, Chesney, Ains- 
worth, Hamilton, Rich, Porter, Heeren, Rawlinson, 
Cooley, Wilkinson, Vyse and Perring, Kenrick, Long, 
Hoskins, and Belzoni ; the classical and geographical 
dictionaries edited by Dr. W. Smith, the Journal of 
the Royal Geographical Society, and some valuable 
articles in the different Cyclopaedias, and the 
Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews. The works of 
other authors might likewise be named as having 
been referred to ; but the student who wishes to go 
over the ground by the aid of original authorities, 
will find the above amply sufficient for his purpose.^ 
The author's larger maps of Greece and the An- 
cient World, are intended, like his letter-press, to 
illustrate Herodotus by the light of modern dis- 
covery. The outlines have been drawn in accord- 
ance with actual geography, and every reasonable 
effort has been made to fix approximate positions 
for the nations which Herodotus has described. In 
addition to these, a novelty has been introduced in 
the shape of historical map diagrams. In various 
parts of the present work the author has employed 
straight lines, such as could be produced by the 
printer's brass rule, as the easiest method for giving 
a general idea of continents and regions, and for 
placing the several countries within arbitrary, but 

' A valuable manual of modem geography has been recently published 
by Mr. William Hughes, (London : Longman and Co.,) and is the only 
one which contains all the more important results of recent geographical 
researches within a moderate compass. The author has much pleasure 
in stating this fact, as he has derived much benefit from Mr. Hughes's 
experience in preparing the maps of Greece and of the World, in illus- 
tration of Herodotus, which are included in the present volume. 


sharply defined, boundaries. In these diagrams it 
has of course been necessary to sacrifice strict cor- 
rectness of detail, for the sake of a clear and bold 
mapping out of races and peoples ; and it is hoped 
that they will not only assist the reader in retaining 
in his memory the relative positions of the more 
confusing localities, but also enable him to refer' to 
the larger maps with greater ease and interest. In- 
deed, whatever objections may be made to their 
rough simplicity, the author feels satisfied that they 
will generally convey his meaning with far greater 
precision than the most elaborate description. For 
instance, every scholar has experienced the difficulty 
of comprehending and of explaining the relative 
position of the Peloponnesian races, both before and 
after the Dorian invasion ; and yet by a reference to 
the diagrams on pages 35 — 37, the reader will find 
them plainly mapped out in a way which requires 
no study, and scarcely any explanation. 

It may possibly be regarded as an omission, that 
whilst the author has pointed out in the letter-press 
all the geographical mistakes of Herodotus, he has 
not thought proper to represent those errors by 
means of a distorted map. It is true that previous 
geographers, including Ukert, Niebuhr, Bobrik, and 
almost every writer on Herodotean geography, have 
endeavoured, with more or less success, to construct 
maps according to the imperfect data supplied by 
Herodotus himself Bobrik especially has drawn 
an entire series of maps, in strict accordance with 
Herodotus's apparent views and measurements, omit- 
ting all reference to later geographical researches, 
and adopting the Greek orthography and characters 


in the writing of the proper names. So far there 
can be no doubt but that Bobrik has been more suc- 
cessfal than Niebuhr, or any other of his prede- 
cessors, in representing Herodotus' s peculiar notions ; 
and a small map of the World, embodying his results, 
will be found in a section of the larger map of the 
World in the present volume. But at the same time 
it must be remarked that all such efforts are neces- 
sarily incomplete and unsatisfactory. The hydro- 
grapher may represent in a sharply defined map all 
the loose observations of Herodotus concerning the 
bearings of different places, all the historian's incor- 
rect measurements, and all the errors of his copyists ; 
but no geographer can map out with any certainty 
those immense regions, and long coast lines, with 
which Herodotus was undoubtedly acquainted, but 
of which he furnishes us with no measurements or 
available descriptions. In Bobrik' s Atlas, Greece is 
strangely distorted, because Herodotus apparently 
supposed that Megara was farther to the west than 
Delphi.^ The river Araxes is drawn in the most 
extraordinary manner in order to reconcile all Herod- 
otus' s statements, which however evidently apply to 
different streams bearing a generic name. The neck 
of Asia Minor is painfully throttled, because Herod- 
otus happened to say that a well-girt man could 
walk across it in five days ; and yet will any geogra- 
pher assert that Herodotus was ignorant of the real 

1 Herodotus merely observes that Megara was the farthest point 
towards the west which was ever reached by the Persians, (ix. 14,) whilst 
in another place he mentions the expedition against Delphi, (viii. 35 — 
37,) which is still farther to the west ; but it is evident that Herodotus 
is not alluding to the relative positions of Delphi and Megara, but to the 
general course of the Persian invaders. 


breadth of that portion of the peninsula ? Western 
Eui'ope and Southern Africa are mere fanciftd 
sketches, which indeed they must be, for Herodotus 
coukl know nothing of the coast, and in fact was not 
at all sm-e that there was a coast to Southern Africa 
at all. 

But in truth Herodotus was more of an historian 
than a geographer. His world was not a mere chart 
of coast-lines and land-marks, but a vast picture 
crowded with living men. Hellas, her countless 
cities and her thousand isles. Young Athens with 
her restless fleets ; haughty Sparta with her soldier 
citizens ; luxurious Corinth with her crowded marts ; 
fair Ionia with her blue skies and impassioned 
bards. Long processions to national temples. Young 
men with gleaming arms ; noble maidens laden with 
flowers ; rich sacrifices, pious hymns, and choral 
dances. Immense gatherings to national festivals. 
Horse and chariot races ; contests of poets, musi- 
cians, and athletae ; olive crowns, and Pindaric 
songs. The holy mysteries of the venerable Eleu- 
sinia; the extravagant orgies of the boisterous and 
drunken Dionysia. The spacious theatre open to 
the sky. The stately tragedy, and the satirical 
comedy; the trained chorus, and the crowded au- 
dience. These were the mere centre of his world. 
Far away to the beaming sunrise he saw the vast 
empire of the Great King, a hundred nations swayed 
by a single sceptre. Shushan, the throne of Xerxes 
and Ahasuerus. Nineveh, with her winged bulls, 
her painted palaces, and her sculptured halls. Baby- 
lon, with her lofty towers, her stupendous walls, her 
gorgeous temples, and her brazen gates. Regions 


of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Far away to the 
setting sun he could see in his mind's eye the fabled 
Pillars of Heracles, the exhaustless riches of Tartes- 
sns, the mysterious Gades, and the dim Cassiterides. 
Behind him were the wild Thracians of the Balkan, 
with their tattooed bodies and bloody suttees. The 
nomade Scythians of the Russian steppes, maddened 
with strong wine or intoxicating smoke; drinking 
from human skulls, scalping captives, or sacrificing 
living men to remorseless deities. Still farther on 
to the distant interior, merchant caravans reached 
the verge of the homes of griffins, but returned laden 
with barbaric gold. Before him, to the hot south, 
the ancient valley of the Nile stretched on like a 
panorama. The land of hoary Aegypt, and the 
shadowy realms of Aethiopia and Meroe. Massy 
pyramids and colossal temples ; antique writings 
and splendid festivals ; adoration of animals, and 
profound mysteries touching death and the soul, 
and the under-world ; solemn prayers to everlasting 
and unapproachable deities. Haughty priests, con- 
temptuous as princes, but covetous of gold and offer- 
ings. A people strange and mysterious as the gloom 
of midnight, yet loving wine and feasting, wild 
mirth and lawless jesting. The black Aethiopians 
of the burning zone ; the fountain of the sun and 
the crystal sepulchres. From thence he caught 
faint glimpses of mighty Atlas and bright Hesper- 
ides, of fair Cyrene and jealous Carthage, of desert 
hordes and verdant oases. Such are a few of the 
scenes which that bold artist must depict, who 
seeks to represent the ancient world, ad mentem 


Here the author would willingly conclude his 
preface, but whilst the present work has been pass- 
ing through the press, a new attempt has been made 
to assail the credibility of Herodotus, and to detract 
from his renown as a traveller and historian. The 
genius of the great father of history has preserved 
his writings nearly intact for twenty-three centuries ; 
whilst his character for integrity has outlived the 
attacks of every discontented critic from Plutarch to 
Voltaire. His present assailant, Mr. Blakesley, is a 
scholar of a very different stamp from his prede- 
cessors.^ Actuated by no mean jealousy, and yield- 
ing to the influence of no scornful wit, he has been 
led by a profound love for abstract truth to pro- 
nounce somewhat too harshly against the straight- 
forward narrative of the old Ionian. That much of 
Herodotus's information is only to be received as 
secondary evidence, will be readily admitted by all ; 
but Mr. Blakesley would regard him as a mere 
pleasing compiler, like Oliver Groldsmith ; prevented 
from travelling by the exigencies of the time, and 
differing but very little, if at all, from the logo- 
graphers who preceded him either in critical saga- 
city, diligent investigation, or historical fidelity; 
blending together in one mass the yarns of mer- 
chant skippers, the tales current in caravanserais, the 
legends of the exegetae of temples, and the long 
details of veteran sailors and septuagenarian hop- 
lites ; exercising but little discrimination in the se- 
lection of his facts, careless in stating his authorities, 

' Herodotus, with a Commentary, by J. W. Blakesley, B. D., 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1854. It is to the Introduction in this work that the 
reader is more particularly referred. 


laying claim to more experience and personal re- 
searcli than he was entitled, and, in fact, belonging 
to the same school as Charon, Hellanicus, Xanthus, 
Hecataeus, and others, from whom he largely copied 
without acknowledgment, and only exhibited per- 
haps a doubtful superiority in the style and treat- 
ment of his materials. 

Mr. Blakesley's reasons for these inferences are 
by no means satisfactory. They are three in num- 
ber. First, he asserts that the horror of the Greeks 
at originality, and their attachment to the social, 
political, and religious institutions in which they 
had been brought up, would have prevented even 
an intelligent and sagacious author, like Herodotus, 
from exercising the same kind of discrimination 
which we should look for in a modern historian. 
Secondly, he quotes doubtful passages from Diony- 
sius of Halicarnassus, from Strabo, and from Thucy- 
dides, to prove that the successors of Herodotus only 
regarded him as a logographer, like his contem- 
poraries and immediate predecessors. Thirdly, he 
rakes up the old accusation of Porphyry, that Hero- 
dotus has taken his descriptions of the crocodile, 
hippopotamus, and phoenix picture almost literally 
from the Periegesis of Hecataeus, and yet leaves his 
readers to infer that he had himself seen those ob- 
jects, and was describing them as an eye-witness. 
These three reasons must be reviewed in detail. 

First, as regards the Greek abhorrence of origin- 
ality, and their attachment to their traditions, social, 
political, and religious. Herodotus flourished about 
B. c. 450. As far as concerns literature and the arts, 
the previous age had been marked by striking changes. 


The real glory of the ancient epic had passed away 
with the hereditary monarchies. The poet no longer 
sungj in solemn and majestic hexameters, the heroic 
deeds of the ancestors of reigning princes. He sprung 
into new and independent life. He came before the 
people as a man with thoughts and objects of his own, 
and expressed himself in new and livelier metres. 
Hence arose the feeling elegy, the satirical iambus, 
the fable and the parody, and last of all the impas- 
sioned and impetuous lyric. Music had undergone 
similar changes. Terpander had added three strings 
to the harp ; Olympus had taught fresh tunes for 
the flute. Choral singing and dancing had become 
more finished, more elaborate, and more significant. 
Sculptm-e had likewise reached its culminating point 
in the sublime and mighty works of Phidias; the 
archaic had everywhere given way to the ideal. 
Painting was also fully developed by Polygnotus, 
and established as an independent art. Last of all, 
in the generation immediately preceding the birth 
of Herodotus, two still more important changes had 
taken place; — the ancient epic had ripened into 
prose history ; the iambic, lyric, and chorus were 
transformed into the mighty drama. The social 
customs of the people had undergone similar varia- 
tions. The manners and usages of the heroic age 
were essentially different from those in the historic 
times. At Athens the men had left off wearing 
armour, and had become luxurious ; and again, 
shortly before the Peloponnesian War, the elders 
had discarded their linen tunics and golden grass- 
hoppers.' The female fashions were no doubt as 

' Thucvrl. i. 6. 


changeable at Corintli and Ephesus as they now are 
at Paris ; and it is certain that the more correct 
ladies of Athens wore first of all the Dorian chiton 
clasped to the shoulder, then, during the Persian 
war, the long and sleeved Ionian chiton,^ and lastly, 
in the age of Pericles, returned once more to the 
Dorian costume.^ In politics, the Greeks in the 
time of Herodotus seem to have only exhibited their 
attachment to their political traditions, by a succes- 
sion of political revolutions. Oligarchies, tjo-annies, 
and democracies were by turns adopted in every 
city ; and Herodotus himself having assisted in 
overthrowing the tyranny in Halicarnassus, fled 
from his ungrateful countrymen to seek for calm re- 
tirement at the distant settlement of Tluuium. The 
religion of the Greeks had likewise passed through 
considerable modifications. The religious concep- 
tions of Hesiod are far higher than those of Homer, 
whilst those of Aeschylus are still more lofty and 
spiritual. In Herodotus himself, who was imdoubt- 
edly a very religious man, we find a decided tend- 
ency to interpret the ancient mythes on rationalistic 
principles. In fact, free-thinking was already exer- 
cising considerable influence. The philosophers of 
Ionia, where Herodotus passed his youth, and of 
southern Italy, where he spent his declining years, 
were all, more or less, rejecting the popular notions 
of religion, and striking into new paths of specula- 
tion on sacred things. In short, a far greater de- 
gree of originality than that supposed by modern 
criticism to be evinced by Herodotus, was exhibited 

1 Herod, v. 87, 88. 

^ See the Excui'sus on Dress, in Becker's Charicles. 



in almost every direction ; and it may be easily in- 
ferred that the Ionian Greeks generally, like the 
Athenians in the days of St. Paul, spent a large pro- 
portion of their leisure time either in hearing or in 
telling of some new thing. 

Secondly, the passages quoted by Mr. Blakesley 
to prove that Herodotus was not more faithful or 
industrious than his contemporaries and immediate 
predecessors, really prove nothing at all. The 
description of the ancient Greek historians by Dio- 
nysius of Halicarnassus points entirely, as Mr. 
Blakesley himself observes, '' to the superior artistical 
skill which Herodotus displays in the choice of his 
subject, and the manner of treating it." The quota- 
tion from Strabo only proves that that geographer, 
like many later critics, was not disposed to put much 
faith in the stories of Herodotus. The passage in 
Thucydides requires a moment's notice. Thucydides, 
in comparing his own work with those of previous 
historians who sought for attractive language rather 
than truth, ^ is supposed by Mr. Blakesley to refer 
most undoubtedly to Herodotus. Thucydides how- 
ever, in another passage,^ seems to have the same 
historians in his eye when he complains of the 
mistake made in supposing that Hipparchus, and not 
Hippias, had succeeded Pisistratus in the tyranny; 
a mistake which was certainly not made by Herodo- 
tus.^ Indeed there is no reason for believing that 
Thucydides had ever read the history of Herodotus 
at all; he neither mentions his name in any part 
of his work, nor gives the slightest indication of 
being acquainted with either his life or labours. 

1 ThucycL i. 21. « Thucycl. vi. 54. ^ Herod, v. 55. 


In sliortj the genius of Herodotus may be com- 
pared to that of Hume ; and judging from extant 
fragments, his predecessors bore many points of re- 
semblance to the old chroniclers, whilst his contem- 
poraries were not much better than so many Tobias 
SmoUetts. It was left for Grote and Macaulay, the 
Herodotus and Thucydides of modern times, to 
exhibit to the world a still happier treatment of a 
better selected and more thoroughly digested stock 
of sifted materials. 

Thirdly comes Herodotus' s supposed piracy from 
Hecataeus. In the first place, Herodotus was cer- 
tainly as likely to have seen the crocodile, the hip- 
popotamus, and the phoenix picture as Hecataeus; 
and it is far more possible that some editor or tran- 
scriber interpolated his copy of Hecataeus with the 
descriptions from Herodotus, than that the latter 
should have borrowed such information concerning 
a country where he had evidently passed a consider- 
able time, and from a writer whose geographical 
theories he held in contempt. But even taking it 
for granted that Herodotus did borrow from Heca- 
taeus, it certainly does not prove that he had not 
seen the objects in question. He may have heard 
from some hoaxing priest that the crocodile had 
tusks, and that the hippopotamus was cloven-footed 
and had the hoofs of an ox ; and he may have found 
this story confirmed by Hecataeus, and accordingly 
adopted the account without attempting to confirm 
it by approaching the jaws of a crocodile, or the 
heavy toes of the hippopotamus. But even in this case 
he cannot be charged with dishonesty for omitting to 
mention the name of Hecataeus, for it was not at all 

b 2 


the custom for an ancient author to check the flow of 
his style by introducing the names of authorities. 

Last of all comes the ungracious question of 
whether Herodotus really did undertake those ex- 
tensive travels which have been generally ascribed 
to him. Mr. Blakesley's observations upon this sub- 
ject are not so valuable as might have been ex- 
pected, for he has chiefly laboured to prove that 
Herodotus never went to Carthage, a city which 
very few critics could have ever supposed him to 
have visited. He however states, upon the authority 
of Polybius, that until the time of Alexander the 
seas swarmed with pirates ; thus totally ignoring the 
fact, that during the years when Herodotus must 
have performed his travels, namely, between the 
Persian and the Peloponnesian wars, the fleets of 
the Grreek allies, under the supremacy of Athens, 
had cleared the Aegean of pirate and Persian, from 
Attica to Asia Minor, and from the shores of Thrace 
to the mouths of the Nile. He also quotes the state- 
ments of Andocides, that the seas were covered with 
war-galleys and pirates; but this was the state of 
things at the latter end of the Peloponnesian war, 
and not during the time when Herodotus was under , 
taking his voyages. One thing is certain, tha-. 
Herodotus must have sailed from Halicarnassus t ■ 
Samos, from Samos to Athens, and from Athens t 
Thurium. Mr. Blakesley will also admit that he 
might have visited Aegypt. Beside these countrie 
the present author believes, from reasons which ', 
has specified in the course of the present volur x 
that Herodotus sailed through the Hellesj)ont, a 
across the Euxine, as far as the Grreek port of Olbi 


and that he travelled along the great highway be- 
tween Sardis and Susa ; and it was most probably 
during this or the return journey that he sailed 
down the Euphrates, and reached the great city of 
Babylon.^ One fact has been missed, not only by 
Mr. Blakesley, but by every commentator on the 
Greography of Herodotus whom the present author 
has consulted, namely, that the political relations of 
Halicarnassus with Persia were especially favour- 
able to any well-accredited native of that city, who 
desired to visit the Persian capital. Halicarnassus 
was excluded from the Dorian confederacy, wor- 
shipping at Triopium, and at the time of the battle 
of Salamis, was united with the neighbouring islands 
of Cos, Calydna, and Nysirus, under the dependent 
sceptre of the celebrated Artemisia ; and the Carian 
queen gained so much upon the esteem of Xerxes, 
that after the defeat, he placed several of his natural 
sons under her care to be conveyed to Ephesus. 
Herodotus himself openly expresses his admiration 
of Artemisia, though she fought on the side of the 
Persians ; and the little kingdom continued faithful 
to her and her family, even whilst Cimon the Athe- 
lian was frightening the whole Asiatic coast by his 
•; exploits. Herodotus no doubt belonged to a family 
i, ji some consideration at Halicarnassus. At forty 
years of age he assisted in the popular revolution, 
which deprived the grandson of Artemisia of the 
j^ yranny. We may easily infer that he saw the so- 
j^ lied Indian ants preserved in the royal palace at 
}j, sa ; ^ and it is impossible to account for his acquaint- 

h See also Appendix I., " Travels of Herodotus," at the end of the pre- 
nt volume. 
2 iii. 102. 


ance witli the Persian muster-rolls of the army and 
navy of Xerxes, unless this journey to Susa be 
admitted by the modern critic. 

Thus far the present writer has endeavoured to do 
justice to the integrity and practical experience of 
Herodotus, without, as he hopes, doing injustice to 
the valuable and much-esteemed labours of Mr. 
Blakesley. If the theory which has been discussed 
had pertained to philology, the writer would have 
left it for abler critics to decide. If it had referred 
only to the history of Herodotus, he would have 
passed it over as not belonging to his subject. But 
it directly applied to the value of that geographical 
information which has been embodied and illustrated 
in the present volmne, and therefore he has been 
compelled to investigate the question, and record 
and defend his opinions against so learned and emi- 
nent a commentator. 

Here then the writer concludes his present labours. 
Years have passed away since he commenced his 
task, and much of it has been accomplished under 
circumstances but little favourable to literary com- 
position; but however it may be received by the 
scholar, he can never regret a toil which has filled 
his mind's eye with vivid pictures of the ancient 
world, painted by the hand of the Homer of history. 
These pictures he hopes to reproduce in a more 
popular volume, which is already in preparation, 
and which he expects will shortly be submitted to 
the indulgence of the public. 

London, August 28th, 1854. 





Birth of Herodotus (b. c. 484) 
Contemporary state of Greece . 
Period of his ti-avels 
Halicarnassus, its history- 
Herodotus removes to Thurium 
Extent of his travels 
His general information 
Previous state of geographical science . 
Homer, his notions of the universe (b. c. 900) 
Extent of his geographical knowledge . 
Hesiod (b. c. 750) .... 
Aeschylus (b. c. 500) 

Pindar ..... 

Scylax of Caryanda 
Hecataeus of Miletus .... 

Conjectures of philosophers passed over by Herodotus 
Review of his old age .... 













The winds considered as fundamental powers of nature . . 12 

Regarded as peculiar properties of countiies ... 13 

Heat and cold at different periods of the day referred to the sun . ib 

General simplicity of Herodotus's ideas ... 14 

Early attempts to describe the earth's circumference . . ib 

Opinions of Herodotus upon the subject . . . 15 

Extent of his knowledge ...... ib 

Divisions of the earth . . . . . . 16 

Separation of Em-ope and Asia ..... 17 

Separation of Asia and Libya ..... 18 

Seas bounding the earth's extremities . . . .19 



Mediterranean . 

Atlantic .... 


Voyages of Sesosti'is and Sataspes . 






Extent of Herodotus's knowledge . . . . 


Western Europe . . . . ^ 


Region north of the upper coast of the Ister 


Region north of the lower course of the Ister . 


Caravan route over the Ural . . . . 


Nations on the frontier towards Asia . 


Nations south of the lower course of the Ister 


Seas of Europe . . . 


Pontus Euxinus . . 


Palus Maeotis (Maeetis) 


Propontis . . . . . . 


Caspian . . 


Adriatic . . 

. . ib 

Ionian . . . . 




Hellas of Herodotus, its wide signification 

European Greece, general description 

Pindus range running southward from the Balkan 

Eastern arms, Olympus and Othrys 

Western arm to the Ceraunian mountains 

Ossa and Pelion 

Northern limits 

Mount Oeta . . . . 

Thermopylae . . . • 

Parnassus , . 

Cithaeron .... 

Pames . . . . . 

Oenean Mountains . . 

Mountains of the Peloponnesus 

General face of the country 

Herodotus's account of Hellas : its central position 

FertiHzed by rain 






Subject to storms and earthquakes ... 29 



Character of the people . 

Temples . . . • 


Trade . • • • 

Miscellaneous notices 

Art of writing 

Obscm-ities in the history of the people 

Herodotus's account ..... ib 

Hellas anciently called Pelasgia, and peopled by Pelasgians and 

other tribes . . . . . ib 

Character of the Pelasgians . . . .32 

Mythical origin of the Hellenes . . . ib 

Dorian wanderings . . . . ■ . ib 

Invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Heracleids . . 33 

Achaeans unknown . . • . . ib 

Aeolians and lonians considered as Pelasgians . . ib 

In historical times inhabitants all called Hellenes . . ib 



Division of the Peloponnesus into nine districts . . 34 

Herodotus's account of the Peloponnesian races . . 35 

settlements of the races prior to the Dorian invasion . . ib 

settlements in the time of Herodotus ... 36 

I. Arcadia, general description . . . .37 
Herodotus's account ..... 38 
topography : Tegea, Mantinea, . . . . ib 

Orchomenus, Phigalea, Trapezus, Paeos, Dipaea, Nonacris, 

Mount Parthenion, Stymphalian lake . . .39 

II. Argolis, general description . . . ib 
Herodotus's account . . . , . ib 
Topography: Argos, Epidaurus, Hermione, . . 40 

Troezene, Pogon, Mycenae, Tiryns, Nauplia, Orneae, Eiver 

' Erasinus, Grove of Argos . . . 41 

""■I. CoRiNTHiA, general description . . . ib 

'rigin of its commercial importance . . . ■ ib 

Herodotus's account . . . . .42 

City of Corinth . . . . . ib 

Petra . . . . . . ib 

The Isthmus ..... ib 

IV. SiCYONiA, general description . . . . ib 

Herodotus's account : her enmity against Argos . . 43 

Expulsion of the Argive hero Adrastus . . . ib 

Changes in the names of the Sicyonian tribes . • ib 



V. Phxiasia ..... 
Phlius . . . . . . 

VI. AcHAlA, general description 

Herodotus's account ..... 

Topogi'aphy : Pellene, Aegii'a, Aegae, river Crathis, 

Bura, Helice, Aegium, Rhypes, Patrae, Pharae, Olenus, 
Dyma, Tritaea ..... 

VII. Elis, general description .... 
Herodotus's account ..... 
Aetolians, Caucones, Minyae .... 
Elean seers . . ... 

No mules bred in Elis .... 

Topogi-aphy : EUs, Pisa, Olympia .... 
Minyan cities : Phrixae, Nudium, Epium, Macistus, Lepreum, Pyrgus 

VIII. Messenia, general description ... 
History ...... 

Herodotus's account ..... 

Topography : Pylus, Asine, Stenyclerus, Ithome . 

IX. Lacoxica, general description .... 

History ...... 

Herodotus's account ..... 

Description of the Laconians .... 

Rights and privileges of their kings : in war ; 

in peace ; at public sacrifices, feasts, and games ; right of 
appointing the proxeni and pj^hii ; daily allowance of food ; 
keepers of the oracles ; commissioners of the highways ; en- 
titled to a seat in the council of twenty-eight 
Manners and customs of the people : . 

bmial of kings ; hereditary professions ; miscellaneous 
Topogi-aphy : Sparta, Therapne, Pitane, Cardamyle, Oresteum, 
Mount Thornax, Mount Taygetus, Cape Taenarum 
Cape Malea ..... 








Division into ten districts 

I. Megaris, general description 
Herodotus's account 
Erroneously supposed to be the most westerly point in Greece 
Topogi-aphy : Megara, Nisaea, Scironian Way 

II. Attica, general description 
Ancient histoiy: kings, archons 
Herodotus's account : oiigin of the Athenians 
lonians enter Attica 

Ionian migi'ation .... 
Athenians regarded as Ionian Pelasgians 
Manners, customs, etc. 




Herodotus's description of Attica and Athens . .61 

Four ancient divisions of the Athenians ... 62 

Re-classification into ten tribes . . . . ib 

Each tribe formed ten demi .... ib 

Three factions . . . . . . ib 

PubUc buildings, etc. : temple of Aeacus, sepulchre of Cimon, grotto 

of Pan, temple of Boreas, Enneacrunos . . ib 

Barathron, temple of Heracles, Areiopagus, harbours of Phalerum, 

Munychia, and Piraeus . . . .63 

The Acropolis, general description . . . ib 

Herodotus's account : sanctuary of Aglaurus, ancient wooden 

hedge, Pelasgic wall .... ib 

Temple of Erectheus, the Serpent, the salt Spring, the sacred 

Olive, trophies in the Propylaea ... 64 

Topography: Eleusis, Marathon, Lipsydrium, Alopecae, Oenoe, 

Hysiae, Bram-on, Dece.lea, Thoricus, Anaphlystus, Oropus, 

Pallene, . . . . . .65 

Anagyi-us, Aphidnae, Sphendale, Thriasian plain. Cape 
Sunium, Mount Laurium, Cape Colias, Zoster, Paeonia, 
Mount Hymettus, Mount Aegaleos, Mount Cithaeron, . 66 

River Ilissus ..... 67 

III. BOEOTIA, general description : History . . . ib 
Herodotus's account: Cadmeans ... 68 
Topography : Thebes, with the temple of Amphiaraus, the oracle, 

and the gifts of Croesus . . . . 68, 69 

Dehum, Thespia, Eleon, Tanagra, river Thermodon, Coro- 

naea, Lebadeia, Scolus, Acraephia, Orchomenus, Erythrae, 

Plataea ..... 69 

General description of the Plataean territory . . .70 

View of the scene of the battle . . . ib 

Plan of the battle : 1st position ; 2nd position . .71 

3rd position ..... 72 

Sepulchres of the slain . . . . .74 

IV. Phocis, general description . . . ib 
General description of Delphi : Castalian spring, temple of Athene 

Pronaea, temple of ApoUo, the oracle . . 75 

Herodotus's account of the temple and its ti-easui'es : throne of 

Midas ; silver offerings and golden bowls of Gyges ; silver bowl 

and iron saucer of Alyattes . . • .76 

Gifts of Croesus : 117 golden demi-plinths, golden lion, gold and 

silver mixing- vessels, and other offerings . . .77 

Miscellaneous gifts from the Lacedaemonians, Euelthon, Phocians, 

Pausanias, and from the Greeks after the battle of Salamis . 78 
Herodotus's description of Mount Parnassus . • ih 

Topography : route of the army of Xerxes . . .79 

V. LocRis, general description ... 80 
Eastern or Opuntian Locrians . . . . ib 
Western, or Locri Ozolae .... ib 
Herodotus's account of the Ozolae . . . ib 



Amphissa ..... 

The Opuntian Locrians ..... 

Thermopylae as described by Herodotus and including MaHs 

Enclosed by the Trachinian rocks ; Anticyra ; river Spercheius ; 
river DjTas ; river Melas ; Trachis — the widest part ; ravine of 
the river Asopus ; river Phoenix— narrowest part ; Thermopylae ; 
Anthela ...... 

Temple of Demeter ; seats of Amphyctions ; hot springs ; Phocian 
wall and gates ; stone Hon to Leonidas ; Alpenus ; the encamp- 
ments .... • - 

Pass of Anopaea ; inscriptions at Thermopylae 

VI. Doris, mother country of the Dorians 

Topography : Pindus, Erineus 

YII. Aetolia; scattered notices .... 

VIII. AcARNANlA ; river Achelous, Echinades islands, Anac- 
torium, and Teleboa ..... 

IX. Thessaly, general description 

Thessaly Proper, viz. Histiaeotis, Pelasgiotis, Phthiotis, and Thes- 
saliotis ...... 

Two other districts. Magnesia and Malis 

Herodotus's account : Thessaly anciently a lake enclosed by Pelion 
and Ossa, Olympus, Pindus, and Othrys ; formed by the rivers 
Peneus, Apidanus, Onochonus, Enipeus, Pamisus, and Lake 
Boebeis ..... 

Outlet at Tempe formed by an earthquake 

Tribes of Thessaly ..... 

Pass of Tempe ..... 

Pass of Gonnus ..... 

Topography: lolcus, Gonnus, Meliboea, Alos, Larissa, Castha- 
naea, Gulf of Magnesia .... 

X. Epiuus, scattered notices in Herodotus 

Thesprotians, Molossians, Epidamnus, Ambraciots, and ApoUonia 
Oracle at Dodona : Aegyptian tradition of its origin ; Greek tra- 
dition ; opinion of Herodotus 












Distribution of the Islands 

Islands in the Ionian Sea . 





Islands in the Mediterranean 







Topography of Sicily : Syi'acuse, . . . .92 

Camarina, Gela, Megara, Zancle, Eryx country, Egestaea, 

Selinus, Minoa, Mactorium, Inycus, . . .93 

Callipolis, Nasos, Leontini, Himera, Agrigentum, Hj^bla, 

Camicus, river Elorus, Cithera . . .94 

Crete, its history . . . . .95 

Topography of Crete : Cydonia, Cnossus, . . .lb 

Itanus, Axus . . . . . 96 

Carpathus . . , . . ■ . ib 

Ehodes . . . . . . ib 

Cyprus . . . . . . ib 

Topography of Cyprus : Paphos, SoU, Curium, Amathus, Salamis ib 

Key of Cyprus . . . . .9/ 

Islands of the Aegean, or Grecian Archipelago, general de- 
scription . . . . . . ib 

I. The Cyclades . . . . . ib 
Delos, the centre ; its sacred character ; sanctuary of Artemis ; 

banqueting-hall of the Ceians . . . ib 

Grave of the two Hyperborean virgins, Hyperoche and Laodice ; ib 

grave of two other Hyperborean virgins, Opis and Arge . 98 
Islands round Delos, viz. Rhenea, Myconus, Tenos, Andi'os, Scy- 

ros, Ceos, ..... ib 

Cythnos, Seriphus, Siphnos, Melos, Paros, . . 99 

Naxos ..... 100 

II. The Sporades, viz. Thera, . . . . ib 

Telos, Cos, Leros . . . . 101 

III. Other islands of the Aegean . . . . ib 

Samos . . . . . . ib 

The aqueduct ; the mole ; the temple of Hera and its curiosities, 

viz. the great brazen mixing-vessels, . . . ib 
Two wooden statues of Amasis, picture of the Bosphorus bridge, 

furniture of Polycrates, hnen corselet of Amasis . 102 
Brazen vessel on a tripod : description of the city of Samos ; curious 

festival observed by the Samians . . . 103 
Flourishing condition of Samos under Polycrates; Samians in 

Libya; artistic skill of the Samians; . . 104 

Their dialect, etc. . . . . 105 

Lade . . . . . .. ib 

Chios . . . . . . ib 

Topography of Chios : Chios, Caucasa, Coeli, Polichne : notices 

of the Chians . . . , . . ib 

Lesbos . . . . . . ib 

Hecatonnesi . . . . . . . .106 

Tenedos ...... ib 

Lemnos, atrocities committed there . . . ib 

Imbros ...... ib 

Samothrace . . . • • .10/ 

Thasos, its valuable mines .... ib 



Sciathus . . . . . .107 

Euboea ...... 108 

Topography of Euboea : Eretiia, Chalcis, Styi-a, Geraestus, . ib 
Carystus, Histiaeotis ; description of the beach of Artemi- 

sium ; Coela, Cape Cephareus, mountains, the Abantes . 109 

Salamis ...... ib 

Psyttalea . . . . . .110 

Aegina, its trade and shipping . . . ib 

Hydi-ea . . . . . .111 

Belbina ...... ib 



Countries north of the Cambunian and Ceraunian hills , 113 
I. Macedonia : ditference between Macedonia Proper and the Ma- 
cedonian empire . . . . . ib 

General description of the Macedonian empire . . 114 

Watered by four rivers : Haliacmon, Lydias, Axius, Echeidorus ib 
Divided into five districts: Pieria, Macedonia Proper, Bottiaeis, 

Mygdonia, Crestonica . . . . . ib 

Peninsula of Chalcidice • . . . ib 
Eastern frontier formed by Mount Dysorum . . .116 

Herodotus's geography illustrative of Xerxes's progress . ib 

Eoute of the Persian fleet : description of Mount Athos . ib 

Canal through the isthmus . . . . 11/ 

Bay of Singus ; Cape Ampelus ; Sithonia : Cape Canastraeum ; 

Pallene ; Crossaea . . . . Hg 

Therma ; river Axius ; gulf of Therma ; Olynthus ; Scione ; 

Potidaea . . . . .119 

Koute of the Persian army : river Echeidorus ; camels attacked by 

lions ; rivers Lydias and HaUacmon . . . 120 
Pieria . . . . . .121 

Additional topographical notices : Mount Dysorum ; Anthemus ; 

Creston ; mythus of the Temenidae ; sacred river . . ib 

Gardens of Midas ; Mount Bermion . . . 122 
II. Thrace: its geography illustrative of the routes of Darius and 

Xerxes . . . . . . ib 

General description . . . . . ib 

Northern Thrace . . . . .123 

Southern Thrace . . . . . ib 

Herodotus's idea of the magnitude of Thrace . . 124 

Its frontier towards Scythia .... 125 

Route taken by Darius : bridge over the Bosphorus ; two columns 

of white marble ; 13yzantiurn . . . . ib 

Cyanean isles ; river Tearus"; Heraeopolis ; Perinthus ; Apollonia ; 
rivers Contadesdus, Agrianes, and Hebrus ; Aenus ; river Artis- 
cus; the Odrysae . . . . .126 


ScjTmiadae, Nipsaei, and Getae ; Mesambria ; bridge at the Ister 

Route of Xerxes from the Hellespont to Acanthus : the Cher- 

sonesus ; inhabited by the Thracian Dolonci ; wall across the 

isthmus ; topography — Elaeus, sepulchre of Protesilaus, Sestos, 





Xerxes leaves the Chersonesus 

. 128 



Agora .... 


Bay and river of Melas 


Aenus .... 


Lake Stentoris 


Doriscus .... 

, ib 

Valley of the river Hebrus 


Sala and Zona .... 


Cape Serrhium 


Mesambria .... 


River Lissus 




Briantica, anciently Galaica . 


Maroneia .... 


Dicaea .... 


Abdera .... 


Lakes Ismaris and Bistonis 


Rivers Travus and Compsatus 


River Nestus 


PistyiTis .... 


Paeti .... 


Cicones .... 


Bistones .... 


Sapaei .... 


Dersaei .... 


Edoni .... 


Satrae .... 


Pierian forts .... 


Mount Pangaeus 


Pieres .... 


Odomanti . . . . 


Paeones .... 


Doberes .... 


Paeoplae .... 


District of Phyllis . 


River Augites . . . , 


Paeonia: its extent . 


Siro-paeones . . . 


Scapte Hyle 


Paeones on the Strymon 


Paeones above Crestonica, and on Mount 0] 

■belus and Lake 

Prasias .... 





Agrianes ...... 130 

River Stiymon . . , . . ib 

E'ion ...... ib 

Strymon bridge . . . . . ib 

"Nine Ways" . . . . • ib 

Edonia . . . . • .131 

Myrcinus . . . . . ib 

Datus . . . . . . ib 

Argilus . . . . . . ib 

Bisaltia . . . . . . ib 

Plain of Syleus . . . . . ib 

Acanthus . . . • • . ib 
Miscellaneous notices of southern Thrace : Bryges ; gold mine of 
Scapte Hyle; Cape Sarpedon ; Perinthus; Selybria; Aegos- 
potami ; Tyrodiza ; Leuce Acte ; Bisanthe; Hellespontines 132 
Northern Thrace, but little known : its seven rivers ; Istria ; Pil- 
lars of Sesostris ..... ib 

Manners and customs of the Thracians . . . ib 

Pecuhar tenets of the Getae . . . . . ib 

Behef in the immortality of the soul . . . ib 

Their deity Zalmoxis . . . . 133 

Greek account of Zalmoxis . . . . ib 

Effect of his teachings on the Thracians . . ib 

His subterranean dwelling, and re-appearance . . ib 

Herodotus's opinion . . . . • 134 

Pecuhar custom of the Trausi : mournful births and happy funerals ib 

Thracians above Crestonica, their polygamy . . ib 

The favourite wik killed at her husband's death . . ib 

Customs of the Thi-acians generally . . . ib 

Sale of children . . . . . ib 

Profligacy of the unm.arried women . . . ib 

Tattooing . . - . . . ib 

Fondness for war . . . ' • . ' ib 

Worship of Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis . . .135 

Worship of Hermes . . • . ib 

Funerals . . . • • . ib 

Sepulchral monuments . . . . ' ib 

Garments of Scythian hemp . . . . ib 

Paeonians on Lake Prasias : living in huts supported over the ib 

lake by planks and piles . . . . ib 

Polygamy . . . . . ib 

Horses and cattle fed on fish . . . . ib 

Satrae, the only independent Thracians . . . 136 

Their oracle of Dionysus . . . . ib 

ni. Illyuia ; scarcely noticed by Herodotus . . ib 

Sale of maidens amongst the Eneti . . . ib 

River Angrus ..... ib 

TribalUc plain . . . . . ib 



River Brongus 
The Enchelees 





Difficulties in Herodotus's description of Scythia . .138 

Its identification with southern Russia, Moldavia, and "Wallachia ib 

Face of the country . . . • . ib 

Crimea or Taurica . . . • • 140 

Rivers of southern Russia * . • . ib 

Herodotus's description of Scythia . , . ib 

Its form and measurement . . . . 'ib 

Its boundaries ..... 141 

Extent of our author's personal knowledge . . . ib 

Olbia, the centre of his observations . . . ib 

Explanation of his statements respecting the route along the coast 142 

Explanation of his statements respecting the route into the interior 143 

The four-sided shape of Scythia explained . . . ib 

Scythian rivers . . • . • 144 

The Ister or Danube, its five mouths and equal stream . . ib 
Five tributaries flowing into it : the Porata, Arams, Naparis, Or- 

dessus, and Tiarantus . . . . . ib 

Difficulties in the theory of Niebuhr and Ideler . . ib 
Identification of the five tributaries with the Pruth, Sireth, Jalom- 

nitza, Argisch, and Aluta . . . .145 

Seven independent rivers : theTyras, Hypanis, Borysthenes, ib 
Panticapes, Hypacyris, Gerrhus, . . .146 

and Tanais . . . . . 147 

The Hyrgis . . . . . . ib 

Modem names of the rivers .... ib 

The Dneister ... . • . ib 

The Bog . . . . . . ib 

The Dnieper . . . • • . ib 
Difficulty in identifying the Panticapes, Hypacyris, and Gerrhus : 

probably the Samara, Kalantchak, and Tastchenik . . 148 

The Don and Hyrgis • ... 149 
Boundaries of Scythia on the modern map . . .150 

Scythian nations : west of the Borysthenes or Dnieper . 151 

I. Callipidae . . - . • . ib 

II. Alazones . . . . .152 

III. Aratores: Exampaeus, Hippoleon, and Hylaea . . ib 

IV. Georgi ..... 153 

V. Nomades , . ,. . . . ib 

VI. Royal Scythians .... ib 

VII. Tyritae . . . . . .154 

VIII. Tauri . . . . • ib 
Carcinitis . . . • . . ib 



Com-se of Achilles , 

History of Scythia 

Anciently occupied by Cimmerians 

Scythian invasion 

Sepulchre of the Cimmerian kings 

Scythian pursuit of the Cimmerians 

Cimmerians in Asia Minor 

Scythians masters of Upper Asia . 

Plunder the temple of Aphrodite at Askalon 

Retm-n to Scythia .... 

Proofs of the ancient occupation of Scythia by the Cimmerians 

District of Cimmeria .... 

Cimmerian Fort and Feny .... 

Cimmerian Bosphorus .... 

Massagetae and Sacae of Scythian origin 

Climate of Scythia 

Eight months of the year wifiter, during which the sea freezes 

Four months of cold summer, constant rains and violent thunder- 
storms ...... 

Effects of cold on the horses and cattle . 

Scythian story of the air filled with feathers . 

Tradition of the Hyperboreans 

Foot-print of Heracles ..... 

Pillars of Sesostris ..... 

Natural productions of Scythia : grass, hemp, wheat, onions, garlic, 
lentils, millet ..... 

Cranes ...... 

Swine ...... 

National mythus of Targitaus, and his three sons, Lipoxais, Ar- 
poxais, and Colaxais . . . . 

The Auchatae, Catiari, and Traspies 

General name of Scoloti ..... 

Greek mythus of the three sons of Heracles, and the serpent maiden 
Echidna ..... 

Ignorance of the nations on the Euxine 

Wise device of the Scythians against invasion 

Their houses carried with them .... 

Scythian deities : Hestia, Zeus, Ge, Apollo, Aphrodite, Heracles, 
and Ares 


Mode of sacrifice 

Enormous piles of faggots sacred to Ares 

Human sacrifices 

Enemies' heads presented to the king 

Mode of preparing tlie skulls and other trophies 

Soothsayers and manner of divining 

Ceremonies at the illness of a king 

Manner of making contracts 






















Sepulchres of the Scythian kings . . . 166 

Funeral ceremonies . . . . . ib 

Favourite concubine, servants, and goods buried with the king ib 
Fifty attendants killed and placed on horseback round the tuntaulus ib 

Burial of private citizens . . . . .167 

Manner of pm-ification .... ib 

Hatred of foreign customs . . . .168 

Costume ...... ib 

Blinding of slaves . . . . . ib 

Mode of milking cattle .... ib 

Habit of taking unmixed wine, and drinking very hard . ib 

Contempt of trade . . . . • 169 

Difficulty in ascertaining the population of Scythia . . ib 
Cauldi-on made from arrow heads, one being furnished by every 

Scythian ..... ib 

Meagre remains of the Scythian language . . . ib 

Barbarous customs of the Tauri . . . ib 



Character of Herodotus's knowledge of the remainder of Europe 
Divisions .... 

I. Western Europe 
Region beyond the Pillars of Heracles 
Tartessus . . . . 
Erytheia .... 
Gadeira .... 
Celtae ... 
Cynetae . . . • - 
Account of the river Ister or Danube 
Causes of its equal stream 
Explanation of Herodotus's description of the Ister, i 

the Cynetae and Celtae 
The Iberi, Ligyes, and Elisyci 
Italy, singular omission of Rome 
Northern Italy, occupied by the Ombrici and Tyrseni 
Southern Italy, occupied by Greek colonies, viz. Rhegium, Taras, 
Agylla, Hyela in Oenotria, Croton, Metapontium, 

Sybaris, Siris, lapygia, Brundusium, Hjria, and Epizephjaian 
Locrians ..... 

II. Northern Europe ..... 
Region impenetrable from bees or frost . 

The Sigynnes, a Medic colony, fond of chariot-driving . 
Nations bordering on Scythia .... 

1. Agathyrsi, occupying Transylvania 

2. Neuri, occupying Poland and Lithuania 

c 2 

der of Europe 














and account of 






2ni . 












3. Androphagi, occupying Smolensk . . .180 

4. Melanclilaeni, occupying Oiioft' . " . 181 

5. Sauromatae, occupying the country of the Don Cossacks and 

part of Astracan ..... ib 

6. Budini and Geloni, occupying Samtoff . . .182 
III. Eastern Europe .... 183 

Great caravan route . . . • . ib 

Character of the commerce . . . . 184 

Olbia the emporium . . . . . . ib 

Trade in corn . . . . . . ib 

Slaves . . . . . . ib 

Furs . . . . . . ib 

Gold from the Ural and Altai mountains . . . 185 

Boute northward from the Budini . . . ib 

Desert of seven days' journey, occupying Simbirsk and Kasan ib 

Route towards the east . . . . . ib 

Thyssagetae, occupying Perm .... ib 

Jyrcae on the Ural mountains . . . .186 

Scythian exiles occupying Tobolsk . . . ib 

Argippaei, at the foot of the Altai mountains . . . ib 

Identification of the Argippaei with the Calmucks . 187 
Unknown region north of the Argippaei, occupied by men with 

goats' feet, and people who slept for six months at a time . 188 

Identification of the Altai . . . . ,ib 

Eastern route continued . . . . . ib 

The Issedones . . ' . . . ib 
Arimaspi ...... 189 

Gold-guarding griffins .... ib 

Nations on the frontier towards Asia . . .190 

General description of Mount Caucasus . . . ib 

Herodotus's account of the mountain and people . . ib 
The Massagetae . . . . .191 

Herodotus's description of the river Araxes . . . ib 

Explanation of the apparent contradictions . . 192 

Manners and customs of the Massagetae . . . ib 



Two great mountain ranges of Asia : the Altai 

The Taurus or plateau of Iran 

Rivers of Asia .... 





Separation of the continent into three divisions . . 197 
Extent of the Asia of Herodotus . . . . ib 
Discoveries of Scylax of Caryanda . . . 198 
Herodotus's own map of Asia . . . .199 
The four central nations .... ib 
The two western Actae, viz. Asia Minor ; Syria and Libya . 200 
Ancient division of Asia between the Lydians, Babylonians, and Medes 201 
Establishment of the Persian empire of Cyrus . . 202 
Division into twenty satrapies by Darius Hystaspes . ib 
Extent of Herodotus's travels in Asia . . . 203 
His general acquaintance with Phoenicia and Asia Minor . ib 
Visit to Babylon . . . . . ib 
Travelled along the great highway between Sardis and Susa ib 
Visit to Ecbatana very doubtful . . . . ib 
Examination of the list of twenty satrapies . . 204 
Reasons for including distant tribes in the same satrapy . ib 
General want of geographical order arising from Herodotus's ig- 
norance of the more distant satrapies . . . 205 
Catalogue of nations in the army and navy of Xerxes . 208 
Value of a comparison of the catalogue with the list of satrapies . 209 
Catalogue to be further digested in a future chapter . ib 
Topography of the languages of Asia . , . ib 
Languages of Asia Minor, from the Aegean to the Halys . 210 
Semitic dialects between the Halys and Tigris . . ib 
Persian dialects between the Tigris and Indus . . 211 
Conclusion . . . . . . ib 



Physical geography of the peninsula . . . 213 

Different pohtical divisions . . . . ib 

Natural separation into an eastern and western division by the 

river Halys ...... 214 

Divided into four satrapies by Darius Hystaspes . . ib 

Difficulty in dividing the towns . . . .216 

I. Aeolis, Ionia, Doris, Caria, Lycia, and Pamphylia . ib 

Aeolians, their eleven cities on the continent, and seven on the 

islands ..... 

lonians, their twelve cities .... 
United in the Panionian confederacy 
Mixtm-e of the lonians with other races . 
Worship of the Heliconian Poseidon in the Panionium . 
Miscellaneous notices .... 

Asiatic Magnetes .... 

Dorians, their five cities of the Triopian confederacy 
Worship of Apollo at Triopium 








Exclusion of Halicarnassus .... 

Carians, originally expelled from the islands by the lonians and 
Dorians ...... 

Their inventions ..... 

Believed themselves to be autochthones 

United with the Lydians and Mysians in the worship of the Carian 
Zeus ...... 

Topography of the interior : Labranda, Termera, Cnidus, Pedasus 
C ami us, its inhabitants really autochthones 
Topogi-aphy of the coast : Priene, Myus, Miletus, 

Limeneion Assesus, Sanctuary of the Branchidae, river 
Maeander, Caryanda, Hahcarnassus, Cnidus, 

The Isthmus, Calydna the Carian town, and Calydna the 
Dorian town 
Lycians sprung from Crete 
Anciently named Termilae 
Their customs . 

Heroic resistance to the Persians 
Oracle at Patara 
Phaselis .... 

Lycian costume 

Milyans .... 

Pamphyhans .... 

II. Mysia and Lydia 

Mysians, also named Ol3mipieni 

Extent of the Mysia of Herodotus 

Topography of Mysia : River Caicus, Mount Canae, Atarneus, 

Malene, Carina, Adramyttium, Thebes, Antandrus, Lampo- 

nium, Cape Lectos, river Scamander, Cape Segeium 

Ilium, inhabited by the Aeolians and Gergithes, Rhoetium, Ophry- 

neium, Dardanus, Abydos, Percote, Lampsacus, Paesus, Parium, 

Placia, Scylace, Dascyleium, Cius, islands of Cyzicus and Pro- 

connesus ...... 

Lydians, their ancient empire .... 

Sardis the capital ..... 

Rivers Hyllus and Hermus .... 

Gold-dust brought from Mount Tmolus by the river Pactolus 
Tumulus of Alyattes .... 

Roads from Caria and Lydia to Phrygia 
Beautiful plane tree on the Lydian road 
Depraved manners of the Lydians .... 

Invented the art of coining money, retail dealing, and games of 
dice, knuckle-bones, and ball .... 

Topography of the coast .... 

Phocaea, its maritime enterprise and heroic resistance to Cyrus . 
Magnesia ..... 

Smyrna, Clazomenae,Erythrae, Teos, Lebcdos, Colophon, Ephcsus, 
Coressus, Mycale ..... 












. 225 





















Sculptures of Sesostris found in Ionia 

Identification of the monument between Sardis and Smyi-na by 
modern ti-avellers . . . • • 

Its Aegyptian origin doubted .... 
Lasonians, Cabalians, and Hygennians 

III. Hellespont, Phrygia, BiTHYNiA,PAPHLAGONiA,andCAPPADCciA 
Hellespontines ...••• 
Phrygians, more ancient than the Aegyptians 

Called Bryges when dwelling in Macedonia . 

Topography of Phrygia : tract occupied by the Paeonians . 

Gordium, Celaenae, sources of the Maeander and Catarrhactes, 

river Marsyas, white columns .... 
Course of Xerxes from Celaenae to Lydia 
Anana, salt lake, Colossae, river Lycus, Cydrara, boundary pillar 

between Phrygia and Lydia, 
Conium, Alabanda 
Thracians from the Strymon, called Bithynians 
Mariandynians .... 

Paphlagonians .... 
White Syrians, or Cappadocians 
River Halys .... 
Extent and limits of the Cappadocia of Herodotus 
Canal of Thales . • . 

Pteria ..... 

IV. CiLICIA .... 
CiUcians, anciently named Hypachaeans 
Extent and limits of the Cilicia of Herodotus 
Conclusion .... 















Plateau of Iran 

Traversed east and south by two ranges 

Zagros, or mountains of Km'distan 

Elburz and Ghur mountains 

Countries watered by the Euphrates and Tigris 

Assyria .... 

Babylonia .... 


Syria .... 

Media .... 

Cissia and Persis 

Three satrapies known to Herodotus 

V. Syria Proper, or Phoenicia and Palaestine 

Distinction between the Syrians of Palaestine and the White 






Syi-ians of Cappadocia, and the Assyrians of Babylonia and 

Face of the country 
Libanus and Anti-Libanus 
Valley of the Jordan 
Desert of Syiia 

Phoenicians, their migrations from the Erythr 
Commercial enterprise 
Naval superiority 

Practice of circumcision 
P-igure-heads on their ships 
Palm wine 

Tyrian camp settlement in Aegypt 
Tyre : ancient temple of Heracles . 
Sidon .... 

Syrians of Palaestine, or Hebrews, scarcely known to Herodotus 
Importance of Palaestine as a key to Aegypt 
Ascalon : temple of Aphrodite or Astarte 
Magdolus, or Megiddo 
Cadytis .... 
Identified by Prideaux with Jerusalem 
By Mr. Ewing with Kedesh in Gahlee 
By Col. Rawlinson with Gaza 
Correctness of the latter view 
Sea-ports of Palaestine 

Arid tract between Jenysus and Lake Serbonis 
Practice of circumcision 
PUlars of Sesostris . 
Cyprus ..... 

IX. Assyria, or Babylonia and Mesopotamia, answering to Irak 

Arabi, and Algezirah .... 
Inhabitants called Syrians by the Greeks, and Assyrians by the 

Barbarians .... 

Great importance of this satrapy 
Want of rain suppUed by the Euphrates 
Numerous canals .... 

Extraordinary growth of corn 

Palm trees ..... 
Babylon, the only city described 
Site of the ruins of Babylon near Hillah 
Three mounds on the eastern bank of the Euphrates 
Mujehbe, or "the overturned" 

Erroneously supposed by Rennell to be the' temple of Belus 
El Kasr, or " the palace "... 
Amram hill .... 

Remains of ancient ramparts . . . 




Biver embankment .... 

"Western bank of the Euphrates ; . 

Small scattered mounds .... 

Birs Nimroud, the tower of Babel and temple of Belus 

Its extreme antiquity .... 

Herodotus's description of Babylon : a vast square, protected by a 
moat and wall ..... 

Towers on the waU .... 

One hundred brass gates .... 

The city cut in two by the Euphrates 

Walls along the river-banks with brazen gates 

Inner wall . . • • • 

The royal palace ..... 

Temple of Belus — ^its eight towers and spiral ascent 

Statements of the Chaldaean priests 

Bridge over the Euphrates 

Sepulchre of Nitocris 

Names of the city gates 

Destruction of the fortifications ^by Darius 

Town of Is . 

Account of the Euphrates .... 

Anciently overflowed the country . 

Dams raised by Semu-amis and Nitocris . 

Course of the river rendered winding by Nitocris 

Immense artificial lake .... 

Towns of Opis and Ampe 

Dress of the Babylonians . . * . 

Manners and customs .... 

Annual sale of maidens .... 

No physicians ; sick persons carried into the market for advice 
Embalming . . . . ■ • 

Funeral lamentations like those of the Aegyptians 

Burning of incense after sexual intercourse 

Disgraceful practices connected with the worship of Aphrodite 

Three tribes of Babylonian Ichthyophagi 

Chaldaeans . . . . • 

Babylonian sun-dial 

Gnomon ..... 

Talent ...... 

VIII. CissiA and Peksis, answering to Khuzistan and Farsistan 
General description of the country 
Sandy plains along the coast . . . 

Rising of the land in terraces .... 

Mountains in the north the father-land of the Persians 

Great city of Susa on the Choaspes 

The Memnonium .... 

Stone figure of Darius on horseback 

Identification of Susa with Sus on the river Kerkhah 

















Ardericca, seat of the transplanted Eretrians 

Well producing asphalt, salt, and oil . . , 

Persians divided into ten tribes, viz. the Pasargadae, Maraphii, 
Maspii, Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, Dahi, Mardi, Dropici, 
and Sagartii ..... 

Religion of the Persians 

No statues, temples, or altars .... 

Name of Zeus applied to the vault of heaven 

Sacrifices on high places .... 

Ancient worship of the sun, moon, earth, fire, water, and winds 

Later worship of Aphrodite or Mitra 

Mode of sacrifice .... 

Prayer of the sacrificer .... 

Ode sung by the Magi . . 

Social customs ..... 

Celebration of birthdays .... 

Moderation at meals, but profusion of after-dishes 

Addiction to wine .... 

Debate when drunk and again when sober 

Modes of salutation according to rank 

Respect for neighbouring nations according to their proximity to 
Persia ..... 

Attachment to foreign customs 

Polygamy, concubinage, and paederasty 

Respect for fathers of large families 

Education of sons .... 

Trial of criminals . . 

Parricide considered impossible 

Lying and getting into debt especially abhorred . 

Lepers and white pigeons expelled from cities 

Veneration for rivers .... 

Ceremonies practised on dead bodies . ' . , 

Weakness of the Persian skull 

Magi a peculiar race : unlike the Aegyptian priests 

Persian ignorance of navigation 

Contempt for markets and traders . 

Equipment ..... 

Special honours paid to valour 

Homble custom of burying alive in honour of Ahriman 

Persian system of post .... 

Matters pertaining to the king 

Celebration of his birthday 

Those who obliged him called Orosangae, or benefactors 

Drank only the water of the river Choaspes . 

Regarded as the master of Asia 

General veneration for him 

Conduct of the harem .... 

Persian language .... 



CONTENTS. xliii 




Region bounded on the west by the frontiers of Asia Minor; north, 
by the Phasis, the Caspian, and the Jaxartes ; east, by the Indus ; 

south, by Syria, Assyria, Cissia, Persis, and the Erythraean . 278 

Divided into twelve satrapies . . . . ib 

XIX. Eastern Pontus, comprising the Moschi, Tibareni, Ma- 
crones, Mosynoeci, and Mares, answering to Trebisonde . 279 
Herodotus's account very meagi-e . . . . ib 

Extent of the satrapy : probably included the Chalybes and 
Ligyes . . . . . .280 

Order of the nations according to Xenophon . . ib 
Described by Xenophon as being half barbarous and almost inde- 
pendent of Persia .... ib 

XIII. Armenia and Pactyica, answering to Erzroum and part of 
Kurdistan . . . . .281 

Difficulty respecting Pactyica . . . . ib 

Armenians descended from the Phrygians . . 282 

Their country the highway between Sardis and Susa . . ib 
Watered by four rivers, viz. the Tigris, Zabatus Major, Zabatus 

Minor, and the Gyndes . . . . ib 

Stream of the Gyndes weakened by the 180 canals of Cyrus ib 

Commerce with Babylon .... 283 

Pecuhar merchant-boats, chiefly freighted with palm wine . ib 
Extent of the Armenia of Herodotus . . . 284 
XVIII. Matiene with the Saspeires and Alarodii . ib 
Eastern and western Matiene mentioned by Herodotus . ib 
^Eastern Matiene identified with the mountains of Zagros or Kur- 
distan . . . . . . ib 

Matieni represented by the modern Kurds . . ib 

Western Matiene in Asia Minor .... 285 

Costume ...... ib 

Country of the Saspeires and Alarodii, in the valley of the Aras . ib 

X. Media, with the Paricanii, and the Orthocorybantii . ib 

Difficulty respecting the Paricanii . . . . ib 

Orthocorybantii unknown .... 286 

General description . . . . . ib 

Northern Media, or Atropatene, answering to Azerbijan . ib 

Southern Media, or Media Magna, answering to Irak Ajemi . ib 

Two capitals, each named Ecbatana . . . ib 

Media of Herodotus . . . . . ib 

Identified by Rennell with Irak Ajemi, and the Ecbatana with 

Hamadan . . . . . . 287 



Identified by Col. Rawlinson with Azerbijan, and the Ecbatana 
with Takhti-Soleiman .... 

Probably included a large portion of both provinces 

Nisaean plain and horses .... 

Ecbatana as described by Herodotus 

Story of its walls considered to be a fable of Sabaean origin 

Medes divided into six tribes, viz. Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, 
Arizanti, Budii, and Magi .... 

Anciently called Arians . . . . . 

Costume ...... 

Language ...... 

XI. South Caspian Provinces, comprising Caspii, Pausicae, 
Pantimathi, and Dareitae . . . . 

Costume of the Caspii . . . . 

Identification of this satrapy with Ghilan, Mazanderan, and As- 
ti'abad . . 

XVI. Parthians, Chorasmlvns, Sogdians, and Arians, all wear- 
ing Bactrian costume .... 

Vast extent of the satrapy 

Parthia identified with the mountains north of Khorassan 

Chorasmia with Kharesm, or Khiva 

Sogdia with Sogd, or Bokhara 

Aria with Khorassan and western Afghanistan 

Arians and Medes the same race 

Caspian Gates ' . 

Salt desert ..... 

Remarkable plain described by Herodotus 

Contained the sources of the Aces 

Turned into a lake by the king of Persia 

Diflficulties in the geography : Herodotus's apparent confusion be 
tween the Helmund and the Oxus 

XV. East Caspian Provinces, comprising Sacae and Caspii 

Sacae the Persian name for Scythians : their costume . 

Amyrgian Sacae to be considered as a Scythian tribe, conquered 
by Persia ..... 

Situated between the Oxus and Jaxartes 

Caspii north of the ancient mouth of the Oxus 

XII. Bactria ..... 
General description .... 
Identified with Balkh between the Hindoo Koosh and the Oxus 
Herodotus's account .... 
Bactria, a penal settlement .... 
Costume of the Bactrians 

Aeglae, probably the Ghiljies .... 
VII. Gandara, comprising the Sattagydae, Gandarii, Dadicae, 
and Aparytae ..... 

Merely named by Herodotus .... 
Probably answered to eastern Afghanistan 





























Gandarii identified with the people of Candahar . . 297 

Dadicae with the Tadjiks . . . . ib 

Sattagydae with the Zhats . . , . - ib 
XIV. Cakmania, including Sagartii, Sarangees, Thamanaei, Utii, 

and Myci, and the Isles of the Erythraean . . ib 

Sarangees identified with the people of Zarang or Sehestan . ib 

Herodotus's account .... 298 

Costume of the Sagartii . . . . . ib 

Mode of fighting with lassos .... ib 

Thamanaei unknown . . . . . ib 

Costume of the Sarangees, Utii, and Myci . . ib 

XVII. Asiatic Aethiopia, with the Paricanii . . ib 

Herodotus's account .... ib 

Equipment of Paricanii . . . . . ib 

Aethiopians of Asia contrasted with those of Libya . 299 

Strange head-dress . . . . . ib 
Identification of Asiatic Aethiopia with Gedrosia, or Beloochistan ib 

XX. Northern India, or the Punjab . . . ib 

Extent of the satrapy . . . . ib 
Herodotus's account of the people .... 300 

Enormous ants ..... ib 

Ant-hills of sand and gold-dust . . . . ib 

Mode of carrying off the gold . . . ib 

Identification of the people with the Rajpoots of the Punjab . ib 

Indian camels ..... 301 

Costume of the people . . . . . ib 

Revenue of the twenty satrapies . . . ib 
Herodotus's error whilst reducing the Babylonian talent to the 

Euboic standard ..... 302 

Attempts to account for it . . . . . ib 
Error in the sum total : perhaps included taxes paid in kind, tolls, 

gifts, etc. . . . . . .303 

The money and gold-dust melted down into ingots . 304 



Three Asiatic nations independent of the Persian empire, viz. 

Southern Indians, Colchians, and Arabians 
I. Southern India 

General description of the India of Herodotus 
Morning the hottest part of the day 
Superior size of the birds and quadrupeds 
Camels • . 

Dogs .... 

Gold ..... 

ail cmjjuc, VIZ,. 








. 307 




Two nations of Indians ..... 

Southern Indians of Northern Hindostan 

The most easterly of all the Asiatic nations . 

Divided into tribes who spoke different languages . 

Four ti'ibes mentioned by Herodotus 

Herodotus's superior and coiTect knowledge of India derived from 

the report of Scylax .... 

Great merit of Scylax .... 
Indian fishermen on the marshes of the Indus 
Identified with the pulla-fishers of Sinde 
Singular coincidence between the report of Scylax and that of 

Lieut. Wood .... 

Nomade Indians or Padaei .... 
Killed and feasted on their sick relations 
Identified with the barbarous tribes of the deserts of Sinde . 
Vegetarian Indians, who Hved chiefly on rice 
Identified with the Hindoos .... 
Calatians, who ate their parents 
Probably the same as the Padaei 

Shameless manners and black complexion of the Indians 
Probably refeiTed to the Jauts of Rajpootana 

II. Colchis. Description of the country 
Political relations with Persia .... 
Costume ..... 
Manufacture of linen .... 
Gifts to Persia ..... 
Colchians believed by Herodotus to be of Aegyptian origin, from 

their similarity of complexion and hair, their practice of circum- 
cision, their manufacture of linen, and their life and language 
Value to placed on his testimony 

III. Akabia. General description of the country 
Herodotus's description .... 
African mountain range between the Nile valley and Arabian Gulf, 

included in Arabia .... 
Land of frankincense .... 

His account of the Arabian Gulf . 
Supposed it to be much narrower than it is in reality 
Causes of his error 

More correct as to its length .... 
His real knowledge of Arabia confined to Arabia Petraea 
Assigns the Philistine temtory to the Arabs 
Nature of the soil .... 

City of Patumos ..... 
River Corys . . . . . 

Defile near Buto containing the bones of winged serpents 
Fabulous story concerning the serpents 
Rare productions of Arabia .... 
Frankincense guarded by serpents . 







CONTENTS. xlvii 


Cassia guarded by fierce bats . . . . 318 

Curious manner of obtaining cinnamon from the nests of large birds ib 

Ledanum obtained from the beards of goats . . 319 

Sheep with enormous tails . . . . ib 

Political relations of the Arabians with Persia . . ib 

Costume • • • • • . ib 

Manner of making contracts .... ib 
Worship of Dionysus, named Orotal, and of Urania, called Alilat 

andAlitta . . • • • .320 



Two Persian documents illustrative of the geography of Herodotus 322 
I. Catalogue of the nations in the army of Xerxes, with descrip- 
tion of their equipments • . . . ib 
Hellenic costume : general description . . . 323 
Heavy-armed warrior with the tunic, greaves, cuirass, sword, shield, 
helmet, and spear . . . . . ib 

Light-armed soldier with darts, stones, and bows and arrows, or 

slings . . . . . . ib 

Herodotus's account .... ib 

Shield and helmet borrowed from Aegypt . . . ib 

Crests, devices, and shield-handles invented by the Carians . 324 
Hellenic costume prevalent amongst the Aeolians, lonians, Dorians, 

Hellespontines, Pamphylians, and Lydians . . ib 

7orn by Carians with falchions and daggers . . ib 
Hellenic helmet, worn by Phoenicians and Syrians, with linen 

breastplate, and shields without rims . . . ib 
Barbarian costume in southern Asia Minor . . . ib 
Lycians with caps encircled by feathers, goat-skin cloaks, cornel- 
wood bows, and cane arrows without feathers . • ib 
Cilicians with woollen tunics, and national helmets, and bucklers ib 
Mylians with clasped garments and leathern helmets . . 325 
^-^alians and Lasonians like the CiUcians . . ib 
; ^ern Asia Minor . . . . . ib 

ms in national helmets .... ib 

/nians in variously coloured cloaks, fox-skin caps, etc. . ib 

.oschi, Tibareni, Macrones, and Mosynoeci, in wooden helmets ib 

lares in painted helmets . . . . ib 

'halybes with brazen helmets, and brazen ears, and horns of an 

ox, crests, purple cloth leggings, and hunting javehns . ib 
Phrygian costume of peculiar boots, plaited helmets, etc., worn 
by Phrygians, Mariandynians, Paphlagonians, Matienians, Syri- 

Cappadocians, and Armenians .... 326 

Assyrian costume of linen cuirasses, helmets of brazen net-work, 
Aegyptian daggers, knotted clubs, etc., worn by Chaldeans and 

Babylonians . . . . . . ib 

xlviii CONTENTS. 

Median costume of tiaras, variously-coloured cuirasses, breast- 
plates of iron scales, loose trousers, osier bucklers, etc., worn by 
Medes, Persians, and Cissians .... 

Bactrian costume resembled the Medic, but included bamboo 
bows, 'short spears, etc., worn by Bactrians, Sogdians, Choras- 
mians, Arians, and Parthians .... 

Wooden helmets, leathern bucklers, and short spears of the Saspeires 
Goat-skin mantles and peculiar bows of the Caspii, Pactyes, Pari- 
canii, Utii, and Myci . . . . 

Peculiar lasso carried by the Sagartians 
Beautifully dyed garments of the Sarangae 

Loose trousers, pointed hats, peculiar bows, daggers, and battle- 
axes of the Sacae, beyond the Oxus 
Cotton garments and bamboo bows of the Indians 
Crane- skin bucklers and horse-head helmets of the Asiatic Aethi- 
opians . . .... 

Costume of nations not included in Persian Asia 

Cloaks and long bows of the Arabs 

Wooden helmets and leathern bucklers of the Colchians 

Plaited helmets, hollow shields with large rims, pikes, and hatchets 

of the Aegyptians ..... ib 

Hellenic armour and Persian head-dress of the Cyprians . ib 

Libyan Aethiopians with bodies half white and half red, clothed 
in lion and panther skins, and carrying long bows, cane arrows 
tipped with stone, javelins tipped with horn, and knotted clubs ib 

Leathern garments of the western Libyans . . . ib 

Proposed comparison of Herodotus's description with the monu- 
ments of Persepolis and Nineveh . . . 330 
IL Royal highway from Sardis to Susa . . . ib 
Stations and caravanserais all the way . . . ib 
Lydia and Phrygia : 20 stations, 94|- parasangs . . ib 
River Halys : gates and fort . . . . ib 

Cappadocia : 28 stations, 104 parasangs . . . ib 

Cilicia : 3 stations, 15J parasangs . . . . ib 

Ferry over the Euphrates ... . 331 

Armenia: 15 stations, 56 J parasangs . . . ib 

Four rivers to be ferried; the Tigris, Zabatus Major, Zabatus 
Minor, and Gjmdes . . . . . ib 

Matiene : 4 stations . . . . . jb 

Cissia : 1 1 stations, 42J parasangs . . . . ib 

Mistake in the sum total . . . . jb 

Hiatus in Matiene . . , . . ib 

Probably never filled in by Herodotus . . . 332 

Length of the whole journey from Ephesus to Susa . . ib 

Position of the nations in the map of Aristagoras . . ib 

Identification of the ancient road with the modern caravan route 333 






Imperfect state of the geography of Africa . . . 335 

Considered by Herodotus to be surrounded by water, excepting at 

the Isthmus of Suez .... ib 

Story of its circumnavigation by Phoenicians sent out by Neco ib 

Evidently believed by Herodotus and his contemporaries . ib 

Voyage of Sataspes ..... ib 

Possibility of circumnavigating Africa, subsequently denied by 
Plato, B. c 360 ; Ephorus, B. c. 340 ; Poly bins, B. c. 150 ; Strabo, 
A. D. 1 ; and Ptolemy, A. D, 150 .... 336 

Difficulty in deciding whether the Phoenicians did or did not ac- 
complish the circumnavigation . . . 337 

Herodotus's account of the voyage . 

Examination into its possibility 

Nature of the ships .... 

Character of the voyage 

Extent of coast to be traversed by circumnavigators 

Mean rate of saiHng .... 

Aggregate length of the voyage 

Description of the supposed circumnavigation by the light of mo 
dern geography .... 

B. c. 613, August ..... 

Suez ...... 

Monsoon in the Arabian Gulf, blowing from the north 

October . ■ ■ • • 

Straits of Babel-mandeb .... ib 

Cape Guardafui . . . • • 340 

Land of frankincense . . . . ib 

Monsoon of the Indian Ocean, blowing from the north-east . ib 

Sun perpetually on the right hand . . . ib 

Cun-ent of the Mozambique Channel running round the Cape of 
Good Hope ..... 

B. c. Q^2, January .... 

Tropic of Capricorn .... 

April ..... 

Doubling of the Cape of Good Hope 

Atlantic Ocean .... 

Wind from the south blowing along the coast 

July ..... 

St. Thomas's island .... 

Unfavourable wind and current lasting till October 







General course of the cun-ents of the Atlantic . . 341 

Octoher . • • • . . ib 

Wind blowing fi-om the north-east : slow westward progress against 

the current . • • • • . ib 

B.C. 611,irarc7i ..... 342 

River Senegal . . . • ■ . ib 

Stay for the September harvest . . . ib 

Slow progT-ess against the current to the limits of the north-east 

ti-ade Avind . . • • • . ib 

Favourable winds through the Pillars of Heracles to the mouths 

of the Nile . . . . • . ib 

Story of the Phoenicians obtaining suppHes on their voyage by 

sowing corn and waiting for the harvest, not incredible . ib 

Probably well victualled as far as Sofala, and again fresh supplied 

at Angola ....-• 343 
Bank of the Senegal river, the most likely spot for the Phoenicians 

to have chosen for sowing corn . . . ib 

Examination into the credibihty to be attached to Herodotus's re- 
lation . . . . . .344 

Story of having the sun on the right hand, no evidence of its truth ib 
Failure of Sataspes, no evidence of its falsehood . . ib 

Phoenicians assisted by monsoons and currents, which would have 
•been adverse to Sataspes . . . . ib 

Enterprising character of Neco in perfect keeping with his having 

organized such an expedition .... 345 
Convincing reasons for believing in the circumnavigation, and in 

the truth of Herodotus's narrative . . . ib 

Herodotus's general knowledge of the African continent ". 346 

Considered it to be a great acte, spreading out fi-om Asia at the 

Isthmus of Suez . . . • . ib 

Extreme heat of the climate .... ib 

Difficulty in discovering Herodotus's boundary line between Asia 

and Africa ...... 347 

Probably arose from a confusion between the country of Libya and 

the continent of Libya . . . . ib 

Division of the Libyan continent into three tracts, viz. Aegypt, 

Aethiopia, and Libya Proper . . . ib 



General description of Aegypt — a fertile valley, bounded on the 

east by the Arabian chain, and on the west by the Libyan . 350 
Herodotus's account ..... 351 

Situation and boundaries of the country . . . ib 

Supposed to be a gift of the Nile, as in the reign of Menes, B. c.2200, 
all Middle Aegypt was a morass, and all Lower Aegypt was 



under water, but in the time of Herodotus, B. c. 450, the whole 

had been filled up by alluvial soil brought down by the Nile 352 

Lower Aegypt said by the priests to have been anciently a bay, 

corresponding to the Arabian Gulf . . . ib 

Three facts in favour of the hypothesis . . . ib 

1. Shells found on the mountains, and a saline humoui- on the 
pyi'amids ...... 353 

2. Conti-ast between the black soil of Aegypt and the rock and 
clay of Arabia and Syria on the east, and the red sand of 
Libya on the west . . . . • ib 

3. Gradual rise of the land . . . . ib 
Ionian theory, that Aegypt Proper was included in the Delta, 

proved to be absm-d, as the Aegyptians were an ancient poople, 
but the soil of the Delta of recent formation . . 354 

Theory of Herodotus — that the Aegj^Dtians had advanced north- 
ward as fast as fresh soil was formed, and that Aegypt properly 
included all the country inhabited by Aegyptians— supported 
by the oracle of Ammon .... ib 

Voyage of Herodotus up the Nile, by Heliopolis and Thebes, 

to Elephantine on the southern frontier of Aegypt . . 355 

Aegypt, north of Heliopolis, (i. e. the Delta,) a broad flat . ib 

Aegypt, south of HeliopoUs, a narrow valley between the Arabian 

and Libyan mountains .... 356 

Extent of the voyage . . - • . ib 

Error in Herodotus's calculation of the number of stadia . ib 

Herodotus's personal knowledge bounded on the south by Ele- 
phantine . . • • ,357 
Could learn but httle concerning the Nile . . . ib 
Three different causes assigned by the Greeks for its periodical 
overflow. 1st, That it was occasioned by the Etesian winds. 
2nd, That it was caused by the river Ocean. 3rd, That it was 
produced by the snows of Aethiopia . . . ib 
Theory of Herodotus— the Nile di-ained during the winter by the 
sun, which is driven southward by Boreas ; but overflowing in 
summer, when the sun retm-ns to the centre of the heavens ib 
Origin of the thi'ee previous theories . . • 358 
That of the Etesian winds, taught by Thales . . ib 
That of the river Ocean, by Hecataeus; though perhaps in part de- 
rived fi-om the Aegyptian tradition of the revolution of the sun ib 
That of the melted snows, taught by Anaxagoras, who is followed 

by Euripides and Aeschylus .... 359 

Real cause of the inundation first discovered by Democritus and 

Callisthenes, viz. the very heavy rainy season in Aethiopia . ib 
Period of the inundation . . . • ib 

Singular theory of the philosophers of Memphis as described by 

Diodorus . . • • • • ^^^ 

Sources of the Nile : Herodotus unable to obtain any information 

concerning them . • • • .obi 

d 2 



Hoaxing story told by the bursar of the Athene temple at Sais 361 
Effects produced by the inundation . . . 362 
Aegypt like a sea, and her cities like islands . . ib 
Navigation carried on across the plain of the Delta . . ib 
Cities protected by mounds . . . . ib 
Seven mouths of the Nile, viz. Pelusiac, Canopic, Sebennytic, Bal- 
tic, Mendesian, Bolbotine, and Bucolic . . 363 
Their identification on the modern map . . . ib 
Di\asions of Aegypt not distinctly laid down by Herodotus . 364 
Supposed by him to have included Lower Aegypt, or the Delta, 

and Upper Aegj^t, or Heptanomis and Thebais . . ib 



General description of the Aegyptian Delta . . , 367 
Aegyptian architecture, its religious character contrasted with the 

aesthetic character of the architecture of Greece . . ib 

Plan of an Aegyptian temple .... 368 

Approached by an avenue lined with sphinxes . . ib 
Colossi and obelisks before the gi-and entrance, which consisted of 

a lofty gateway between two oblong pyramidal moles . ib 
Interior, consisting of an open court, a portico, an hypostile hall, 

and a holy recess . . . . . ib 
Frequent multiplication of the entrances, courts, porticoes, and 

halls, both in front and on each side of the holy recess . ib 
Names and descriptions of the several parts . . 369 
The sacred enclosure, or ieron .... 370 
The avenue, or dromos .... ib 
The entrance, or propylaea, consisting of a gateway, or pylon, be- 
tween two oblong flat-topped pyramids, or ptera . . ib 
The open court behind the propylaea surrounded by colonnades ib 
The portico, or pronaos, supported by columns . . ib 
The second pronaos, or hypostile hall, with stone roof, also sup- 
ported by columns .... ib 
The proper temple, or naos, including the holy recess, or sekos, 

and the side adyta . , . . .371 

Chambers, galleries, and passages, for the use of the priests . ib 

Topography of the Delta : Bubastis . . . ib 

Magnificent temple of Bubastis, or Artemis . . ib 

Entirely surrounded by water, excepting at the entrance • 372 

Conspicuous site ..... ib 
The enclosure, or tcmcnus, (ieron,) a square of 600 feet each way, 

surrounded by a sculptured wall . . . . ib 

Propylaea (ptera) 60 feet high, and adorned with sculptures 9 feet high ib 

Grove of trees planted round the naos . . . ib 

Paved avenue, or dromos, ? of a mile long, and 400 feet broad . ib 

Ancient settlement of the lonians and Carians . . 373 



Modern site of Bubastis indicated by the mounds of Tel Basta 
Busiris ...••• 
Temple of Isis ..... 

Sais . . . . 

Palace of Apries .... 

Temple of Athene ..... 

Splendid propylaea built by Amasis 

Colossi, obelisks, and andro-sphinxes 

Huge rock-chamber, or monolith . 

Tombs of the Saite kings, Apries, Amasis, etc. 

Tomb of Osiris ..... 

Circular lake ..... 

Modern site of Sais identified with that of Sa 

Heliopolis ...... 

Temple of Helios with two obelisks 150 feet high, and 12 feet 

broad, dedicated by Pheron 
Papremis ...... 

Temple of Ares .... 

Buto ...... 

Temple of Apollo and Artemis 

Temple and oracle of Leto .... 

Floating island of Chemmis, with temple of Apollo 
Naucratis ...... 

Anciently the only Aegyptian port for Greek ships 

The Hellenium sanctuaiy .... 

Sanctuaries built by the Aeginetans, Samians, and Milesians 

Anthylla, given to the wife of the Persian satrap . 

ArchandropoUs . 


Apis . 



Daphnae . 



Taricheia of Pelusium 

Tower of Perseus 

Temple of Heracles at "Taricheia 

Lake Serbonis 

Mount Casius . 

Marshes of the Delta 

Island of Elbo . 

Present state of the Delta marshes 

Great canal from Bubastis to Suez, commenced by Neco and (in 

ished by Darius .... 

Survey of the course of the canal 
Division of the route into four sections 
1. Line from Suez to the Bitter Lakes 














2. Basin of the Bitter Lakes . . . . 381 

3. Elbow round through the Wady of Tomlat . . ib 

4. Channel from the Wady of Tomlat to Bubastis . . 382 
Immense number of canals dug by Sesostris . . ib 
Nomes of Lower Aegypt ..... 383 



Upper Aegypt of Herodotus included Heptanomis and Thebais . 386 

Memphis ..... ib 

Built by Menes on a site recovered from the Nile . . ib 

Lake excavated by Menes . . ... 387 
Explanation of Herodotus's description of the ancient and modem 

channels of the Nile . . . . ib 

Description of the Canal of Joseph . . . ib 

Site of Memphis identified with that of Mitranieh . 388 

Celebrated temple of Hephaestus, or Pthah, built by Menes . ib 

Northern propylaea built by Moeris . . . ib 

Six colossal statues erected before it by Sesostris . . ib 
Western propylaea, and two statues of Summer and Winter, erected 

by Rhampsinitus . . . . . ib 

Eastern propylaea built by Asychis . . . 389 
Southern propylaea, and comt for Apis, constructed by Psam- 

mitichus „ . . . . ib 

Colossus, 75 feet high, dedicated by Amasis . . . ib 

Stone statue of Sethon, with a mouse . , . ib 

Temenus of Proteus, including the temple of Aphrodite the stranger ib 

Phoenician settlement, called the Tyrian camp . . 390 

Temple of Isis . . . . . ib 

Walls . . . . . . ib 

Suburb . . . . . . ib 

White Fortress ..... ib 

Temple of Demeter . . . . . ib 

Pyramids described by Herodotus identified with those of Gizeh ib 

General description of their site and relative position . . ib 

Recent explorations of Col. Howard Vyse and Mr. Pening 391 
Herodotus's description of the causeway, 3000 feet long, 60 feet 

wide, and 48 feet high, laid down by Cheops . . ib 

Explanation of the description . . . 392 

Traces of the ancient causeway still existing . . ib 

The three gi'eat pyramids .... 393 

I. The GpvEat Pyramid op Cheops . . . ib 

Herodotus's description .... ib 

Time and labour employed . . . . ib 

Dimensions ..... ib 

Mode of construction . . . . . ib 




Ascent by steps, or altars .... 394 

Machines constructed of short pieces of wood . . ib 

Summit first completed .... ib 

Burial vault of Cheops surrounded by a channel conducted from 

the Nile ... . ib 

Inscription declaring the sums expended upon provisions for the 

workmen . . . . • ib 

Comparison of the account of Herodotus with modern investiga- 
tions ...... ib 

Ancient and modern measurements . • • 395 

Three kinds of material employed . . • 396 

1st, Blocks quarried from the Libyan rock used for the internal 

masses ...... 

2nd, Compact limestone from the 'Arabian mountains used for 

casing-stones . . . • . ib 
3rd, Red granite from the cataracts of Syene, also used for lining 

and casing-stones . . . . . ib 

Character of the mechanical agencies employed . . 397 
Internal blocks not so large as Herodotus describes . . ib 
Holes for the insertion of the machines still visible . 398 
Exterior coating of casing-stones of limestone or granite, care- 
fully cemented, and beautifully polished . . . ib 
Mr. Perring's observations on the mode of construction . 399 
Interior of the Great Pyramid . . . . ib 

Sloping passage descending towards the centre . . ib 
Passage divides; one continuing the descent till it reaches the 
Subterranean Chamber ; the other ascending, and then again 
dividing, one branch running horizontally to the Queen's 

Chamber, and the other inclining upward to the King's Chamber ib 

Description of the Subterranean Chamber . . . 400 

Burial vault of Cheops not to be found' . . . 401 

Queen's Chamber ..... 402 

King's Chamber, containing an empty sarcophagus . 403 
Inscription mentioned by Herodotus not to be found, on account 

of the removal of the casing-stones . . . 404 

II. PYRAmD OF Chephken .... ib 
Herodotus's description . . . . . ib 
Site, and present dimensions .... ib 
Herodotus's statement that there were no subterranean chambers 

in it, confuted by the investigations of Belzoni . . 40.5 

Entrance discovered by Belzoni . . . . ib 

Sepulchral room called Belzoni's Chamber . . 406 

Lower Chamber ..... 407 
Aethiopian stone used for the first course found to be granite from 

the cataracts ..... 40'^ 

Upper casing formed of limestone . . . ib 

Mr. Perring's view of the construction of the interior . . ib 

III. Pyramid of Mycerinus . * . • 409 



Herodotus's description ..... 409 

Present dimensions irreconcilable with Herodotus's estimate ib 
More elaborately finished than the pyramids of Cheops and 

Chephren . . . . • .410 

Entrance discovered by Caviglia and Col. Vyse . . ib 

Upper Sepulchral Chamber . • • . ib 

Lower Sepulchral Chamber .... ih 
Sarcophagus in the Lower Chamber . . .411 
Extraordinary discovery of the mummy-case and bones of Myceri- 

nus in the Upper Chamber .... 412 

Undoubted identity of the remains . . . ib 
Mr. Birch's interpretation of the hieroglyphics on the hd of the 

mummy-case . . . - • ib 

Bones and mummy-case to be seen in the British Museum . 413 

Mode of construction adopted in the pyramid . . ib 
The Three Small Pyramids, including the pyramid of the daughter 

of Cheops ..... 414 

Herodotus's description . . . - . ib 

Present state ..... ib 

Brick pyramid of Asychis . . . . ib 

Probably the same as the northern pyramid of Dashoor . 415 
Character of Herodotus's description of the pyramids, and reasons 

for his various omissions .... ib 
State of the pjTamids at the time of his visit . . .416 
His ignorance of the interiors of the Pyramids of Chephren and 

Mycerinus . . . • • .417 

Origin of the pyi-amids unknown . . . ib 
Called by the Aegyptians after Phihtion, and therefore supposed 

to have been built by the Hyksos . . . ib 
Recently discovered to have been built prior to the Hyksos, by 

the kings of the fourth dynasty of the Old Monarchy of Menes 418 
Cheops identified with the Suphis and Souphis of Manetho, 

through the shields discovered by Col. Vyse . . ib 

Chephren not yet identified . . . . 419 
Mycerinus, or Men-kah-re, identified with the Mencheres of 

Manetho ..... ib 
The pyramids undoubtedly erected as sepulchres, the inclined pas- 
sages being intended for the conveyance of the sarcophagi into 

the internal chambers . . . • . ib 
Interesting discovery made by Dr. Lepsius relative to pyramidal 

construction . . . . . 420 

Effect produced by the pyramids upon the modern traveller ib 

Other buildings, or mounds, similar to the pyi-amids . . 421 

Birs Nimroud ..... ib 

Tumulus of Alyattes . . . . . ib 

Pyramids of Mexico and India ... ib 

Silbury hill in Wiltshire . . . . . ib 

The Labyrinth and Lake Moeris . . . 422 



Description of the oval basin of Fayoum . . . 422 

Consists of three different levels . . . ib 

Watered by a branch from the Canal of Joseph . . 423 

Geological constitution of the soil . . . ib 

First or eastern terrace, comprising the Labyrinth . . ib 

Herodotus's description of the Labyrinth . . 424 

Erected by the twelve kings . . . . ib 
Cost more labom- and money than all the public buildings in 

Greece ...... ib 

Consisted of twelve courts, in two parallel ranges of six courts each, 

and included 3000 chambers, half above^^ground, and half under ib 
Upper chambers visited by Herodotus . , . ib 
Lower chambers, tombs of .the twelve kings, and sacred crocodiles ib 
Recent discovery of the remains of the Labyrinth by the Prus- 
sian Expedition under Dr. Lepsius . . . 425 
General confirmation of the truth of Herodotus's statements . ib 
Doubt as to whether it really included 3000 chambers,'and whether 

it was built by the twelve kings, and contained their tombs 426 
The pyramid probably the place of sepulture, and the Labyrinth 

the royal palace ..... ib 

Pyramid at present known as the Pyi-amid of Howara . ib 
Discovery of the name of Ammenemes IIL, the last king of the 

Old Monarchy of Menes . . . . ib 

Dimensions and construction of the pyramid . . 427 

Lake Moeris . . . . . . ib 

Herodotus's description .... ib 

Attempt to find its site on the modern map . . . 428 

Generally identified with Lake Ke'iroun . . . 429 

Present aspect of Ke'iroun . . . . ib 

Reasons brought forward by M. Lin ant for disbelieving in the 

identification of Moeris with Ke'iroun . . ib 
Linant's discovery of a dyke enclosing the second terrace of 

Fayoum ..... 430 

Identification of the enclosed site with that of Lake Moeris] . 431 

Further explanation of Linant's identification . . 432 

His identification of the two pyramids described by Herodotus ib 

General remarks upon Linant's discovery . . . 433 

Remaining topography of Middle Aegypt . . ib 

Erythrebolus . . . • • . ib 

Crocodilopolis , . . • . ib 

Hermeopolis ...... 434 

Docks in the Arabian Gulf . . . . ib 

Upper Aegypt Proper, not described by Herodotus . . ib 

Extreme paucity of his topogi-aphical notions . . ib 

His account of Thebes and temple of Zeus, or Ammon . ib 

Chemmis ....•• 435 

Temple of Perseus . . . . . ib 

Elephantine ..... ib 



Crophi and Mophi ..... 435 

Southern boundary of Aegypt . . . ib 



AegjT;)tian mythology ; its effect upon Herodotus . . 438 

His initiation in the mysteries .... ib 

His religious reserve . . • ^ . ib 

Traces the deities of Greece to an Aegyptian origin . ib 

Effect produced on the modern student . . . ib 

Eeligious conceptions of the Aegyptians thepselves, dependent 

upon the spii-itual and mental state of the worshipper . 439 

Modern ideas of Aegj^tian deities dependent upon the student's 

own state of religious culture . • • it> 

Identification of Aegyptian conceptions with revealed truths, con- 
tradicted by the idolatry and conduct of the people . . ib 
Valuable character of Herodotus's information, both as an intro- 
duction to the study of Aegyptian antiquities, and a proof that 
no religion framed by human invention can render man pure 
and holy ..... 440 
Herodotus's account . . . • . ib 
Aegyptians the most pious of mankind, and the first who instituted 

the forms and ceremonies of religious worship . . ib 

Astrology .... 

Prodigies ..... 
Omens . . . 

Divination .... 

Oracles held in the highest veneration 

Aegj^ptian deities divided by Herodotus into three classes . 442 
1st, The eight gi-eat gods . . . . ib 
2nd, The twelve gods .... ib 
3rd, The gods sprung from the twelve . . . ib 
No heroes worshipped .... ib 
Chronology of the gods . . . . . ib 
Explanation of the triple division . . . 443 
Primeval belief in one great God . . . . ib 
1st Class of gods — deified attributes . . . ib 
2nd Class — lower emanations . . . . ib 
3rd Class — ])hysical objects, abstract ideas, etc. . . ib 
Identification of the eight primary gods with Aegyptian deities . 444 
The four gi-eat deified attributes : the spirit ; the intellect ; the cre- 
ative power ; and the generative principle . . . ib 
Aegyptian representation of Kneph, the divine spirit, and Amuii, 

the divine intellect . . . . . ib 

Identification of both Kneph and Amun with the Zeus of Herodotus 445 

Zeus especially worshipped in the nome of Thebes . . 446 





No sheep sacrificed . . " . 

Mythic story of Zeus and Heracles 

Horned serpents sacred . 

Temple and oracle of Zeus 

Sacred women 

Aegyptian representation of Pthah, the creative power 

Identified with Hephaestus, and especially worshipped at Memph: 

Aegyptian representation of Khem, the generative principle . 

Identified with Pan, and especially worshipped at Mendes 

No goats sacrificed .... 

Herodotus's statements doubted 

Four primary Aegyptian goddesses 

Sate, or Hera, not mentioned 

Maut, or Buto, identified with Leto 

Her celebrated oracle and temple . 

Pasht, or Bubastis, identified with Artemis 

The festival at Bubastis .... 

Shameless conduct of the people during the pilgrimage 

Immense consumption of wine . ... 

Neith identified with Athene . 

The festival of burning lamps at Sais 

Confusion between the second and third class deities, and conse- 
quent necessity for an independent and arbitrary division . 

I. Miscellaneous divinities mentioned by Herodotus 

HeUos, or the Sun . 

Identified with the Aegyptian Re, or Ra 

Heracles cannot be identified .... 

His oracle and temple ..... 

Greek story of the attempt to sacrifice him to Zeus, and his slaying 
the whole crowd of worshippers .... 

Disbelieved by Herodotus, because the Aegyptians would not offer 
human sacrifices, and Heracles the hero could not single-handed 
have slain thousands 

Hermes, perhaps a mummy-formed god 

Subsequently identified with Thoth 

Ares, perhaps a form of Typhon, or the evil principle 

His oracle .... 

Festival at Papremis 

Mock-fight between the priests and votaries 

Popular legend to account for its origin 

Perseus and Proteus . 

Temple of Perseus at Chemmis 

His enormous sandal 

Gymnastic games celebrated at Chemmis in his honour 

His legendary history according to the Chemmitans 

Temenus at Memphis, sacred to Proteus 

Aphi-odite identified with Athor 

Represented with cow's horns, and confounded by Herodotus with Isis 























Wooden cow at Sais probably connected with her worship and with 

that of Osiris ..... 459 

Annual festival connected with it . . . 460 

The Foreign Aphrodite, or Helen the stranger . . ib 

Hera, Hestia, and Themis also to be identified with Aegyptian 

deities, though not known as such to Herodotus . . ib 

II. Osiris, Isis, Horus, and the calf Apis . . 461 

Dualistic character of Osiris as mortal King of Aegypt and divine 

Ruler of Hades . . . . . ib 

Herodotiis's hesitation and reserve in alluding to Osiris . ib 

General division of the subject .... 462 

Mythic historj^ of the earthly adventures of Osiris . . ib 

Rhea delivered of five children on the five intercalary days obtained 
by Hermes, viz. Osiris, and the elder Horus, begotten by the 
Sun ; Typhon, by Cronos ; Isis, by Hermes ; Nephthj^s, by 
Cronos . . . . . . ib 

Typhon mames Nephthys .... 463 

Osiris marries Isis, and begets the younger Horus . . ib 

Osiris king of Aegypt .... ib 

Instructs his subjects and mankind generally in the arts of civiliz- 
ation . . . • . . . ib 
Typhon, the evil principle, conspires against him, encloses him in 

a chest, and casts it into the Nile . . . ib 

Isis hears of the disaster, and discovers Anubis, the son of Osiris 

by her sister Nephthys .... 464 

Obtains the chest, which had been stranded at Byblos : Typhon 
subsequently recovers it, tears the body into fourteen pieces, and 
scatters them about Aegypt . . . . ib 

Isis in a boat of papyi'us regains all the pieces excepting one, and 

consecrates the phallus as a memorial of her loss . ib 

Osiris returns from Hades, and assists in the final overthrov>^ of 
Typhon . . . . . .465 

Traces in the myth of a reference to astronomy . . ib 

Physical interpretation of the myth as given by Plutarch . 466 

Herodotus's account of Osiris, Isis, and Horus . . 467 

Osiris, or Dionysus, and Isis, or Demeter, the two national deities 

ofAegj'pt . . . . . . ib 

Isis represented like lo, and perhaps regarded as the moon . ib 

Horus the son, and Bubastis the daughter, of Osiris and Isis, con- 
cealed by Leto in the floating island of Chemmis from Typhon 468 
Osiris, his tomb at Sais . . . . . ib 

Annual representation of his allegorical adventures on the circular 

lake . . . . . . ib 

Isis the greatest Aegyptian goddess . ' . . ib 

Represented like the Greek lo . . . . ib 

Her temple and festival at Busiris . . . ib 

Bullocks sacrificed to her, whilst the votaries beat themselves and 
lament for Osiris ..... 469 



Cows sacred to her ..... 469 
Osiris and Isis considered by the Aegyptians to be the rulers of 

Hades . . . . . . ib 

Immortality of the soul propounded in the dogma of metempsy- 
chosis ...... 4/0 

Cycle of 3000 years ..... ib 

Illustration of the Aegyptian ideas of Hades in the story of Rhamp- 

sinitus . . . . . . ib 

Worship of Osiris and Isis universal . . . ib 

Its peculiarities . . . • . ib 
Swine, though considered an impure animal, sacrificed at the full 

moon to both deities .... ib 
At the festival of Isis the tail, spleen, and caul of the pig was burnt, 

but the rest eaten : pigs of baked dough offered by the poor . 471 
At the festival of Osiris a pig slain at every door, and Dionysiac 

orgies celebrated . . . • . ib 

Herodotus's account of Apis . . . . ib 

Begotten on a cow by a flash of lightning . . . 472 
Known by his black hair, white square mark on his forehead, eagle 

on his back, beetle on his tongue, and double hairs in his tail ib 

Public rejoicings on his appearance . . . ib 

Sacrilegious conduct of Cambyses . . . ib 

Court for Apis built at Memphis by Psammitichus . . ib 

Further notices of Apis from Phny, Sti-abo, and Diodorus . ib 

Aegyptian conceptions of Osiris .... 473 
Represented on the monuments as Judge of the Dead and Ruler 

of Amenti, or Hades . . . . . ib 
Actions of deceased persons recorded by Thoth, and weighed by 

Anubis in the scales of Truth .... 474 
If found wanting, the soul is sent back to earth in the form of an 

animal : if justified by its works, the soul is introduced by Horus 

into the presence of Osiris . . • . ib 

Osiris to be regarded as the " divine goodness " . . 475 

Manner of his manifestation upon earth involved in mystery . ib 

Speculative and allegorical character of the theory - ib 

Symbolical figure of Osiris . . . • 476 
Isis variously represented on the monuments, and often confounded 

with Athor and other deities . - ■ . ib 

Aegyptian ideas of Apis . . . • 477 

Conclusion ...-•• 478 



Exclusiveness of the Aegyptians prior to the Persian conquest . 480 

Their manners and customs ancient and peculiar • 481 

Aegyptian castes . . . • ' ! 

Two castes omitted by Diodorus . • • ^" 


Seven castes in India, according to Megasthenes 
The seven Aegyptian castes, according to Herodotus 

I. The Priests, or Piromis 

Colleges at Memphis, Thebes, Heliopolis, and Sais 
Estates for their maintenance 
Daily allowance of beef, geese, and wine 
Fish and beans denied . 
Shaved their bodies eveiy third day 
Wore garments of Hnen, and shoes of byblus 
Washed four times in 24 hom-s 

II. The Soldiers, a military race, divided into the Hermotybies 
and the Calasires .... 

Chiefly quartered in Lower Aegypt 

Not allowed to trade .... 

Each man in possession of twelve acres of land 
Royal body-guard composed of 2000 men, changed annually 
Daily rations of 5 lbs. of bread, 2 lbs. of beef, and a quart of wine 
Garrisons on the fi'ontiers .... 
Five inferior castes, including the masses, very imperfectly distin- 
guished by ancient writers .... 485 
Every man obliged to show once a year that he lived by honest 

means ...... ib 

III. The Herdsmen probably included husbandmen, nomades, 

and the marshmen of the Delta . . . ib 

IV. The Swineherds, a Pariah caste . . ' , 486 

V. The Traders, probably included several subdivisions, which 

were all hereditary . . . . . ib 

VI. The Interpreters, first originated in the reign of Psam- 
mitichus . , . . . , ib 

VII. The Steersmen, or navigators of the Nile , . 487 
Great extent of the river navigation . . . ib 
Physical characteristics of the Aegyptians . . ib 
Described by Herodotus as being swarthy and curly-headed . ib 
Represented in the paintings as being of a red-brown colour ib 
Probably brown like the modern Copts . . ib 
Different complexions of the people . . . ib 
Hair of the mummies either crisp or flowing . . 488 
Average height . . . . . ib 
Fulness of the lips, and elongation of the eye . . ib 
Intermediate between the Syro- Arabian and the Aethiopian type ib 
Good health of the Aegyptian people . . . ib 
Thickness of their skulls . . . . ib 
Population of Aegyjit .... 489 
Manners and customs of the Aegyptians . . . ib 
Singularly contrary to those of other nations . . ib 
Herodotus's memoranda of the several contrasts . . ib 
Markets attended by the women ... ib 
The woof pushed downwards in weaving . . . ib 



Burdens earned on men's heads and women's shoulders 

Meals taken outside the house; . • • 

No piiestesses 

Daughters, and not sons, obhged to support their parents 

Priests shave their heads . . . • 

Laity leave their hair to grow whilst mourning for near relations 

Live with animals . . . • • 

Make their bread of spelt . . • ■ 

Knead with their feet . • . • 

Circumcision practised . . . • 

Rings and sail sheets fastened inside their boats . 

Writing and ciphering from left to right 

Dress of the Aegyptians, a Unen tunic, and white woollen mantle 

Equipment of the marines in the navy of Xerxes 

Social customs .... 

Married only one wife . . . • 

Mode of salutation .... 

Reverence for the aged .... 

Especial cleanliness 

Scoured brazen cups, and wore clean linen 

Circumcision .... 

Regarded the Greeks as impure 

Food of the Aegyptians 

Beef . . . . • 

Geese ..... 

All fish and birds not accounted sacred 

Bread made of spelt, and called zea 

"Wine from the grape, probably imported from Greece . 

Phoenician palm wine, and wine made from barley 

Radishes, onions, and garlic 

Marshmen of the Delta lived on the lotus, the stalk of the byblui 
and di'ied fish .... 

Extracted an oil from the sUlicyprion, called kiki . 

Strange custom of carrying round the image of a corpse at drink- 
ing parties ..... 

Extraordinary preservation of a very ancient dirge, called Maneros, 
which resembled the Greek Linus 

Question as to whether it may not have originated in the death 
of the first-born at the exode of the Israelites 

Aegyptian manner of mourning for the dead 

Embalming, a regular profession in Aegj^t . 

Models kept by the embalmers of the three ditferent modes 

Description of the most expensive style 

Middle way of embalming 

Cheapest method .... 

Recovered bodies of persons killed by crocodiles, or di'owned in the 
Nile, regarded as sacred, and embalmed in the best manner at 
the pubhc expense . . . . • 












Art of medicine subdivided into numerous branches . 498 

Purging generally practised .... 499 
Science of geometry originated in the yearly re-measuring of the 

land after the inundations . . . . ib 

Character of the Aegyptian writing . . . ib 
Two kinds of letters noticed by Herodotu?, the sacred, or hieratic, 

and the common, or demotic . . . ib 

General sketch of the three modes of Aegyptian writing . ib 

I. The Hieroglyphic, including pictures representing objects, 
pictures representing ideas, and pictures representing sounds . ib 

II. The Hieratic, or sacred writing, a species of short-hand hiero- 
glyphics . . . . . .501 

III. The Enchorial, or common writing . . ib 
Aegyptian mode of building the merchant barge, called a bans . ib 
Hull formed of short planks, joined together like bricks . ib 
Generally towed up stream . . . . 502 
Down stream were tugged by a hurdle at the prow, and steadied 

by a stone at the stern . . . . ib 

Feticism of the Aegyptians .... ib 

Animals did not abound in Aegypt, but were all considered sacred, 

whether wild or domesticated . . . ib 

Curators appointed over each species . . . ib 

Maintained by the vows of parents . . . 503 
The murder of an animal, if wilful, punished by death ; if acci- 
dental, by a fine ; but the murderer of the Ibis, or hawk, always 

executed . . . . . . ib 

Cats sacred to Bubastis, or Pasht . . . ib 
Number diminished by the males killing the kittens, and the cats 

rushing into fires .... ib 

Embalmed and buried at Bubastis .... 504 

Dogs ...... ib 

Ichneumons . . . . . . ib 

Field-mice ..... ib 

Hawks ... . . . .505 

Bears ...... ib 

The bird Ibis . . . . . . ib 

Two species, the black and the white Ibis . . ib 

Bulls sacred to Apis ..... 506 

Cows sacred to Isis . . . . . ib 

Burial of kine . . . . . . ib 

No cattle killed by the Aegyptians . . . 507 

Established mode of sacrifice . . . . ib 

Crocodiles, Herodotus's description of their nature and habits 508 

Singular affection for the trochihis . . . 509 

AVorshipped in the neighbourhood of Thebes and Lake Moeris ib 
Killed and eaten at Elephantine . . . .510 

Caught by means of a hook baited with a chine of pork . ib 

Hippopotamus . . . . . ib 


} Page 

Otters ....... 510 

Lepidotus . . . ... . ib 

Eel . . . . . . ib 

Fox-goose . . . . . . ib 

Phoenix, its picture as seen by Herodotus . . 511 

Story told of it by the Heliopol'tans . . . ib 

Horned serpents . . . . . 512 

Fish, strange account of their generation . . . ib 

Musquitoes infesting the marshes . . . ib 



Nile boat of Herodotus stopped at Elephantine . . 515 

Further information collected from hearsay . . ib 
General view of the courses of the rivers . . .516 
The White Nile from the south-Avest, and the Blue Nile from the 

south-east, unite at Khartoum, and subsequently receive the 

waters of the Tacazze, from whence the single Nile proceeds 

alone to Syene . . . . . ib 
Lower Nubia, between Aegypt and the junction of the Nile with 

the Tacazze . . . • • . ib 
Upper Nubia — including Shendy, Halfay, and Sennaar — the 

triangular tract formed by the Nile and the Tacazze . 517 

Abyssinia, or Habesch, the base of the triangle . . ib 

Surrounding country . ■ . • • . ib 
Arabian chain on the east, Abyssinian mountains on the south, 

and desert of Sahara, including Kordofan and Darfour, on 

the west . . . • • . ib 
Herodotus's description of the course of the Nile southwards of 

Elephantine . . . . • . ib 

Difficult navigation up the first cataract . . ih 
Four days' voyage to the island of Tachompso . .518 

Tast lake ...... ib 

Forty (iays' journey along the banks . . . ib 

Twelve days' voyage farther to Meroe . . . ib 

Country of the Automoli . . • . ib 

Macrobians on the South Sea . . . ib 
Upper course of the Nile supposed to be from west to east, like 

the Ister . . . . . . ib 

River flowing in that direction discovered by the Nasamones 519 

Comparison of Herodotus's account with modern geography , ib 

Difficulty in identifying Tachompso and the lake . ib 
City and kingdom of Meroe within the triangle of Shendy, formed 

by the Tacazze and Blue Nile . . • . ib 


Pa ere 

Autoraoli within the triangle of Sennaar, formed by the White 

and Blue Niles . . . • .520 

Macrobians . . . . • ib 

River seen by the Nasamones, either that of Bomou or the Niger 521 

Aethiopia of Herodotus, its wide signification . • ib 

His description of the land and people . . . ib 

Arab races in Aethiopia ..... 522 

Three Aethiopian nations mentioned by Herodotus . ib 

I. Aethiopians above Aegypt . . . . ib 

Worship of Dionysus, and sacred city of Nysa . . ib 

Nomades . . . . . . ib 

Ichthyophagi ..... 523 

Troglodytae . . . . . . ib 

Conquests of Cambyses .... ib 

Costume and equipment of the Aethiopians in the army of Xerxes ib 

City of Meroe : worship of Zeus and Dionysus . . 524 

II. The Automoli, distant a four months' journey from Elephan- 
tine, and a two months' from Meroe . . . ib 

Consisted of 240,000 deserters from the Aegyptian wanior caste ib 

Question as to whether settled on the White or the Blue Nile ib 

Blue Nile, the true Nile of the ancients . . . ib 

III. Macrobian Aethiopians, the tallest and handsomest of man- 
kind . . . . . .526 

Ichthyophagi envoys sent by Cambyses . . ib 

Reply of the king . . . . . ib 

His remarks upon the different presents sent by Cambyses . ib 

Longevity of the Macrobians . . . . ib 

Fountain of exquisite water, like oil . . . ib 

Prison fetters of gold ..... 527 

Sepulchres of crystal .... ib 

Table of the sun . . . . . ib 
Macrobians identified by Heeren with the Galla and Somauli 

tribes, but by Cooley with the Automoli . . . ib 

Proofs in favour of the latter theory . . . 528 

Table of the sun, an old Aegyptian festival . . . ib 
Resemblance between the modern iniiabitants of Sennaar and the 

ancient Aegyptians .... 529 



Extent of the Libya Proper of Herodotus . . . 532 

Face of the countiy . . . . ib 
The Kong Mountains, basin of the Niger, and Mountains of the 

Moon . . . . . . . ib 



Great plain spreading from the Kong Mountains northward to the 

Supposed by Herodotus to consist of three belts, viz. 1st, Inhabited 
country along the coast ; '2nd, Wild Beast country of the Atlas 
and 3rd, Sandy Waste, or desert 

Corresponding to the modern names of Barbary, Beled-el-Jered 
and Sahara . . 

FmsT Belt, or Inhabited country 

General description 

Occupied, according to Herodotus, by three races, viz. Greeks, 
Phoenicians, and Libyan nomades 

Four divisions of country occupied by four races, viz. Gyrene by 
the Greeks ; Carthage by the Phoenicians ; Tripoli and Tunis 
by the Libyan nomades ; and Morocco and Algiers by the Li- 
byan husbandmen 

Necessity for placing the Libyan husbandmen in the Second Belt, 
or Wild Beast region .... 

I. Cyrene . 
General description of the country . 
Herodotus's account of the colonization of Cyrene . 
Theraeans under Corobius reach the Libyan Platea 
Pass over to the continent, and settle in Aziris 
Remove to Cyrene .... 
Increase in numbers . . ... 
Divided into three tribes by Demonax 
Lands and the office of priesthood assigned to the king 
Connexion between the Cyrenaeans, Libyans, and Aegyptians 
Three harvests of Cyrene 
The Cyrenaean lotus 
Topographical notices 
Cyrene, containing the statue of Aphrodite sent by Ladice, and 

that of Athene sent by Amasis 
Fountain of Thestes in Irasa 
Leucon .... 
Hill of the Lycaean Zeus 
Barca founded by emigrants from Cyrene 
Inhabitants transplanted to Barca in Bactria 

II. Libyan Noivlvdes 
Extended fi'om Aegypt westward to Lake Tritonis, or the Lesser 

Syrtis ...... 

The Lake Tritonis of later writers identified with the salt lake of 

El Sibkah in Southern Tunis .... 
Character of the country of the nomades 
Its zoolog}^, according to Herodotus 
Attempted identifications by modern naturalists 
Division of the nomades into twelve nations . 
Their general manners and customs 

e 2 






















Abstained from the flesh of cows and swine . . . 543 
Cauterized the heads of childi-en four years old, either on the crown 

or the temples . . . . . ib 

Extraordinary good health .... ib 

"Worship of the Sun and Moon, and of Athene, Triton, and Po- 
seidon . . . . . . ib 

Greeks derived from them the aegis of Athene, the festival ex- 
clamations in the temples, and practice of four -horse chariot 

driving . . . . . . 544 

Libyan mode of interment .... ib 

The Twelve Nations . . . . . ib 

1. Adyrmachidae, who followed Aegyptian customs, but were 
otherwise filthy and slavish . . . . ib 

2. Giligammae, opposite the Libyan Platea, the first region of 

the silphium plant ..... 545 

3. Asbystae, inland of Cyrene, who drove four-horse chariots, and 
followed CjTenaean customs . . , . . 546 

4. Auschisae, including the Cabales, dwelt near the Hesperides, 

and followed Cyrenaean customs . . . ib 

5. Nasamones, a powerful nation on the Syrtis, who during sum- 
mer removed to Augila . . . . ib 

Fed on locusts, and had their women in common . 54/ 

In swearing, laid their hands on tombs . . . ib 
In divining, slept on the sepulchres, and accepted their dreams as 

oracles . . . . . . ib 

Pledged their faith by drinking out of each other's hands . ib 

Buried their dead in a sitting posture . . . ib 

Lived in portable huts, made of basket-work . . ib 

6. Psylli, who made war on the south wind, and were biuied in 
sands blown from the Sahara . . . 548 

7. Garamantes, who properly belonged to the oasis of Fezzan . ib 

8. Macae, who occupied the banks of the Cinyps, which was 

the best corn land in the world . . - , ib 

9. Gindanes, whose women wore an ancle ring for every lover 549 

10. Lotophagi, who hved on cakes made from the farinaceous 

part of the fruit of the Rhamnus Lotus . . 550 

11. Machlyes, who dwelt on the right bank of the river Triton ib 
Argonautic legend connected with this locality . . 551 

12. Auses, who lived on the left bank of the river Triton . ib 
Worshipped a native goddess corresponding to the Athene of the 

Greeks . . . . . . ib 

Lived apart from their women, whom they had in common . 552 

III. Carthage . . • • . ib 

General description of the country . . . ib 

City situated on a peninsula at the bottom of the Gulf of Tunis ib 

Boundaries of the Carthaginian empire . . ■ 553 
Jealousy of the people an effectual bar to the progress of gco- 

gi'aphical science .... ib 



Herodotus's ignorance of Carthage - • . 554 

Second Belt, or Wild Beast region, or Beled-el-Jered . il> 

General description . . • • . ib 

According to Herodotus, included the Libyan husbandmen . 555 

Three nations of husbandmen . . . . ib 

1. Maxyes, who wore a tuft on the right side of then- heads, and 
daubed themselves red . . » . ib 

2. Zaveces, whose women di'ove the war chariots . ib 

3. Gyzantes, who subsisted on honey and monkeys . . ib 
Island of Cyraunis, now called Karkenah and Gherba . 556 
Lake from which gold-dust was obtained by dipping in feathers 

smeared with pitch .... ib 
Geography of Western Africa further illustrated by two stories 

told by Herodotus .... ib 
Carthaginian story of the dumb barter carried on with the natives 

of the gold coast . ... . 557 

Persian story of the voyage of Sataspes . . . ib 

Third Belt, of Sandy Waste, or the Sahara . . 558 

General description . . . . . ib 
Basin of the Niger and the Kong Mountains to the south of the 

Sahara ...... ib 

Herodotus's account .... 559 

Sandy ridge stretching from the Aegyptian Thebes to the Pillars 

of Heracles, and containing a chain of inhabited salt hills, 

at intervals of ten days' journey between each . . ib 

Five nations of salt hills mentioned by Herodotus . ib 

1. Ammonians, who possessed a temple to Zeus, the ram-headed 

god of Thebes, and a hot spring sacred to Helios . ib 
Neighbom-ing city of Oasis in the Island of the Blessed, in- 
habited by Samians .... 560 

2. Augilae, whose date country was visited by the Nasamones ib 

3. Garamantes, who covered the earth with salt before culti- 
vating it, and possessed kine walking backwards . . ib 

Hunted the Aethiopian Troglodytae . . . ib 
Included a timid tribe, who shunned all other men, and had 

neither weapons nor knew how to fight ■ . 561 

4. Atarantes, who had no names, and cursed the sun . . ib 

5. Atlantes, who ate no meat and dreamed no dreams . ib 
Description of Mount Atlas . . . . ib 
The salt mine where the houses were built of blocks of white and 

purjile salt . . . . . . ib 

Actual extent of Herodotus's personal knowledge in Libya, and 

sources of his information . . . . ib 

Visited Cyrene, and the neighbouring Libyan nomades . 562 

Collected information from the nomades . . . ib 

Could not have reached Carthage . . . ib 

Obtained information however from Carthaginian travellers . ib 



General ignorance of Western Africa . . . 563 
His description of the chain of salt hills in the Sahara derived 
from doubtful information, collected at Thebes from a variety 

of sources . . . . . . ib 

Attempt to identify the people and places on the modern map ib 
Narrative of Herodotus probably refers to the caravan route to- 
wards the interior .... ib 

1st station — Ammonium . . . . . 564 

Identified with Siwah .... ib 

Twenty days' journey from Thebes . . . ib 
Intermediate station at El Wah, supposed to be omitted by He- 
rodotus . . . . . . ib 

2nd station — Augila .... 565 

The great mart for dates . . . . ib 

3rd station — Garamantes .... ib 

Identified \vith Fezzan . . . . . ib 

Station at Zuila twenty days' journey from Augila . . ib 
Intermediate station at Zala, supposed to be omitted by Hero- 
dotus . . . . . .566 

Explanation of the people's placing salt upon the soil . ib 

Horns of kine perhaps bent forwards by artificial means . ib 
Hunting of the Troglodyte black men in the mountains of Tibesti 
explained by the modern razzias for the kidnapping of the 

villagers into slavery . . . . . ib 

Timid race of Garamantes perhaps identical with the inhabitants 
ofTerboo . . . . .567 

4th station — Atavantes ..... 568 

Route probably took a southerly direction towards Soudan and 

Nigritia . . . . . . ib 

Station perhaps to be identified with that at Tegerry . ib 

5th station — Atlantes . . . . . ib 

Position unknown ..... 569 

Sources of Herodotus "s information mere caravan gossip . ib 

Confusion respecting Mount Atlas . . . ib 

Salt mine identified with the mines of Tegazah . . ib 

Desert countr}' southward of the chain of salt hills . ib 
Story told by Herodotus of an expedition of five Nasamones to a 
large river flowing from west to east, and containing crocodiles, 

and to a city inhabited by short black men . . ib 

General credibility of the story . . . 571 
Identification of the river with the Niger, and of the city with old 

Timbuctoo . . . . • . ib 

Conclusion ... . . • 572 



Appendix I. Travels of Herodotus ' . . . 573 

II. Table of Herodotean weights, money, dry and liquid 

measures, and measurements of length . . 577 

III. General Jochmus's identification of the route taken 

by Darius from the Bosphorus to the Danube . 578 

IV. Voyage of Hanno, commander of the Carthaginians, 

round the parts of Libya which lie beyond the 
Pillars of Heracles, which he deposited in the tem- 
ple of Cronos .... 579 

Index . . . . , .583 


Page 27, line 33, for east read west. 
45, 1, insert Helice. 

103, 17, for former read agora. 

109, 32, for of read to. 
130, 1, for Augites read Angites. 

132, 10, for Hellespont read Propontis. 

233, 23, for natural read national. 

244, 27, for south read north. 


Map of The Ancient World to illustrate Herodotus, to face title-page. 
Map of Greece, Macedonia, Thrace, etc., to illustrate Herodotus, to 

be inserted between pages 26, 27- 
Plan of The Battle of Plataea, to face page 70. 
Plan of Thermopylae, to face page 81. 
Plan of The Battle of Salamis, to face page 109. 




Birth of Herodotus (b. c. 484). — Contemporary state of Greece. — 
Period of his ti-avels. — Halicarnassus, its histoiy. — Herodotus removes to 
Thurium. — Extent of his travels. — His general information, — Previous 
state of geographical science. — Homer, his notions of the universe (b. c. 
900). — Extent of his geographical knowledge. — Hesiod (b. c. 750). — 
Aeschylus (b. c. 500). — Pindar. — Scylax of Caryanda.— Hecataeus of 
Miletus. — ^Conjectures of philosophers passed over by Herodotws. — Re- 
view of his old age. 

Herodotus was born b. c. 484, at Halicarnassus, introd. 
a Dorian colony on the south-western coast of Asia ^hap. i. 

Minor. Biithof 

The half century prior to his birth had been the Herodotus, 
era of vast changes, political and social. The con- 
quests of the early Persian kings had brought the raiy stTe°of 
whole world of civilization, with the solitary excep- ^^reece. 
tion of European Greece, under the unity of a single 
sceptre. Hitherto the nations of the earth had been 
as jealous as China, as inhospitable as Japan. But 
now the feet of merchants were unfettered ; and 23hi- 
losophic travellers obeyed their exploring instincts, 
and carried the light of truth into the regions of 
fable. Next came the invasions of Greece. Six 
years before the birth of Herodotus the generals of 
Darius were beaten back from Marathon. In the 
fifth year of his infancy, the river-draining millions 
of Xerxes entered Em-ope with sword and brand to 
massacre and to destroy. Then came the fearful con- 
flict, the struggle for lives and homes, lands and dei- 
ties; but disciplined heroism and desperate valour 
scattered the overwhelming armaments of Asia, 

2 LIFE OF HERODOTUS. B. C. 484—408. 

iNTROD. and Thermopylae and Salamis became immortal 
CHAP. 1. nanies. 

Peiiodofhis The swell from that great storm was yet angry, 
travels. Hellas was yet smarting fr-om her scars, but exulting 
in her victories, when Herodotus wandered forth to 
see, to touch, and to explore. The story of the great 
contest was still ringing in his ears, still rife in men's 
mouths ; but the exact date is uncertain.^ The cir- 
cumstances of his father and the character of his 
mother are totally unknown ; and such faint glim- 
merings of light as can be thrown upon his life and 
education must be derived ft-om general history and 
doubtful tradition.^ 
Haiicaruas- Halicamassus was a small Asiatic state, originally 
sus^its IS- ]3giQ^gij;^g ^Q Q^Q Hexapolis, or confederacy of six 
Dorian colonies, on the coast of Caria and the 
neighbouring islands.^ It never attained historical 
eminence, and shortly before the birth of Herodotus 
had forfeited its privilege as a member of the Hexa- 
polis, for having set the common laws of the con- 
federacy at defiance.* Subsequently the govern- 
ment of Halicamassus was united with that of the 
neighboming islands of Cos, Calydna, and Nysi- 
rus, under the dependent sceptre of the celebrated 
Artemisia, who so faithfully served the cause of 
Xerxes, and attracted the open admiration of the 
historian.^ Wliilst the Greeks were following up 
their brilliant successes by admitting the islands of 
the Aegean into their confederacy, the little Carian 

1 One fact has been brought forward by Dr. Dahlmann, to throw some 
light upon the period of Herodotus's travels. Herodotus saw in Aegypt 
the skulls of those who were slain by Inarus the Libyan (iii. 12). The 
war in which Inarus was engaged lasted six years, viz. from B. c. 462 to 
456. Now Herodotus was not likely to have entered Aegypt during this 
bloody period, and especially could not have reached Memphis, where 
the war raged for a considerable time. At the conclusion of the con- 
test he must have been about twenty-eight, and we may therefore sup- 
pose him to be in Aegypt in his thirtieth year. Life of Herod, ch. ii. § 2. 

2 For a more detailed account of the times of Herodotus, see Dahl- 
mann, life of Jferod. chap. i. § 3; also an excellent article on the 
Philosophy of Herodotus, in Blackwood's Mag. Jan. 1842. 

^ The Halicarnassians were colonists from the city of Troezene in 
Argolis (vii. 99). 
* i. 144. « vii. 99. 

B. C. 484—408. LIFE OF HEEODOTUS. 3" 

kingdom still adhered to Artemisia and her family, introd. 
and would not desert her son and successor, chap. i. 
Pisindelis, even when Cimon the Athenian was 
frightening the whole coast of Asia Minor by his 

Under this iDcacefal dependence on existing" insti- Herodotus 

X O I'GlllOVGS to 

tutions, the boy grew into a young man ; but having Tiiurium 
some time afterwards attracted the angry suspicions ^^ ^*^^^' 
of Lygdamis, the son and successor of Pisindelis, he 
escaped to the island of Samos. Here, according to 
Suidas, he became acquainted with the Ionic dialect 
and wrote his history, but the latter fact has been 
ably disproved by Dahlmann. '' Subsequently," 
says Suidas, " he returned to Halicarnassus and 
drove out the tyrant Lygdamis ; but afterwards, 
seeing that he was disliked by his fellow-citizens, he 
accompanied the Athenians, who were going out as 
settlers to Thurium, as a volunteer. Here also he 
died, and lies buried in the market-place." ' 

Herodotus was born about b. c. 484, as already Extent of 
mentioned. yHe sailed to Thurium about b. c. 443, 
when about forty years of age ; and he must have 
lived some time after b. c. 408,^ and perhaps have 
died about the age of eighty. His travels therefore 

1 Suidas also adds, that some say Herodotus died at Pella in Macedo- 
nia. A disquisition on this point however would be quite oat of place 
in the present work. With respect to Lucian's statement, that Herodotus 
when a young man recited his nine books before the assembled multi- 
tude at Olympia, the whole has been so triumphantly refuted by Dahl- 
mann that we may consider the matter as finally settled. The state- 
ment indeed would probably never have been received as authentic, 
were it not so gi'aceful and attractive, and above all so grateful to the 
feelings of every writer whether of poetry or prose. Few authors would 
not glow at the thought of being heard and appreciated by so vast an 

^ These three dates are thus obtained. First, Pamphila, a female 
writer, who in the time of the emperor Nero composed an historical work 
abounding in valuable information, mentions that Herodotus was ex- 
actly fifty- three years old at the commencement of the Peloponnesian 
war (b. c. 431) : hence the date of his birth, B. c. 484. Secondly, the 
colony sailed to Thurium twelve years before this war, i. e. B. c. 443. 
Thirdly, Herodotus himself says, (i. 130,) " The Medes, whom Cyrus 
made subject to the Persians, subsequently engaged in a rebellion, and 
withdrew themselves fi-om allegiance to Darius, but were conquered and 
again brought into subjection." This Darius was Darius Nothus, and 
this re-subjugation occurred, according to Xenophon, in the four and 
twentieth year of the Peloponnesian M^ar : that is, in b. c. 408. 

B 2 

4 LIFE OF HERODOTUS. B. C. 484—408. 

iNTROD. were most probably undertaken in the first half of 
CHAP. I. i^jg i{fQ^ r^j^d l^jg history written in his old age. The 
places which he visited may be nearly all distin- 
guished from those which he merely knew by hear- 
say. Greece, her cities and her islands, and espe- 
cially the scenes of her glorious victories over the 
Persian, were all explored by the ardent geographer. 
Xerxes' line of march ft'om the Hellespont to Athens, 
together with the maritime regions of Thrace and 
Scythia as far as the mouth of the Dnieper, (or Bo- 
rysthenes,) were all duly noted. He passed through 
Asia Minor, Phoenicia, and Syria, and reached the 
cities of Babylon and Susa ; he also spent consider- 
able time in Aegypt, and travelled southwards to 
Elephantine, and probably as far to the west as 
Cyrene. But no personal adventures are mentioned. 
His presence at this or that place is only incidentally 
alluded to by way of testimony, and though we may 
catalogue the places he visited,' yet it is impossible 
to follow in the order of his movements. 
His general It is difficult to asccrtaiu the extent of geogra- 
inormaion. ^j^^^^j^ knowlcdgc posscsscd by the Greeks when 
Herodotus commenced his researches, but it is evi- 
dent that he himself was but little acquainted with 
the discoveries of others. His knowledge of the 
universe was the result not of extensive reading, but 
of personal experience ; and indeed the scarcity of 
books prevented contemporary authors generally 
from taking advantage of each other's labours. Ac- 
cording to the standard of the age, however, He- 
rodotus was a highly educated man. Pie was 
thoroughly acquainted with the poems of Homer,^ 
and also cites the works of Hesiod,^ Aristeas,^ Ar- 
chilochus,^ Alcaeus," Sappho,^ Solon,* Aesop, '^ Simo- 
nides,'" Pindar,'^ Phrynicus,'^ and Aeschylus.'^ But 
Hccataeus '* is the only prose writer whom he quotes 
by name, and the most searching investigation can 

1 See Appendix I., on the Travels of Herodotus. 

2 Cf. Mure, Lang, cmd Lit. of Greece, Book iv. ch. iv, § 7- 

3 ii. 53, 117; iv. 32. ^ iv. 14. « i. 12. « v. 95. ^ ii. 135. 
8 v. 113. 3 ii. 134. '" v. 102; vii. 228. " iii. 38. '^ vi. 21. 
" ii. 1.56. " ii. 143; vi. 137. 

B. C. 484—408. LIFE OF HERODOTUS; 

iind but few traces of a familiarity with the works of inthod. 
other logog-raphers.' Especially it may be noticed '^"''''- '• 
that the voyages of Hanno and Hamilcar along the 
western coasts of Africa and Em^ope, were totally 
unknown to him, although apparently performed 
long before his time. 

It will be necessary to glance at the previous state Previous 
of geographical science. The greatest maritime ge^o|raphi- 
people of antiquity were the Phoenicians, but com- <=*! science. 
mercial jealousy induced them to conceal their dis- 
coveries.^ On the other hand, the Greeks, whose 
active curiosity and intellectual energy well fitted 
them to open all the recesses of unexplored nature, 
were as communicative as they were curious, and 
preferred literary fame to the profits of a sordid 
policy. The Homeric poems exhibit all the learning 
of the time. To use the weighty testimony of Strabo, 
Homer was the first who was well versed in geogra- 
phy. A short sketch of his notions of the universe 
and the extent of his knowledge may therefore be 
desirable and interesting. 

In the Homeric cosmography the earth is repre- Homer, his 

, T i;TP ^^.^•' ,. . ^ ■, notions of 

sented under the lorm oi an immense disc or circular the uni- 
plain, SLUTOunded on all sides by the river '' Ocean." ^b^c. 900. 
The solid vault of the firmament was composed of 
metal, and rested upon the circumference of this 
disc ; and beneath the disc was the corresponding 
vault of Tartarus ; whilst at the extremity of the 
ocean lay the Elysian plain, " where, under a serene 

^ Dahlman, ch. vi. 

^ An important question relative to the geographical knowledge pos- 
sessed by the Phoenicians has been mooted by the late Dr. Brehmer of 
Lubeck. That able scholar maintained that the geographical work of 
Ptolemy, together with the accompanying charts usually attributed to 
a certain Agathodaemon, who is said to have lived at Alexandria in the 
fifth century, were in reality derived from Phoenician or Tyrian sources. 
In other words, that Ptolemy, or, more properly speaking, his predecessor, 
Marinus of Tyre, who lived but a short time before him, and whose 
work he only coiTCcted, must have founded his geographical descriptions 
and maps on an ancient Tynan atlas, representing in several plates or 
tables the whole world as known to the Tyrians. The chief arguments 
of Dr. Brehmer may be found in Appendix XII., "On the sources of 
Ptolemy's Geogi-aphy," in Heeren's Asiat. Nations, vol. ii. Professor 
Heeren has to some extent replied to them, though not always con- 



B. C. 484—408. 



Extent of 
his geogi-a- 

sky, the favourites of Jove, exempt from tlie common 
lot of mortals, enjoyed eternal felicity." Under the 
vault of the firmament rolled the sun and stars in 
chariots borne by the clouds : down in the vault of 
Tartarus were the abodes of the dead or caverns of 
Hades, and the residence of the Titans, the enemies 
of the gods, all alike impenetrable to the breath of 
the gale or the light of heaven. One great difficulty 
had to be overcome by an extravagant invention. 
The sun appeared to rise from the eastern ocean, and 
after performing his journey through the firmament 
seemed to sink in the western waves. Accordingly 
it was supposed that, on descending in the west, he 
was received in a vessel of gold, fabricated by He- 
phaestus, which conveyed him rapidly by the north 
towards the east in time to re-commence his daily 
jom-ney. The sea divided the terrestrial disc into 
two portions. The northern continent was after- 
wards named Europe ; the southern was called Asia, 
but subsequently divided into Asia and Libya. The 
Greeks probably considered Greece as sitiiated near 
the centre of the disc ; but Homer has not disclosed 
to us whether he himself believed this theory. 

The real geographical knowledge of the Greeks 
in the time of Homer may be fairly stated as not ex- 
tending beyond Greece, Aegypt, Asia Minor, and 
the islands.^ The regions east and south of these 
limits were clouded by legend ; those on the north 
and west were the pm-e creations of fancy. We may 
regard those regions as legendary which were known 
by the dim light of old traditions, handed down 

1 In Greece the poet knew the names of all the various states, and of 
Crete, Cyprus, and the isles of the Aegean. He was partiallyacquainted 
with Macedonia, and had some knowledge of Thrace, including the na- 
tions of the Mysi and Cicones. We even read of a Scythian nation, the 
Hippomolgi, who Hvcd on milk and were the most just of mankind. In 
Asia Minor he knew the Trojans, Maeones, and Carians, on the western 
coast ; the I^ycians and Solymi on the south ; the Phrygians in the in- 
terior ; the Caucones, Knetae, and Paphlagonians, on the north ; and 
the Halizonians, Amazones, aiul Arimi or Arimaei on the cast. He also 
knew Phoenicia, with the Sidonians and their chief town Sidon, and 
Aegy]>t as far as Tliebcs. Tlic Nile he calls the river Aegyptus, and 
makes Pharos one day's sail from its mouth ; but he neitherknew that 
the Mediterranean and Red Seas were separated by the isthmus of 
Suez, nor that the Nile fell into the sea through seven channels. 

B. C. 484—408. LIFE OF HERODOTUS. 7 

from father to son, of the ancient migrations of the introd. 
Hellenic race from the lands of the rising smi. *^"^^- ^• 
Wliether the Hellenes really came from the Punjab 
and Himalayas to the shores of the Red Sea, and 
thence through Aethiopia and Aegypt to the territo- 
ries of the Pelasgi, is a question which cannot be 
discussed here. Homer however was certainly aware 
of the existence of black men, at the eastern ex- 
tremity of the earth, for he says, Neptune visited 
the Aethiopians, ''the farthest of men, who are di- 
vided into two, some under the rising and some un- 
der the setting sun." He also mentions the Erembi, 
or Arabs, and the Lotophagi, or lotus-eaters, and 
Pygmaei, or dwarfs, of Libya. The regions to the 
westward stood in a very different relation. Greece 
was nearly on the western verge of the world as it 
was known to Homer, and the stream of mankind 
was constantly flowing in a westerly direction. 
Therefore the weak reflux of positive information 
from that quarter exhibited little more than the 
impulses of hope and superstition, and the straits 
which separate Italy and Sicily are the portals 
which conducted Homer to the realms of fancy. ^ 

Hesiod, lilce Homer, represents the river Ocean as Hesiod. 
surrounding the earth. He describes Atlas as sup- 
porting the vault of heaven, and alludes to the Ely- 
sian plain as the islands of the blessed. His ac- 

' Of Sicily, or Thrinacia, as he calls it, Homer had some faint know- 
ledge; the names of the Sicani and Siculi had reached him, and the 
account of the Cyclops is too true a picture of savage hfe to allow us to 
suppose it a mere sketch of fancy. From Sicily, Ulysses pi-oceeded to the 
isles of Aeolus, where he obtained a bag containing the winds, but on 
the tenth day afterwards, when Ithaca was aheady in sight, his com- 
panions cut the bag, and a hurricane drove the ship back to the isles of 
Aeolus. Ulysses next reached the country of the Laestrygones, a race of 
cannibals ; and it is historically important to observe that Homer places 
these fairly in the region of the miraculous. He next arrives at Aeaea, 
the island of Circe, from which he appears to lose sight altogether of the 
land of certainty. The hero, receiving the instructions of Circe, crosses 
the ocean to the shores of Proserpine. Sailing the whole day, he comes 
at last to the ends of the ocean, where the Cimmerians dwell, wrapped 
in profound gloom. Having here visited the infernal regions, he re-em- 
barks, quits the ocean, and reaches the isle of Circe ; and in his voyage 
homewards, he passes the Planetae or wandering rocks, escapes the 
Sirens with the dangers of Scylla and Charybdis, and thus returns once 
more within the circle of probability. 



B. C. 484—408, 



B. c. 500. 


Scylax of 

of Miletus. 

quaintance with the west was more extended ; and 
in particular he mentions the Ligurians, who at that 
time probably occupied the whole southern coasts of 
Em^ope beyond Italy and as far as Spain. He no- 
tices the island Erytheia at the influx of the ocean 
into the Mediterranean, and gives to the Nile, which 
Homer calls the Aegyptus, its proper designation. 

In the succeeding age are to be found the same 
general views. The circumfluent ocean appears in 
Aeschylus. In the south we find a black nation, and 
a river called the Aethiops, which may perhaps 
answer to the Niger. Northward we get as far as 
the Cimmerians of the Crimea ; and far above them, 
the Arimaspi, the Griffins, and the Gorgons fill up 
the back-ground of the pictm^e. Pindar about the 
same time shows us that Sicily and the neighbour- 
ing coasts of Italy were known and civilized. He 
represents Aetna as a volcano, and names the Pillars 
of Heracles at the entrance to the Mediterranean,, 
and the Hyperboreans in the distant north. 

The works of these authors, as we have already 
seen, were known to Herodotus. He was also ac- 
quainted with the survey of the river Indus conduct- 
ed by Scylax of Caryanda at the command of Da- 
rius ; ^ together with the works of a few minor 
writers, of which nothing has been preserved beyond 
a few fragments. 

The most celebrated geographer, however, who 
preceded Herodotus was Hecataeus of Miletus. Our 
author frequently corrects his statements, and by so 
doing recognises him as the most important of his 
predecessors. Hecataeus wrote '' Travels round the 
Earth," by which a description of the Mediterranean 
Sea, and of southern Asia as far as India, was under- 
stood. He also improved and completed the map of 
the earth sketclied by Anaximander ; ^ and it was 

^ iv. 44. See also the account of the river Indus in the body of the 
present vohame. 

^ Anaximander was also a native of Miletus, and wrote his little work, 
" upon nature," in B. c. .547, when he was (54 years old, which may be 
said to be the earliest philosophical work in the Greek language. He 
possessed a gnomon, or sun dial, which he had doubtless obtained from 

B. C. 481—408. LIFE OF HERODOTUS. 9 

probably this map which Aristagoras carried to introd. 
Sparta before the Ionian revolt, and upon which he ^hap^ 
showed king Cleonaenes the countries, rivers, and 
royal stations along the great highway between 
Sardis and Susa.^ The various points in which the 
geography of Hecataeus ^ conies in contact with that 
of Herodotus will be found further discussed in the 
body of the work.^ 

Such then was the state of geograj^hical know- orphnJ^o-^ 
ledge prior to the time of Herodotus. The theories pherspassed 
and conjectures of philosophers were but scarcely rodotus. 
noticed by a traveller who based all his notions and 
opinions upon personal experience and observation. 
Herodotus wrote for the great body of the people, 
and not for the schools, and it is this fact, probably, 

Babylon, and made observations at Sparta, by which he determined ex- 
actly the solstices and equinoxes, and calculated the obliquity of the 
ecliptic. According to Eratosthenes, he was the first who attempted to 
draw a map, in which his object probably was rather to make a mathe- 
matical division of the whole earth, than to lay down the forms of the 
different countries composing it. Miiller, Lit. of Greece. 

1 V. 49. 

2 A map of the extent of the geographical knowledge possessed by 
Hecataeus is inserted by Klausen in his edition of the fragments of He- 
cataeus, and copied with some modifications by Mure in the 4th vol. of 
his Lan. and Lit. of Ancient Greece. It however contains exceedingly few 
historical names, and scarcely anything that will illustrate the geogi-aphy 
of Herodotus. 

3 Herodotus frequently shows himself inclined to quarrel with Heca- 
taeus. He sneers at his genealogy of sixteen ancestors, of which the 
sixteenth was a god (ii. 143) ; at his describing the earth " round as if 
from a turner's lathe " (iv. 36) ; at his making the Nile to flow from the 
river Ocean (ii. 23), and the latter to flow round the earth (iv. 36) ; and 
also quaintly jests with his predecessor's account of the Hyperboreans 
(Ibid.), and of the man who carried an arrow round the earth, without 
eating. On the other hand, Herodotus represents the political character 
of Hecataeus in a very favourable light, as a sagacious councillor, an honest 
patriot, and a man of action, especially free ft'om the superstitions of the 
age. In the council convened by Aristagoras to concert measures for 
the Ionian revolt, Hecataeus alone discountenanced the project on the 
very simple ground of the overwhelming power of the Persian empire 
(v. 36). Finding his remonstrances useless, he proposed to seize the trea- 
sures in the temple of Apollo at Branchidae as the best means of replen- 
ishing the military chest. This proposal was also rejected. Subse- 
quently he advised Aristagoras to fortify the isle of Leros as a central 
military and naval station, but this also was overi-uled. An inscription 
however has been recently discovered in the island, by which Hecataeus, 
whether the historian or some of his descendants, is specially honoured 
as a founder or benefactor by the Lerians. Cf. Mure, Lan. and Lit. of 
Anc. Greece, Book iv. ch. iii. § 2. 



B. C. 484-408. 


Review of 
his old ase. 

which gave rise to the story of his reciting his his- 
tory at Olympia. Unlike Thales and his successors, 
he made no effort to discover the origin and princi- 
ple of the universe, and even his inquiries respect- 
ing the causes and varieties of climate are charac- 
terized by the most childlike simplicity, which must 
even have appeared ridiculous in the eyes of his more 
scientific contemporaries. In short, he evidently 
indulged in no such experiments or laborious 
investigations into the inner secrets of nature, as 
we may suppose to have been carried out by the 
Chaldees of Babylon, or Rabbinical sages of the 
Jewish schools, but contented himself with the most 
superficial glances at the external world around him. 
These however belong to the next chapter. 

At last we contemplate Herodotus in falness of 
years and all his labours completed, settled in calm 
retirement in Thurium on the Gulf of Tarentum. 
He was doubtless held in the highest respect by all 
the citizens, as one of the fathers of the colony. 
Here he had worked up his collected materials, and 
some of the illustrations of his descriptions are bor- 
rowed from the neighbouring localities.^ His life 
extended considerably into the Peloponnesian war, 
and the old man must have seen his father-land ex- 
hausting itself in internal quarrels. But the records 
of these find no place in his history. The glorious 
events of his early youth, and the marvellous results 
of his travels, filled his capacious memory, and alone 
occupied his attention. His eye could follow the 
sun in its daily course from the far east to the le- 
gendary west, and even in its supposed winter pro- 
gress over the arid sands of Aethiopia. At the same 
time the mysterious and distant nations upon which 
it shone, — the steppes of Scythia, the table-lands of 
Asia, the oases of Africa, the Caspian and Euxine 
Seas, and all the vast territories between the Nile 
and the Tanais, the Indus and the Pillars of Hera- 
cles, — all passed before his mental vision like a map 
of wonders, a map of old memories and youthful 

' iv. 15, 99. 

B.C. 484-408. LIFE OF HERODOTUS. 11 

enterprise. Here then we might pause for a mo- introd. 
ment, and imagine ourselves sitting at the feet of •^«^^- ^• 
the lively traveller and impressive moralist ; and in 
this happy mood will we endeavour to appreciate, as 
far as in us lies, the immortal encyclopaedia of the 
wise old Thurian. 





The winds 
as funda- 
powers of 

The winds considered as fundamental powers of nature. — Regarded 
as peculiar properties of the soil. — Heat and cold at different periods of 
the day referred to the sun. — General simplicity of Herodotus's ideas. — 
Early attempts to describe the earth's circumference. — Opinions of He- 
rodotus upon the subject. — Extent of his knowledge. — Divisions of the 
earth. — Separation of Europe and Asia. — Separation of Asia and Libya. 
— Seas bounding the earth's extremities. — Mediterranean. — Atlantic. — 
Erythraean. — Voyages of Sesostris and Sataspes. 

Heeodotus considered the fandamental powers of 
nature to lie in tlie winds, wliicli blew from different 
quarters. The earth and the heaven above it fall 
into two divisions, which are ruled by two great 
counter-forces, heat and cold, the fierce Boreas and the 
voluptuous Notes. ^ It was not any distance from the 
sun, but the north and easterly winds, which radi- 
ated cold and frost. On the other hand, it was the 
south wind from Aethiopia, and not at all the sun, 
which radiated heat. The north winds were the 
most important and powerfal. In the winter they 
were called the Borean, in the summer the Etesian.^ 
They decided the ecliptic. During the summer the 
sun stood in the centre of the heavens. As winter 
approached it was driven into the south by the blasts 
of Boreas ; and there it remained until the mild 
Etesian winds of returning summer again permitted 
it to resume its central position. The southern half 
of the world was thus especially favoured, for the 
sun was never driven into the northern or uj)per 
division. During the mild season of summer, and 
whilst the sun occupied the centre of the heavens, it 
drew uj) the water from the various rivers, and bore 
it away in its wintry journey into the south. Here 

' ii. 26. Cf. 24, 25. 

2 vi. 140; vii. 16S. 


the winds caught up the water and scattered it in introd. 
mist ; hence the south and south-west winds brought '^"^^- ^- 
the most rain. Herodotus brings forward this attrac- 
tive power of the sun, as an explanation of the phe- 
nomenon of the swelling of the Nile ; and he thinks 
that the Ister (or Danube) would overflow its banks 
in a similar manner if the sun ever ascended into the 
northern division.^ 

It must be here remarked, that whilst Herodo- Regarded as 
tus considered severity or mildness of climate to be properties 
dependent upon the winds, he also regarded them of^^^^^t^es. 
as peculiar properties of countries, in the same way 
as fertility or barrenness of soil. He had observed 
the very different temperatures of countries under 
the same latitude, and therefore said that Scythia 
was cold, because cold winds prevailed there which 
engendered frost and snow, and this because the 
northern blasts of Boreas invariably brought frost 
into Greece, wdiilst the south wind dissolved it.^ He 
also says that Greece was supremely blessed because 
of the happy temperature of her climate, a fortunate 
mingling of the cold blasts of Boreas with the warm 
breath of the too voluptuous Notes. ^ 

But notwithstanding this theory, Herodotus was Heat and 
shrewd enough to ascribe the warmth or coldness of ferent peri- 
different times of the day to the direct heat of the "^^y referred 
sun. Amongst the Indians in the far east the morn- to the sun. 
ing was the hottest, because they dwelt the nearest 
to the place where the sun rose. Accordingly at 
sunrise they were obliged to stand in water on ac- 
count of the excessive heat, but as the orb of day 
moved towards the west, the heat gradually dimin- 
ished, until at length the night approached with a 
corresponding coldness."^ It is here curious to ob- 
serve how our author has evidently built his no- 
tions upon some vague accounts which may have 
reached him of the manners and habits of the na- 
tions beyond the Indus, ^ the morning lustrations in 

^ ii. 24 — 27. Comp. chapter on Aegypt. 

2 iv. 28. 3 iii. 106. Cf. Bobrik, Geoyraphie des Herodot. * iii. 104. 
* These accounts were probably the result of the expedition to survey 
the Indus undertaken by Scylax of Caryanda (iv. 44). 


iNTROD. the rivers, and the custom of travelling by night, 
CHAP. II. mingled possibly with some genuine information re- 
ceived from the inhabitants of the coast, where the 
heat is most intense fr'om sunrise in the morning 
until the forenoon, when the sea-breezes set in. 
General Indccd tlio Origin of om- author's scientific opin- 

He£dotus°I ions would generally be sooner discovered and un- 
ideas. derstood by a child, for they lie on the very surface 

of things. They were the results of the first popular 
efibrt to trace the simple operations of nature to a 
natm^al cause, rather than to the direct interposition 
of diflferent deities.^ And we may close these re- 
marks by observing, that whilst Herodotus mentions 
solar eclipses,^ he carefrilly avoids attempting any 
explanation, partly perhaps from a total want of 
scientific data, and partly from a disinclination to 
follow the vulgar and superstitious ideas which 
must have been generally prevalent down to a much 
later period.^ 
Early at- With rcspcct to tlic circumfercnce and figure of 

deTcnbe the the cartli, we have already seen that long before the 
cumference. '^^6 of Horodotus many Greeks had endeavoured to 
determine both within a very moderate compass. 
As knowledge advanced these limits gave way, and 
Herodotus amuses himself at the folly of those who 
still professed to assign a definite circmnference, 
vrithout any knowledge whatever of the frontiers. 
''I must laugh," he says, "when I see how many 
persons have drawn the entire circle of the earth, 
without either sense or understanding. They de- 
scribe the Ocean as flowing round the earth, which 
is made circular as if by a turner's lathe, and they 
represent Asia as equal with Em^ope."^ . . . . " The 
Greeks on the Pontus say that the river Ocean be- 
gins at the place where the sun rises, and that it 
flows round the whole earth, but they do not prove 
it."^ . . . . " The person (Hccataeus) who speaks 

I vii. 129, 191. 2 vii. 37; ix. 10. 

' It is almost unnecessary to draw the reader's attention to the lunar 
eclipse which frightened Nicias in Sicily. Thucyd. vii. 50. 
< iv, 36. 5 iv. 8. Comp. ii. 21. 


about tlie Ocean, since he has referred his account introd. 
to some obscure fable, produces no conviction. I '^"^'•- "• 
know of no such river at alL Homer, perhaps, or 
some of the earlier poets, finding the name, intro- 
duced it into poetry." ^ 

Herodotus doubtless considered the earth as a ^Sotuf 
plane, and we shall find as we proceed to develope on the sub- 
his stock of geographical knowledge, that he knew •'*''^*' 
enough of the form of the south at least to under- 
stand that its outline presented no segment of a 
circle towards the vast continent of waters which he 
calls the Erythraean Sea. But though he rails at 
the ignorance of those who endeavoured to describe 
the earth's external boundaries, yet we may regard 
his objections merely as so many sarcasms against 
his predecessor Hecataeus ; and probably also at 
the popular notion of drawing the earth as round as 
a chariot-wheel, and in no other way. Niebuhr, how- 
ever, deduces from his railing, and from his ignor- 
ance of any sea towards the north, ^ that he con- 
sidered the earth as a boundless plain. But it must 
be remembered that, in another place, ^ Herodotus 
relates, without any remark whatever, that when 
Aristogoras proceeded to Sparta for assistance in 
carrying out the Ionian revolt, he took with him a 
brazen tablet upon which was engraved a map of 
the "entire circuit of the world," with all its seas and 
rivers. Herodotus also adopted the obscure popular 
belief that the earth was bounded by the ether of 
Zeus ; * though this last remark may be understood 
as a mere expression of the Persian ideas upon the 

The limits of the world of Herodotus may be thus §f ^^o,"! 
briefly stated. The Erythraean^ formed the southern ledge. 
boundary, and the Atlantic the western.^ Of north 
and north-western Europe, beginning at the Pillars 
of Heracles, (or Gibraltar,) he knew nothing : he did 
not admit that a river called Eridanus discharged 

^ ii. 23. ^ iv. 45. Niebuhr, Diss, on the Geog. of Herod. 

3 V. 49. * vii. 8. 

5 The Erythraean included the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Arabian 
Gulf or Red Sea, and probably the Atlantic. ^ i. 202. 


iNTROD. itself into a northern sea/ thougli he may have sup- 
CHAP. II. posed a northern shore to be washed by the mysteri- 
ous billows of an unknown ocean, for he says on the 
authority of Aristeas, that the Hyperboreans reached 
•to the sea ; ^ subsequently, however, he almost denies 
their existence.^ On the north-east the impassable 
mountains of the Altai range,* and the gold-guard- 
ing griffins, prevented his obtaining more than 
fabled accounts of the cold and dreary regions of 
Siberia ; and lower down along the eastern frontier, 
the great sandy desert^ of Gobi or Shamo, in Chinese 
Tartary, and the desert east of the Indus, stretch- 
ing from Moultan to Gruzerat, bafEed all further in- 
vestigation. Thus the world of Herodotus was 
bounded on three sides by sea and on the foiu-th by 
S^JtS °^ '^^^ divisions of the earth seem also to have at- 
tracted the attention of philosophers at a very early 
period. The Persians, in the true oriental spirit of 
uninquiring indolence,'' looked upon Africa as a 
part of the body of Asia which belonged to them, 
and upon Euroj)e as a portion intended for them, 
but in which the Greeks were pleased to play the 
master.^ The Greeks, on the other hand, divided the 
earth into three portions, called after the names of 
three females, viz. 1. Eueope, from Europa of Tyre. 
2. Asia, from Asia the wife of Prometheus. 3. 
Libya, from a native woman of that name. This 
division appears very capricious to Herodotus. " He 
cannot reconcile it with the natural oneness of the 
earth ; he cannot see why some should have assigned 
the Aegyptian river Nile as a line of separation be- 
tween Asia and Libya, and the Colchian river 
Phasis, (or Rhion,) or, as some said,^ the Tanais, (or 
Don,) and the Cimmerian Bosphorus, as a line of 
separation between Europe and Asia. He also 

1 iii. 115. 2 iv. 13. 3 iv, 32. 4 j^. 25. « iii. 98, 102. 

" Dahlmann, Life of Herod, ch. v. § 1. '' i. 4; vii. 8. 

* Asia is divided from Europe hy the Tanais, says Strabo, Pliny, and 
Diodorus. Africa is contained between the Nile and the Pillars of He- 
racles ; Asia between the Nile and Tanais, says Polybius. See Pliny, 
lib. iv. c. 12; Diod. lib. i. c. 4 ; Polyb. lib. iii. c. 4, quoted by Rennell. 


cavils at the arbitrary names of these three conti- introd 
nents. He says that, according to the Lydians, Asia chap. h. 
was called after Asins ; hence a tribe in Sardis was ^ 

called the Asian tribe. Also that Europa of Tyre 
never entered Europe at all, but only passed from 
Phoenicia to Crete and Lycia. He would indeed 
have been better pleased with the twofold division, 
after the Persian fashion, into Europe and Asia ; 
but he contented himself with bringing forward 
these objections, and then following the common 
usage of the Greeks by adopting the three names of 
Europe, Asia, and Libya.* 

The line of separation, however, between the separation 
three continents occasioned another d.ifficulty. The anf A^iaf 
Grreeks, as we have already mentioned, were divided 
in opinion as to whether the Phasis, (or Rhion,) or 
the Tanais, (or Don,) was the proper separation be- 
tween Europe and Asia. Herodotus extended 
Europe eastward to the utmost bounds of his know- 
ledge, and therefore made the river Phasis, (or 
Rhion,)^ which runs between the Euxine and the 
Caspian, the line of division, and probably con- 
tinued it by an imaginary line, eastward of the 
Caspian, along the river Araxes,^ thus placing Asia 
on the south instead of on the east of Europe. In 
the geographical arrangement of the present day, the 
boundary line between the two continents is formed 
by the range of Mount Caucasus, which may be re- 
garded as almost the same as the course of the 
Phasis, but then, instead of going eastward, the line 
runs towards the north along the Ural mountains 
and course of the river Ural.* The Europe of Hero- 

1 iv.45 ; Dahlmann, Life of Herod, v. 1. ^ iv. 37, 3S. 

^ iv. 40. This was the eastern Araxes, or the Jaxartes, the modern 
Sirr-deria. The difficulty respecting this river is explained in another 
place. See Index, Araxes. 

* Believing themselves to be permanently separated by the sea, the 
European naturally included in his Europe, and the Asiatic in his Asia, 
the discoveries made by each along the northern and southern shore of 
the Euxine ; till in their progress, they met on the banks of the Phasis 
and Araxes, which thence became the first arbitrarily assumed line of 
demarcation. Even in the time of Herodotus, however, this division was 
growing uncertain, and a line formed by the Cimmerian Bosphorus, the 
Palus Maeotis, and the Tanais was superseding it. This line was sub- 






of Asia and 

dotus therefore included the whole of Russia in Asia 
and a large portion of Independent Tartary or 

In dividing Asia from the continent of Libya/ the 
great difficulty lay in the fact that the Greeks were 
ignorant of the real size and extent of the Arabian 
Gulf, which we call the E-ed Sea. Herodotus himself 
was apparently only acquainted with the western 
arm, which we call the Gulf of Suez, and therefore 
supposed that the whole sea was equally narrow, 
and only half a day's sail across. Of the outlet into 
the Persian Gulf through the Straits of Babel-mandeb 
he could have had but the vaguest notion, and he 
regarded the eastern coast of Africa, between the 
Nile valley and the Red Sea, as belonging to Arabia. 
Accordingly the Greeks took the river Nile as the 
line of separation, and generally agreed in divid- 
ing Aegypt into two j)arts, of which the eastern be- 
longed to the Asiatic continent, and the western to 
the Libyan. The Ionian geographers however en- 
tertained the opinion that the Delta alone comprised 
Aegypt Proper, and that all south, of Cercasorus 
where the Nile divides, belonged partly to Arabia 
and partly to Libya. But Herodotus rejected this 
division, and considered that the frontier of Aegypt 
formed the boundary between the two continents, 
though he does not say whether he meant that on 
the eastern or that on the western side.^ At the 
same time he jested at the theory of the lonians, who 
assigned to a people as ancient as the Aegyptians, a 
country with an alluvial soil, which could only have 

sequently universally adopted as the eastern limit of Europe. Little or 
nothing was known of this region during the middle ages, and when the 
arms of Russia laid it open to observation, the winding course of the 
Don, (or Tanais,) with which the ancients were imperfectly acquainted, 
betrayed the geographers of the last century into an inextricable laby- 
rinth of contradictions and absurdities. At length the academy of St, 
Petersburg fixed the present boundary. Comp. MacCulloch, Geog. 

' Libya was a name sometimes applied by Herodotus to western 
Africa, and sometimes to the entire continent. See Libya. 

'^ See also the introduction to the geogi-aphy of Libya. 


been brought into existence within a comparatively introd. 
recent 23erio(i.' ^"-'^^- "• 

Herodotus thus, after many demurs, adopted the " 
threefold division of the earth, viz. 1. Europe, 
divided from Asia by the river Phasis (or Rhion). 
2. Asia, separated from Libya by the frontier of 
Aegypt. 3. Libya. He thus makes Em-ope as large, 
if not larger, than all that was known to him of Asia 
and Libya put together.^ 

The various seas navigated by the Greeks Hero- seasbound- 
dotus describes as far as he is able ; ^ but of those vast "afth's ex- 
waters which washed the west and southern coasts of tremities. 
the ancient world, he could know nothing beyond 
wild traditions, which he cared not to repeat. He 
passes over with a dignified silence worthy of the 
historic muse, the fabled isles of Aeolus or of Circe, 
the Elysian plain, or ever-receding Hesperides, and 
he contents himself with the barest possible mention 
of names. The Mediterranean he frequently men- Meditena- 
tions as 'Hhis sea " — v^^ y edXacxcra^^ but gives no fur- '^^'''^' 
ther account of it whatever ; for the ancient Phoeni- 
cian merchants, and others, who must have explored 
the whole length of the sea in their voyages to 
Gades and Tartessus, were induced by commercial 
jealousy to conceal their discoveries. The Atlantic Atlantic. 
he also mentions as being the same sea as the Eryth- 
raean, or at any rate connected with it. Under 
the name of the Erythraean or Red Sea, he com- Erythraean 
prises the whole expanse of waters between Arabia 
and Africa on the west, and India on the east, in- 
cluding the two great gulfs of Arabia and Persia.^ 
The rocks of porphyry on the Aegyptian side of the 
Arabian Gulf supplied a natm-al cause for this appel- 
lation, throwing out their red colour far into the 
sea ; and the Persians to this day retain the anti- 
thesis by calling the Mediterranean the White Sea. 
There may also be some connexion between the name 
of Erythraean and that of Edom, which signifies 

1 ii. 17; iv. 41. 2 Comp. iv. 42. ^ See Europe, chap. i. 

* iv. 41. 5 i. 202. 

c 2 


iNTROD. " red," and was applied by tlie Jews to the coim- 
CHAP. II. try bordering on the north of the Arabian Gulf. " And 
Solomon made a navy of ships ... on the shore of 
the Red Sea, in the land of Edom." ^ 
Voyages of In conclusion we may just mention, that, accord- 
iatasper'^'^ iug to the Aogyj^tian priests, Sesostris was the first 
who set out with a naval armament from the Arabian 
Gulf, and conquered the nations on the coast of the 
Erythraean ; but he is said to have been subsequently 
stopped by shallows and obliged to retm-n.^ The 
Carthaginians also relate that Sataspes, being order- 
ed by Xerxes, as a punishment, to circumnavigate 
Libya, sailed through the Pillars of Heracles, and 
doubled the Libyan cape Soloeis, but his ship was 
also stopped and he was compelled to return.^ 

1 1 Kings ix. 26, quoted by Major Rennell. ^ [{ io2. 

3 iv. 43. 




Extent of Herodotus's knowledge. — Western Europe. — Region north 
of the upper course of the Ister. — -Region north of the lower course of 
the Ister. — Caravan route over the Ural. — Nations on the frontier to- 
wards Asia. — Nations south of the lower course of the Ister. — Seas of 
Europe. — Pontus Euxinus. — Palus Maeotis (Maeetis). — Propontis, — Cas- 
pian. — Adriatic. — Ionian. 

The geography of tliat vast territory which He- Europe. 
rodotus included under the name of Europe, is only chap. i. 
partially described or briefly noticed in his history. ^^^^7of~ 
The Alpine mountains, which encompass Italy and Herodotus's 
the Adriaticin a semicircular bulwark, were unknown ^°''^ ^^'°'^' 
to him, as were also the Apennines, which run off 
through the entire length of the Italian peninsula. 
At the eastern extremity of the Alps, however, com- 
mences the Balkan chain, which extends eastward 
from the head of the Adriatic to the shore of the 
Euxine, and is clearly alluded to under the names 
of Haemus and Rhodope.^ Towards the south the 
Balkan fills part of Thrace, and also Macedonia 
and Greece, with its numerous ramifications. North- 
wards of the Balkan Herodotus describes the Ister 
or Danube, as traversing nearly all Europe from 
west to east, and separating Thrace from Scythia ; 
whilst still farther to the north and east are the 
rivers of Scythia and mountains of the Ural and 
Altai, which all find a place in the geography of 
our author. 

1 iv.49. 






The mapping out of tliis continent into tracts or 
countries is a task which properly belongs to the fol- 
lowing chapters, but for the sake of clearness it will 
be advisable to take here a general survey of the 

Of western Europe it is apparent that our author's 
knowledge was exceedingly limited, and the region 
is only mentioned in one or two passing observa- 
tions. In the extreme west, on the coasts of Portu- 
gal, were the Cynetae. Along the northern coasts 
of Spain and France were the Celtae ; ^ and along 
the southern coasts were the Iberians.^ The rocks 
of Gibraltar and Ceuta were called the Pillars of 
Heracles. Westward of them was the rich port of 
Tartessus at the mouth of the Guadalquiver, and 
also the islands of Erytheia and Gadeira.^ Along 
the southern coasts of France and Sardinia were the 
Elisyci^ and the Ligyes,^ and the Italian peninsula 
was occupied by the Ombrici and Messapians. 

From the Celtae rose the river Ister or Danube, 
which flowed along in an easterly course to the Eux- 
ister^°^*^^ ine,^ and thus cut Europe into two divisions. North- 
ward of its upper course, the country was unknown, 
and a single nation only is mentioned, namely, the 
chariot-driving Sigynnes, who declared themselves 
to be a Medic colony.^ From the river Eridanus 
Herodotus had heard that amber was imported, but 
he says that the very name of this river is Greek, 
and not barbarian, and it must therefore be the in- 
vention of some poet.^ Of the sea-coast beyond 
he could learn nothing from eye-witnesses, but only 
from poetry and hearsay.^ Of the islands called 
Cassiterides,^'' (British Isles,) from whence the Greeks 

north of the 


iv. 8, 152. 


1 ii. 33. 

« vii. 165. 6 ii. 33. ^ v. 9. 

** The name of Eridanus was subsequently applied by the Greeks to 
the river Po, but Herodotus had evidently heard of some river of North- 
ern Europe. It is idle to attempt to identify this Eridanus of our author. 
Amber is now found in the greatest quantity at the mouths of the Oder 
and Vistula. 

'■> iv. 1.3. 

'" The tin country here alluded to was evidently Cornwall. Had the 
Phoenicians, who carried on the trade, been more communicative, we 


obtained their tin, he candidly assures us he knew Europe. 
nothing at all." chap. i. 

Northward of the lower course of the Ister was ~. 
Scythia, and the bordering nations of the Agathyrsi, north of the 
Neuri, Androphagi, Melanchlaeni, Sauromatae, Bu- ofXeTster! 
dini, and Greloni, all of which together occupied the 
region eastward of the Theiss, and stretched beyond 
the Tanais or Don. In the centre of the Scythian 
sea-coast, at the mouth of the river Borysthenes, or 
Dnieper, was the Greek port of Olbia, near the site of 
the modern Cherson.^ From Olbia a caravan route Caravan 
led northward into the interior, and then eastward, the urar 
over the Ural chain to the feet of the Altai moun- 
tains. The nations traversed by this route are de- 
scribed by Herodotus, who apparently obtained his 
information from travellers who had performed the 
journey. Beyond these regions were the gold-find- 
ing griffins, the one-eyed Arimaspi, the men with 
goat's feet, and those who slept for six months at a 
time, of whom Herodotus had heard some traditions, 
or rather caravan stories, which seem to the modern 
geographer to refer to Tartary and Siberia. 

The frontiers of Europe in this direction were Nations on 
formed by the river Araxes or Jaxartes, (now named JowSi?'^' 
the Sirr-deria,) the Caspian Sea, the river Phasis '^*'^- 
or Rhion, and the Euxine ; accordingly the continent 
included the Massagetae of the Khirgis steppe and 
the nations of Mount Caucasus. 

Returning to the Ister and crossing to the south- Nations. 
ern bank, we find the nations of Thrace, Illyria, lowercom-se 
Macedonia, and Greece. This is the most important °^ ^'^ ^^*"' 
region in the historical geography of Europe. Thrace 
is cut in two by the Haemus, or Balkan range, which 
runs from east to west. From the centre of this 
range a large branch runs towards the south under 
the name of Pindus, and throws out arms on every 
side, until at length it loses itself among the ramifi- 

should doubtless have had some peculiarly interesting account of the 
ancient inhabitants of our island. 

I iii. 115. 

^ For further account with references, see Europe, chap. viii. 



Seas of 

EUROPE, cations of Greece. The stem of Pindus thus cut off 
CHAP. I. the Illyrian tribes on the west from Thrace and 
" Macedonia on the east, whilst the two latter nations 
were separated from each other by an arm which 
Herodotus calls Moimt Dysorum. Lower down 
a second arm of Pindus, kno^ai as the Cambunian 
range, but called Mount Olympus by Herodotus, 
formed the northern barrier of Greece ; and beyond 
this point minor arms spread through the Greek 
peninsula, sej)arating it into the various nations, 
which we shall find necessary to survey at consider- 
able length in a separate chapter. 

Of the seas which Herodotus considered as be- 
longing to Europe, he describes the Pontus Euxinus, 
the Palus Maeotis, the Propontis, (with the Bospho- 
rus and Hellespont,) the Caspian, the Adriatic, and 
the Ionian ; and of these he himself measured the 
extent of the Pontus, the Propontis, the Bosphorus, 
and the Hellespont. 

The Pontus Euxinus (or Black Sea) is a sea worthy 
to behold, and of all seas the most wonderfully 
formed. Its extreme length, from its mouth at the 
Bosphorus to the river Phasis, (or Phion,) is 11,100 
stadia ; and its breadth, in the widest part, from Sin- 
dica to Themiscyra on the river Thermodon, is 3300 
stadia. The former is a sail of nine days and eight 
nights ; and the latter a sail of three days and two 
nights. A day's sail is reckoned at 70,000 orgyae, 
and the night's sail at 60,000 orgyae.^ 

The Palus Maeotis (or Sea of Azoff) flows into 
the Euxine, and is sometimes called the mother of 
the Pontus Euxinus. Herodotus names it Maeetis, 
and erroneously supposed it to be not much smaller 
than the Pontus,^ but he does not aj)pear to have 
explored its waters, nor does he give any measure- 
ments of its extent. 
Tiopontis. The Propontis (or Sea of Marmora) is joined to 
the Pontus Euxinus by the Bosphorus, and flows into 
the Aegean through the Hellespont (or modern Dar- 

^ iv. 85, 86. Comp, Appendix II. on the Measurements of Length used 
bv Herodotus. - iv. 86. 




danelles). Herodotus calculated the Bospliorus to Europe. 
be 120 stadia long and 4 stadia wide ; the Propon- chap, i. 
tis to be 1400 stadia long and 500 stadia wide ; and 
the Hellespont to be 400 stadia long and 7 stadia 

The Caspian is unconnected with any other sea, Caspian. 
and lies to the east of Mount Caucasus. Herodotus 
calculated its length to be a 15 days' voyage in a 
boat with oars, and its breadth to be an 8 days' 
voyage.^ Niebuhr reckons the one day's voyage 
with oars as equal to the one day's journey by land, 
or 200 stadia.^ According to this calculation, the 
Casjoian would be 3000 stadia long and 1600 stadia 

The Gulf of Adiia (or Adriatic Sea) is mentioned Adriatic. 
several times by Herodotus,^ and evidently referred 
to the long narrow arm of the Mediterranean, which 
runs up to the eastward of the Italian peninsula. 
Also the Ionian Sea or Gulf,^ by which was intended Ionian, 
the sea between Grreece and Sicily. 

1 iv. 85, 86. _ 2 I 202, 203. 3 iv. 101. 

* Reducing these stadia to English miles, the result would be that 
Herodotus supposed the Caspian to be 375 miles long and 200 miles 
broad. Herodotus was not much mistaken in its average breadth, but 
the length of the Caspian from north to south is upwards of 650 miles. 
See Appendix II., on Measurements used by Herodotus. 

' i. 163; iv. 33. « vi. 127; vii. 20. 



Hellas of Herodotus, its wide signification. — European Greece, general 
description. — Pindus range running southward from the Balkan. — 
Eastern arms, Olympus and Othrys. — Western arm to the Ceraunian 
mountains. — Ossa and Pelion. — Northern limits. — Mount Oeta. — Ther- 
mopylae. — Parnassus. — Cithaeron. ■ — -Parnes. — ■ Oenean mountains. — 
Mountains of the Peloponnesus. — General face of the country. — Hero- 
dotus's account of Hellas : its central position. — Fertilized by rain. — ■ 
Subject to storms and earthquakes. — Lions. — Sillikyprion. — Character 
of the people. — Temples. — Markets. — Trade. — Miscellaneous notices. — 
Art of writing. — Obscurities in the history of the people. — Herodotus's 
account. — Hellas anciently called Pelasgia, and peopled by Pelasgians 
and other tribes. — Character of the Pelasgians. — Mythical origin of the 
Hellenes. — Dorian wanderings. — Invasion of the Peloponnesus by the 
Heracleids. — Achaeans unknown : Aeolians and lonians considered as 
Pelasgians. — In historical times inhabitants all called Hellenes. 

EUROPE. The name of Hellas in the history of Herodotus, 

CHAP. II. bears a very different signification from the Grreece 

i of later times. It included every territory or dis- 

HeTOdo°us, trict inhabited by Hellenes, or containing an Hellenic 

Sficafion!^' ^^^^y? whether in Em^ope, Asia, or Libya, or on the 

islands of the Mediterranean or Aegean. Thus Ama- 

sis is said to have dedicated offerings in Hellas, for 

he sent presents to Cyrene on the coast of Libya, to 

Lindus in Rhodes, and to the island of Samos.' 

Again, Herodotus tells us that the physicians of Cro- 

tona in Italy were the best in all Hellas, and those 

of Cyrene were the second.^ In the present division 

of our work, however, we purpose confining ourselves 

to a consideration of Greece proper, or that part of 

the Hellas of Herodotus whicli was included in the 

European continent ; and we shall treat of all the 

islands in a separate chapter, and leave the Greek 

1 ii. 182. 

- iii. 131. Compare also vii. 1.57, where Gelon is said to possess no 
small part of Hellas, since he was master of Syracuse. 

'MeTvdvVjs. p. 27 




loiuli,,, I^namm <£■ Co.lSS4. 


colonies to fall into the more natural continental europe. 
arrangement. ^ ^"^^- ^^- 

European Greece is surrounded on three sides by European 
the sea — west by the Ionian, south by the Mediter- ^l^^^^^^^ ^^ 
ranean, and east by the Aegean. On the north its scription. 
limits were never precisely defined, but an imaginary 
boundary line may be drawn after a glance at the 
mountains which form the skeleton of the country. 

Far beyond the Grreek territory, from the head of Pindus 
the Adriatic to the coast of the Euxine, runs a vast nin| south- 
mountain belt, alluded to by Herodotus as Mount ^""J^Baikan. 
Haemus,^ but bearing the modern name of the 
Balkan. From this belt a branch under the name 
of Pindus descends in a southerly direction, and after 
separating Thessaly fi-om Epirus, terminates at the 
rugged pile of Mount Oeta. From Pindus two Eastern 
huge arms stretch towards the eastern sea, and en- puTand'^^ 
close the vale of Thessaly. On the north the Cam- otbrys. 
bunian hills terminate in the loftier heights of 
Olympus ; whilst on the south the chain of Othrys 
sinks gently towards the coast. A western arm of western 
smaller elevation connects Pindus and the Cam- ceraunian 
bunian chain with the Ceraunian mountains, and mo^^itanis. 
runs out into the Ionian Sea at the Acroceraunian 
promontory. On the eastern coast of Thessaly runs ossa and 
a fourth range, parallel to Pindus, and including the 
celebrated heights of Ossa and Pelion. 

The two northern arms of Pindus, namely, the Northern 


eastern or Cambunian range, and the western, or 
range connected with the Ceraunian mountains, 
would therefore form the natural boundaries of 
European Greece on the north. But the country 
east of Mount Pindus, bearing the general name of 
Epirus, or "the main-land," cannot be regarded as 
being strictly Grecian in the time of Herodotus. 
The Thesprotians, Molossians, and other barbarous 
half-brethren of the Greeks who dwelt there, had 
become thoroughly incorporated with the rude II- 
l}7Tian tribes who forced a way amongst them, and 
they collectively appear as rough sons of the moun- 

1 iv. 49. 











of the Pelo- 

face of the 

tains, whose disposition presented features little more 
attractive than their own rugged rocks and precipices. 

Contenting ourselves with this protest, we have 
thought it advisable to include Epirus in the geo- 
graphy of Greece ; Herodotus himself mentions 
Thesprotia as part of Hellas,^ and Dodona must be 
regarded as one of the principal seats of the oldest 
national worship:). 

To return to the mountain survey. The rugged 
mass of Oeta, which forms the continuation of Pin- 
dus, separates into two branches. One stretches 
eastward to the sea at ThermoiDylae, and runs along 
the coast till it sinks into the vale of the Boeotian 
Asoj^us. The other takes a more southerly direc- 
tion through Phocis, and includes the lofty summits 
of Parnassus ; and then, after skirting the Corinthian 
Gulf, it forms a huge knot at Cithaeron on the fron- 
tiers of Attica. Two ridges run off from Cithaeron, 
viz. Mount Parnes, which stretches eastward to the 
sea ; and the Oenean mountains, which take a south- 
westerly direction through Megaris, and at length 
terminate at the isthmus. 

From this point the peninsula of the Peloponnesus 
spreads out into the Mediterranean like an out- 
stretched palm.^ Its centre consists of an elevated 
table-land, encircled by mountains, and intersected 
by some lower secondary chains of hills. From the 
outer circle all the ridges diverge which form the 
many headlands and points on the coast ; and on the 
south two ranges detach themselves from the central 
highlands, and j)roject into the sea at the two pro- 
montories of Malea and Taenarum. 

Such is the general configuration of Greece. The 
rivers arc very small, and only important from their 
place in history. The mountains, like those of the 

1 ii. .56. Thirlwall remarks, that it must have been the recollection of 
the ancient fame of Thesprotia as the primitive abode of the Hellenes, 
rather than the condition of its tribes after the Persian war, that induced 
Herodotus to speak of it as included in Hellas. 

2 The ancients compared its shape to the leaf of the plane tree, and it 
derives its modern name of Morea from its similar resemblance to the 
leaf of the mulberry. 


Balkan, are torn by transverse fractures, and divide Europe. 
the whole territory into a multitude of small secluded chap. n. 
and isolated regions, favouring the production of 
numerous and separate states. The valleys are 
mostly caldron-shaped hollows, and seem to be the 
basins of ancient lakes, which have been emptied by 
some upheaving of the general surface. The volcanic 
belt passes through Greece, and often occasions earth- 
quakes ; and the valle3^s contain many large masses 
of stone, which are different from that of the sur- 
rounding mountains. The northern half of the 
country appears broad and unbroken, whilst the 
southern is narrow, irregular, and perforated by 
bays and inlets ; and here the mountains not only 
stretch far out into the sea in projecting headlands, 
but also reappear in the numerous islands and rocks 
which stud the deeply indented coast. 

Greece was considered by Herodotus to be situ- Herodotus's 
ated near the centre of the earth, for he describes HXs-its 
Hellas as enjoying the most happy mixture of sea- central posi- 
sons.^ According to him, it was not fertilized by Fertilized 
the inundation of the rivers, but by the refreshing ^y ^'^i"- 
showers of Zeus ; upon which the Aegyptians 
affirmed, that if it ever ceased to rain the land would 
miserably suffer.^ Notwithstanding, however, its subject to 
beautiful climate, Greece was subject to violent farth-"'"'^ 
storms and earthquakes. Thus a heavy rain fell quakes. 
throughout the night which succeeded the first day's 
conflict at Artemisium, hail-storms descended from 
Mount Pelion, and mighty floods rushed into the 
sea ; ^ and at sunrise on the morning of the battle at 
Salamis an earthquake was felt on sea and land.* 
When also a division of the Persian army was sent 
out to plunder Delphi, the sacrilegists were over- 
taken by a storm of thunder and lightning, and two 
crags, which had probably been broken from Par- 
nassus by the violence of the tempest, fell upon them 
with a murderous crash.'' Of wild beasts Herodotus Lions. 
tells us that lions were to be found, but only be- 
tween the rivers Archelous and the Macedonian 

1 iii. 106. 2 ii. 13. 3 viii. 12. * viii. 64. * viii. 37- 



EUROPE. Nestus.^ He also specially mentions that the Silli- 
CHAP. II. kjprion, which was cultivated in Aegypt in order 

~ r~ to extract the oil, grew spontaneously and in a wild 
ypnon ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ bauks of tlio lakcs and rivers of Plellas.^ 

ciiaracter The inhabitants of Hellas seem to have attracted 

on\ie peo- ^]jQ admiration of the Persians, though the very ex- 
istence of the nation exasperated their Asiatic pride 
and aroused their fiercest enmity. Atossa expressed 
to Darius a wish to engage Lacedaemonian, Argive, 
Corinthian, and Athenian women as attendant maid- 
ens ; ^ and when Tritantaechmes heard that the 
Hellenes contended at the Olympic games for a sim- 
ple crown of olive, he exclaimed, " Heavens, Mar- 
donius, against what kind of men have you brought 
us to fight, who contend not for wealth, but for 
glory ?"^ "Hellas," says Demaratus to Xerxes, 
"has always had poverty as foster-sister, but has 
acquired virtue by the aid of wisdom and firm laws 
and with it she restrains poverty and tyranny " 

Temples. The Hellenes were the only people except the 
Aegyptians who abstained from all intercourse with 
women in sacred precincts, and who never entered 
the temples without a previous purification.^ They 

Markets, posscssod markct-j^laccs in their several cities, for 
which Cyrus taunted them as having set apart a 
place for the purpose of cheating each other. ^ They 

Trade. carried on a considerable trade by sea, especially 
with Aegypt,^ and the expression of Herodotus that 
Samos had appeared to them to be as far off as the 
Pillars of Heracles,'' is either only a pettish remark 
at the delay and hesitation of the Greek fleet in 
crossing the Aegean to Asia Minor, or else a figure 
of speech to illustrate the complete cessation of all 
communication between European and Asiatic 
Greece during the Persian war. 

Misceiiane- The Hellenes in their calculation of time inserted 
an intercalary month every third year.^" Religion 
and science they appear to have imported from 
foreign countries. Many of their customs had been 

1 vii. 126. 2 ii. 94. ^ iii. 134. ^ viii. 26. ' vii. 102. 
« ii. 64. ^ i. 1.5.3. ** ii. 5. '•' viii. 1.32. '" ii.4. 

ous cus- 


borrowed from Aegypt, together with the names of europe. 
the twelve gods, the oracle of Dodona, and art of chap. n. 
divination by victims.^ The dress and aegis of the 
statues of Athene were imitated from those of the 
Libyan women ; and the custom of harnessing four 
chariot-horses abreast was borrowed from the Libyan 
men.^ Geometry was brought from Aegypt, where 
Herodotus believes it originated at the division of 
the land by Sesostris.^ The sun-dial and division of 
the day into twelve parts was learnt from the Baby- 
lonians.^ The shield and helmet again were brought 
from Aegypt.* 

The Hellenes wrote from left to right, which dis- Art of 
tinguished them from the Aegyptians.^ The art of ^^'''*"'^' 
writing was brought to Hellas by Cadmus and the 
Phoenicians, and was first learnt by the lonians, 
who adopted the letters with some slight alterations, 
and called them Phoenician or Cadmean. The 
lonians also called their books, parchments, because 
in ancient times, when papyrus was scarce, they 
wrote on the skins of goats and sheep.'' 

These then are all the facts that can be found in 
Herodotus bearing upon the general geography of 
Hellas ; it now only remains for us to develope his 
views respecting the origin of the people who in- 
habited it. 

The general history of the races who occupied obscurities 
Hellas in the time of Herodotus is involved in a tory^of'the 
cloud of legend, and will but little illustrate or ex- Sdotus-s 
plain the apparently contradictory statements which account. 
are to be found in our author. 

Hellas, he says, was anciently called Pelasffia,^ and ^*^"f ^"r, 

... ' -1 ,,1,1 •i''i,i -r»i^.' ciently call- 

it IS evident that he considered the Pelasgians to edPeiasgia, 

have formed its principal inhabitants in primeval by'peiasg? 

times. In addition to these, we find mention of the ot^grlribes 

Leleges, afterwards called Carians,^ the Caucones,^^ o er n 

the Minyans of the Boeotian Orchomenus,'^ the 

Minyans of Elis,^^ the Dry opes, ^^ and some foreign 

1 ii. 4, 54—57. 2 iv. 189, 190. ^ ii. 109. * lb. 

5 iv. 180. « ii.36. 7 V. 58,59. « ii. 56. ^ i 171. 

^" iv. 148. " i. 146. 12 iv. 145—148. 
1=5 viii. 73; i. 146; i. 5S; viii. 31. 


EUROPE, settlers, under Cadmus the Phoenician,^ Danaus 
CHAP. ir. the Aegyptiau,^ and Pelops the Phrygian.^ 

The settlements of these smaller races will be 
mentioned in the geography of the several states ; ■* 
the Pelasgians require more immediate attention. 
Character of Tlicso pcoplc WQYQ Considered by Herodotus to 
gians.^''* have originally been a race who never migrated. 
Their language was barbarous,^ their deities name- 
less.^ Subsequently they appear to have been wan- 
dering hordes. Some came from the island of 
Samothrace to Athens, where they constructed the 
Pelasgic citadel, and taught several mysteries ; but 
being expelled from thence, they went to Lemnos.'^ 
Such are the few particulars we can collect. 
Mythical A ucw and conquering class next appears upon 

HeUenes.*^^ tlic stago of Greek history, namely, the warlike Do- 
rians. According to the myth frequently alluded to 
by Herodotus, Hellen,the son ofDeucalion, had three 
sons — Aeolus, Dorus, and Xuthus. He was the an- 
cestor of the Hellenic race. From Aeolus and 
Dorus descended the Aeolians and Dorians, and 
from Achaeus and Ion, the sons of Xuthus, and 
therefore grandsons of Hellen, descended the Achae- 
Dorian aus and lonians.^ The original seats of the Hellenes 
(or at any rate of the Dorians) were in Thessaly. 

1 V. 57—62. 3 vii. 94. ^ vii. 8, 11. 

* The Carians or Leleges occupied the islands off the western coast of 
Asia Minor, but were expelled by the Dorians. The Caucones were 
in southern Elis, but subsequently were driven out by the Minyans from 
Lemnos. The Minyans of Orchomenus accompanied the great Ionian 
migi-ation from Attica. The Minyans of Lemnos were driven out by 
some Pelasgians, and after a sojourn in Laconica, migrated to southern 
Elis and drove out the Caucones. The references to these particulars 
are already given above. 

' i. e. distinct from the Hellenic, i. 57. " ii- 51, 52. 

7 vi. 137—140. 

^ Modern scholars have indulged in some ingenious speculations on 
the origin of these names. According to them, the Hellenes means " the 
waiTiors " (compare the name of their god, 'AttoKXwv) ; the Dorians, 
(AwpitTc) are " Highlanders," from da and opoQ ; the Aeolians (AioXtTc) 
are "the' mixed men," a name which arose when the Dorians first de- 
scended from their mountains in the north of Thessaly, and incorporated 
themselves with the Pelasgi of the Thessalian plains. So, again, the 
lonians {'Jojviq) are the "men of the coast," {Htovla,) called, also, 
j\iy(aX«Te, "Beach-men," and the ',A;;^;«tioi are "Sea-men." Compare Ken- 
rick, Phil. Mas. ii. 'M)7; Midler, iJoi: ii. G, G; Donaldson, G. G. p. 2. 



from thence the Dorians removed to the southern Europe. 
territory of Doris, and at length passed over to the chap. n. 
Peloponnesus under the guidance of the Heracleids, invasion of 
or descendants of Heracles.' This celebrated inva- thePeio- 
sion forms the great epoch in the early history of th^uera- ^ 
Greece ; the settlements they effected will be de- *'^"*^'- 
scribed in the chapter on the Peloponnesus. 

The history of the three other Hellenic races, the Achaeans 
Aeolians, Achaeans, and lonians, is more intricate leoUans"" 
and contradictory. Herodotus describes the Aeo- conskierid'^ 
Hans and lonians as Pelasgians ; ^ and the Achae- as Peias- 
ans are not described at all excepting as con- ^'^"^' 
querors of the Ionian Pelasgians.^ It is impossible 
to reconcile these statements with the mythical ac- 
count of the relationship of the four races. 

In the time of Herodotus nearly all the inhabit- in historical 
ants of Hellas were called Hellenes, and all were bitente au^' 
considered to be bound together by the ties of blood, ^^'^^^ Hei- 
of language, and of religion.* Whilst the Pelasgians, 
who spoke a different language, were fast disappear- 
ing jfrom the scene, ^ the Hellenes from a small be- 
ginning increased to a multitude of nations, chiefly 
by a union with other tribes ; and they appear to 
have retained the language they used when they 
first became a people.'' 

Thus then, having briefly reviewed the general 
geography of Greece, and history of its inhabitants, 
we shall proceed to treat of the various states under 
the two great divisions of Southern Greece, or the 
Peloponnesus, and Northern Greece up to the Cam- 
bunian range. 

1 i. 56, 57. ^ vii. 95. Comp. also the sect, in chap. iv. on Attica. 
3 vii. 94. * viii. 144; ix. 7. ^ i. 57. 6 i 53. 



Division of the Peloponnesus into nine districts. — Herodotus's account 
of the Peloponnesian races. — Settlements of the races prior to the Dorian 
invasion. — Settlements in the time of Herodotus. — I. Arcadia, general 
description. — Herodotus's account. — Topography: Tegea, Mantinea, Or- 
chomenus, Phigalea, Trapezus, Paeos, Dipaea, Nonacris, Mount Par- 
thenion, Stymphalian lake. — II. Argolis, general description. — Herodo- 
tus's account. — ^Topography : Argos, Epidaurus, Hermione, Troezene, 
Pogon, Mycenae, Tiryns, Nauplia, Orneae, River Erasinus, Grove of 
Argos. — III. CoRiNTHiA, general description. — Origin of its commercial 
importance. — Herodotus's account. — City of Corinth. — Petra. — The isth- 
mus. — IV. SiCYONiA, general description.- — Herodotus's account : her 
enmity against Argos. — Expulsion of the Argive hero Adrastus. — 
- Changes in the name of the Sicyonian tribes. — V. Phliasia. — Phlius. 
— VI. AcHAiA, general description. — Herodotus's account. — Topogra- 
phy: Pellene, Aegira, Aegae, Crathis, Bura, Aegium, Rhypes, Patrae, 
Pharae, Olenus, Dyma, Tritaea. — VII. Elis, general description. — He- 
rodotus's account. — Aetolians, Caucones, Minyae. — Elean seers. — No 
mules bred in Elis. — Topogi-aphy : Elis, Pisa, Olympia. — Minyan cities : 
Phrixae, Nudium, Epium, Macistus, Lepreum, Pyrgus. — VIII. Messenia, 
general description. — History. — Herodotus's account. — Topogi'aphy : 
Pylus, Asine, Stenyclerus, Ithome. — ^IX. Laconica, general description. 
— History. — Herodotus's account. — Description of the Laconians. — 
Rights and privileges of their kings, in war ; in peace ; at public sacri- 
fices, feasts, and games ; right of appointing the proxeni and pythii ; 
daily allowance of food ; keepers of the oracles ; commissioners of the 
highways ; entitled to a seat in the council of twenty-eight. — Manners 
and customs of the people : burial of kings ; hereditary professions ; 
miscellaneous. — Topography : Sparta, Therapne, Pitane, Cardamyle, 
the Aegeidae, Mount Thornax, Mount Taygetus, Cape Taenarum, Cape 
Male a. 

EUROPE. The Peloponnesus is usually divided into nine 

^^^^- " ^- districts, viz. Arcadia in the centre ; Argolis, Cor- 

Division of inthia, Sicyonia, and Phliasia on the east ; Achaia 

pranesus ^^ ^^^® north ; Elis on the west ; and Messenia and 

into nine Laconica on the soutli ; but the Messenians having 

been conquered by the Laconians, the two latter 

districts were generally considered to be included 

in the same territory. The relative position of 

these nine districts on the map was as follows : 




According to our author, /' the country of Pelops Herodotus's 
the Phrygian," as he calls it, was in his time occu- thePeio- 
pied by seven different races, namely, Arcadians, 11^^^^^^"^^ 
Cynurians, Achaeans, Dorians, Aetolians, Dryopes, 
and Lemnians. Of these the Arcadians and Cynu- 
rians were aborigines who still occupied their an- 
cient territory ; the Achaeans had also never re- 
moved from the Peloponnesus, but had passed from 
one territory to another. The remaining four were 

The history of these races appears to have been as 

Prior to the Dorian invasion, the centre was occu- Settlement 
pied by the Arcadians, and the south-eastern pro- pnoAoThe 
montory by the Cynurians, and both these nations ^^Ton"! ''^' 
were Pelasgians. The east and south were held by 
the Achaeans. The west and north were originally 
peopled by races not mentioned here because subse- 
quently driven out ; viz. the lonians, called also 

1 viii. 73. 
D 2 



EUROPE. Aegialeis, or " coast-men," on the north,^ and the 
CHAP. III. Caucones on the west.^ The Dryopes from Doris 
' had also formed settlements in Messenia and Argolis.^ 
These races seem therefore to have anciently occu- 
pied the following positions. 


Ionian Aegialeis, 

or coast-men. 





\ 1 


/ \ 


Dryopes. / 



\ 1 

\ 1 


Settlements Subscqucntly the Dorians and Aetolians invaded 
of HerodT thc Pcloponncsus. The Aetolians seized the west- 
tus. gj,^ territory, whilst the Dorians turned out the 

Achaeans and occupied the south and east. The 
Achaeans mostly proceeded to the north, and drove 
out the Ionian Aegialeis and occupied their terri- 
tory,* but a few remained behind. The lonians 
proceeded to Athens. Subsequently the Minyans 
from Lemnos, called also Lemnians,^ drove out the 
Caucones and obtained their country. The inhabit- 
ants of the Peloponnesus therefore in the time of He- 
rodotus seem to have been situated as follows : 

' i. 145; vii. 94. 
» vii. 94. 

2 iv. 148. 

^ viii. 73. 
5 iv. 148. 





who had driven out lonians 


Minyans '^^'^o retained their 

from ancient seats. 



with Achaean helots and 



TheiDorians possessed many considerable cities; 
the Aetolians only Elis ; the Dryopes had Hermione, 
(in the south-east of Argolis,) and Asine, (in the 
southern promontory of Messenia,) near the Laco- 
nian Cardamyle ; the Lemnians had all the Paro- 
reatae, and were descended from the Minyans. The 
Cynurians, though aborigines, were thought by some 
to be lonians, (Pelasgians,) but became Dorians like 
the Orneatae and their neighbours from the lapse of 
time, and from living under the dominion of the 
Ar gives. ^ 

We now turn to the geography of the nine dis- 

I. Arcadia was the central, and next to Laconica i. Arcadia. 
the largest, country in the Peloponnesus. It was description. 
surrounded on all sides by a ring of mountains, 
forming a kind of natural wall, and may be regarded 

1 viii. 73. 


EUROPE, as the Switzerland of Grreece, tliougli its mountains 

CHAP. in. are of a much less elevation.^ 

Herodotus's Arcadia was inhabited by the Pelasgians, who 

account. fi'om tlio beginning, and likewise during the Dorian 
invasion of the Peloponnesus, remained in this coun- 
try, and alone preserved the sacred rites of the 
Thesmophoria.^ Some, however, joined the great 
Ionian migration to Asia Minor, ^ and others perhaps 
migrated to Cyprus, where at least an Arcadian race 
is named.^ In an oracle the Pythia says, " There are 
many acorn-eating men in Arcadia ; " ^ by which we 
may conclude that they were a rude, uncultivated 
people, simple in their habits, and moderate in their 

Topography Of tlio Arcadiau towns several are mentioned, 

Tegea. but witliout any detailed description. Tegea was 
situated in a fair plain, and contained the coffin, 
seven cubits long, enclosing the bones of Orestes, 
which Liches the Laconian discovered, and car- 
ried to Sparta.*' In the temple of Athena Alea, in 
the same city, were suspended the fetters which the 
Laconians, in their arrogance, carried with them in 
their expedition against the Tegeans. There also 
was the brazen manger which was taken from the 
tent of Mardonius, after the battle of Plataea.^ The 
Tegeans sent 500 men to Thermopylae,^ and at the 
battle of Plataea furnished 1500 hoplites, who dis- 
puted the post of honour with the Athenians.^ 

Mantinea. The city of Mautinoa was anciently celebrated for 
the wisdom of its political institutions. The wise 
Demonax was fetched from thence to remodel the 
government of Gyrene. ^° The Mantineans sent 500 
men to Thermopylae," who arrived too late to fight 
at Plataea, and on their return home banished their 

^ The Arcadians, like the Swiss, frequently served as mercenaries. With 
the exception of the Mantineans and Tegeans, they took no decided 
part in the Persian or Peloponnesian wars. The poverty and populous- 
ness of their country had made them mere soldiers of fortune, and Thu- 
cydides affirms, (vii. 57,) that in the expedition against Sicily, Arcadians 
were to be found in the ranks of both armies. 

Mi. 171. '^ i. 146. * vii. 90, « i. 66. 

<■■ i. 66—68. 7 ix. 70. « vii. 202. » ix. 26, 61. 

'" iv. 161. '1 vii. 202. 


commanders.^ Orchomenus sent 120 men to Tlier- europe. 
mopylae,^ and 600 hoplites to Plataea.^ Phigalea is chap. m. 
barely alluded to as the birth-place of the prophet orchome- 
Cleander.* From Trapezus came Amiantus, one of ^^^s. ^^^^ 
the suitors for the daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Trapezus. 
Sicyon.^ Paeos, or Pagos, was situated in the district Paeos. 
of the Azanes," whence came Laphanes, who was 
also a suitor.^ At or near Dipaea, all the Arcadians, Dipaea. 
except the Mantineans, were defeated by the Laco- 
nians.^ At Nonacris, near Pheneum, a small quan- Nonacris. 
tity of water, said by the Arcadians to be the water 
of the Styx, dropped from a rock into a hollow sur- 
rounded by a fence of masonry.^ 

Above Tegea was Mount Parthenion, where a Mount Par- 
little before the battle of Marathon the deity Pan *^'"^°''- 
appeared to the messenger sent from Athens to 
Sparta.^" The Stymphalian lake is also noticed as stympha- 
an unimportant piece of water, which was said to ^'^^i^®- 
disappear through an unseen chasm, and to reappear 
in Argos, where it became the river Erasinus.^^ 

II. Argolis lay on the east of the Peloponne- ii. argo- 
sus, and included the whole acte or peninsula be- description. 
tween the Saronic and Argolic Grulfs. Prior to 
the Dorian invasion, the Argives were Achaeans, 
who had supplanted the original Pelasgian population, 
and many of the Achaeans remained after the Do- 
rian conquest. Argos then became the great seat of 
Dorian power in the Peloponnesus, whilst Sparta 
was her inferior. At an early period war broke out 
between the two powers for the border district of 
Thyrea. Here the celebrated battle was fought be- 
tween 300 Argives and 300 Spartans.^^ The war was 
terminated in the reign of Cleomenes, by the total 
defeat of the Argives. ^^ 

Argolis properly embraced all the country west- Herodotus's 
ward, as far as the southern promontory of Malea, ^^^°""*- 

1 ix. 11. 2 vii^ 102. 3 ix. 28, * vi. 83. » yi. 127. 

^ According to Steph. Byzantinus, the Arcadians were distributed into 
three geographical divisions, viz. Azanes, Parrhasii, and Trapezuntii. 
Steph. B. s. V. 'k^iivtQ. 

7 vi. 127. 8 ix. 35. 9 yi_ 74. 10 yi_ 105. ■ 11 vi. 7Q. 

'•' i. 82. 13 yj_ 7§_ 


EUROPE, and included Cytliera, and ''the other islands;"^ 
CHAP. III. by which last expression we may perhaps under- 
stand, the small islands near Cythera, or the islands 
in the Argolic Gulf. In the time of Darius, the 
Argives ranked as the first musicians amongst the 
Hellenes.^ Their women wore the Dorian costume, 
and very large clasps, from the following circum- 
stance.^ An Athenian force having been cut to 
pieces in the island of Aegina, by the Argives and 
Aeginetans, one survivor only escaped to Athens, 
upon which the Athenian, women killed him with 
their clasps. Henceforth the Athenians obliged their 
women to leave off the Dorian costume, and adopt 
the linen dress without clasps ; whilst the women of 
Aegina and Argos ever afterwards wore their clasps 
half as large again as before, and consecrated them 
in their temples.^ The Argives were mostly Do- 
rians : the Hermionians in the south-east were Dry- 
opes, and the Orneates in the north were Ionian 
Topography Of the towus of ArgoHs the most celebrated was 
Argos. Argos, which at the time when the Phoenicians car- 
ried off lo, was also the most important in all 
Hellas.^ It is, however, scarcely noticed by Herodo- 
tus, probably because it took no part in the Persian 
war,'' whilst other towns of Argolis were actively en- 
Epiciaurus. gagod in the contest. Epidaurus was situated on the 
Saronic Gulf, and contributed to the foundation of 
several Dorian cities in Asia Minor, ^ sent eight ships 
to Artemisium,*' ten ships to Salamis,'" and 800 hop- 
Hcrmione. lites to Plataoa." Hermione sent three ships to Sala- 
mis,'^ and 300 hoplites to Plataea.'^ This city was 
founded by the Dry opes, a Pelasgian tribe, whom 
Heracles and the Melians had expelled from the 
banks of the river Spercheius and the valleys of 

1 i. 82; vi. 92. ^ iii. 131. » Comp. Geog. of Attica. 

* V. 87,88. 5 viii. 43, 73. « i. 1. 

' It was generally reported that the Argives had been bribed by Xerxes. 
Their non-interference was probably occasioned by the rebellion of their 
slaves, (vi. 83,) and their jealousy of Lacedaemon. 

'' i. 146; vii.99. » viii. 1. i« viii. 43. " ix. 102. 

'■' viii. 43. ' " ix. 28. 


Oeta.^ It was tlie birth-place of Lasus the poet and europe. 
musician.^ The city of Troezene colonized Hali- ^^^^- ^"- 
carnassus in Asia Minor. ^ Before the battle of Sala- Troezene. 
mis, the Troezenians received most of the Athenian 
families who were forced to abandon their city.* 
They also sent five ships to Artemisimn and Sala- 
mis,^ and 1000 hoplites to Plataea ; '^ and are named 
amongst the confederates at Mycale.'' At its port Pogon. 
called Pogon, the Hellenic fleet assembled previous 
to the battle of Salamis.^ Mycenae sent 80 men to Mycenae. 
Thermopylae.'' It contained a celebrated temple to 
Hera.^" Beside these were the city of Tiryns, which Thyns. 
included the place called Sepia, where Cleomenes 
defeated the Argives ; ^^ Nauplia, which was the port Naupiia. 
of Argos ; ^^ and Orneae, whose inhabitants, named Omeae. 
the Orneatae, were originally independent of Argos ; 
but in process of time, having been conquered by 
their more powerful neighbours, from lonians they 
became Dorians. ^^ 

Our author also mentions the river Erasinus, which River Era- 
flowed from the Stymphalian lake, and after dis- ^^°^^' 
charging itself through a subterranean hollow, re- 
appeared in Argos. ^* Also the grove of Argos, where Grove of 
the Argives fled for refage, and which was burnt ^^'^°^' 
down by Cleomenes. ^^ 

III. CoRiNTHTA embraced most of the isthmus iii. con- 
which joined the Peloponnesus to the main-land. Genial de- 
and included the adjacent region on the Pelo- scription. 
ponnesian side. It was not fertile, and the only 
arable land it possessed to any extent, was a plain 
along the coast between Corinth and Sicyon. The 
barrenness of the soil, and the mountain barriers on 
the north and south, naturally led the inhabitants to 
try their fortune on the sea ; and Corinth, its capital, 
at length became an emporium of trade. This city origin of its 
was seated on the isthmus between the Saronic and im^ortancl 
Corinthian Grulfs. It had two harbours ; Cenchreae 
towards Asia Minor, and Lechaeum towards Italy. 

1 viii. 43. 2 y{i 0, 3 vii, 99 i ^^^^ 41 5 yin j . jx. 43. 
6 ix. 28. T ix. 102. 8 y[ii 42. 9 yji. 202. " vh 81. 

" vi. 77. '^ vii. 137. " viii. 73. 14 vi. 76. 15 yj. gO. 


EUROPE. In those early times when all navigation was per- 
CHAP. III. formed in coasting vessels, Corinth stood in the 
most direct line between Europe and Asia ; as mer- 
chants greatly preferred carrying their goods over 
the narrow isthnms by land, to undertaldng the dif- 
iicidt and dangerous voyage roimd the Peloponne- 
sian coast. ^ 
Herodotiis's Tlic Corinthians held artisans in more esteem 
account. ^-|^^^^ ^^^ ^£ ^l^^ otlicr Grccks, who indeed deemed 

those to be the most noble who were devoted to 
City of the profession of arms.^ Corinth, the capital, sent 
400 men to Thermopylae,^ 40 ships to Artemisium,* 
and the same number to Salamis ; ^ 5000 hoplites 
were also present at Plataea," and it is especially 
noticed that the Corinthians distinguished them- 
selves at Mycale, next to the Athenians/ The city 
contained Stoae, or Porticoes, where Periander found 
his son Lycophron, filthy and starved ; ^ also a tem- 
ple of Hera, where Periander obliged all the Corinth- 
ian women to undress, and then burnt their clothes 
Petra. on accouut of liis deceased wife, Melissa.^ The 
demos Petra, in the neighbourhood of Corinth, was 
celebrated as the birth-place of Cypselus. 
The isth- At the isthmus stood an altar to Poseidon, where 
^^^' the Greek generals met, after the battle of Salamis, 

to award the prize of valour. ^° Here also the Greeks 
dedicated a brazen statue of Poseidon, seven cubits 
high, from a tithe of the booty taken at Plataea,'' 
and a Phoenician trireme captured at the victory 
of Salamis. ^^ A wall was built across the isthmus, 
after the fall of Leonidas at Thermopylae, to which 
breastworks were added previous to the battle of 
IV. sicYo- ly. SiCYONiA was a small territory lying between 
rauiescr^- Coriuth and Achaia, along the coast of the Corinth- 

^ The Corinthians before the Dorian invasion may be regarded as 
lonians, though Thucydides cahs (hem Aeohans (Thucy. iv. 42); for 
lonians were in possession of the coasts on both sides of the isthmus, 
which indeed was itself the most revered seat of Poseidon, the chief deity 
of the Ionian race. 

2 ii. lf)7. 3 vii. 202. " viii. 1. « viii. 43. " ix. 2S. 

•^ ix. 105. 8 iii. 52. " v. iJ2. '" Ibid. " viii. 123. 

'2 ix. 81. " viii. 121. i» viii. 71 ; ix. 7. 



ian Grulf. Sicyon was originally included among europe. 
the towns of the Argive confederacy. Cleisthenes, chap. m. 
tyrant of Sicyon, and his predecessors, appear to ' 
have endeavoured to weaken the coherence of this 
confederacy ; and the Argives, in trying to revive 
it, placed themselves in a state of war with Cleis- 
thenes, and induced him to violently break the con- 
nexion between Sicyon and Argos. His measures 
are described by our author. 

Cleisthenes was engaged in a war with Argos, Herodotus's 
against whom he entertained the utmost enmity. her°enmity 
He stopped the contests of the rhapsodists, or re- against 
citers of Homer's poetry, because Homer celebrates 
Argos and the Argives in almost every part. He Expulsion 
wished to remove the shrine of the Argive hero, giveLro^ 
Adrastus, from the Agora or market-place of Sicyon, ^^lastus. 
but was reproved by the Pythia. He then sent for 
the shrine of Melanippus, the greatest enemy of 
Adrastus, from the city of Thebes in Boeotia, and 
placed it in the very prytaneum, or town hall, and 
transferred to Melanippus the honours which had 
been previously paid to Adrastus. Moreover all the 
dances and tragic choruses, (i. e. dithyrambs of a 
sad and plaintive character,) which had been previ- 
ously performed in honour of Adrastus, he transfer- 
red to the worship of Dionysus, and the remainder of 
the Adrastean ceremonies, he gave to Melanippus. 

Above all, he changed the names of the Dorian change m 
tribes ^ in Sicyon, which were the same as those in the sii^*^-^ 
Argos. The citizens of Sicyon were divided into o^iiantii^es. 
four tribes, namely, the three Dorian tribes of Hyl- 
leans, Dymanes, and Pamphylians, and a fourth or 
non-Doric tribe, to which Cleisthenes himself belong- 
ed. He now called his own tribe by the name of 
Archelai or rulers ; and the three Dorian tribes by 
the insulting names of Hyatae, Oneatae, and Choe- 
reatae, from the three Grreek words signifying a boar, 
an ass, and a little pig. Sixty years after the death 

^ All the Dorian communities were usually divided into three tribes, 
viz. the Hylleans, Dymanes, and Pamphylians, who were so called from 
Hyllus the son of Heracles, and Dymas and Pamphylus the two sons of 
the Dorian king Aegimius. 


EUROPE, of Cleistlienes, the names of the Dorian tribes were 
CHAP. III. restored, and the fourth tribe was called Aegialeans, 
after Aegialeus the son of Adrastus,^ but more pro- 
bably after the Ionian Aegialeis, or coast-men, who 
originally occupied the district.^ 

The inhabitants of Sicyon sent twelve ships to 
Artemisium,^ and fifteen to Salamis.'^ The river 
Asopus flows tlu-ough the district, and is called the 
father of Thebe, and Aegina.'^ 
V. phlia- V. Phliasia was a small territory in the north-east 
^'"^' of Peloponnesus, enclosed between Sicyonia, Cor- 

PhUus. inthia, Arcadia, and Argolis. Phlius was the chief 
town. Herodotus merely mentions that Phlius sent 
200 men to Thermopylae,^ and 1000 hoplites to 
vi.AcHAiA YI. AcHAiA was a narrow tract of land along the 
sen^tion. ^' coast of tlic Corintliian Grulf, lying upon the slope of 
the northern mountain range of Arcadia. It was 
originally called Aegialus, either from a hero of that 
name, or, more probably, from the maritime situation 
of the district. 
Herodotus's Tlic Original inhabitants of Achaia were Pelasgi- 
ans, and were called Aegialeis, or ''coast-men."^ 
Subsequently the lonians settled in the territory, 
and it was called Ionia, and the inhabitants Aegia- 
lian lonians. These lonians remained in possession 
of the country till the invasion of the Peloponnesus 
by the Dorians, when the Achaeans (who had been 
driven out of Argos and Lacedaemon by the invad- 
ers) expelled them from the district and settled in 
it themselves. The Achaeans thus became masters, 
and the country was henceforth called Achaia, after 
them ; but they still retained the ancient division of 
twelve cities which had been followed by their pre- 
decessors the Aegialian lonians.^'' 
Topography Hcrodotus givcs a list of the twelve Achaean cities 
PeUene. in the following order. Pcllenc, which is the first 
A^lac!' city from Sicyon. Aegira, Aegae, where flows the 
i^ver cra- rivcr Cratliis, which is never dry, and from which 

' V. 68. 2 vii, 94; i. 145. 3 y\\i 1. 4 yjij. 45. 5 v_ go. 

» vii. 202. ^ ix. 28. » vii. 94. '■> Strabo, viii. p. 383. ^" i. 145. 


the river in Italy derived its name. Bura. To Europe. 
these two last places the lonians fled when defeated chap, m. 
by the Achaeans. Aegium, Ehypes, Patrae, Pharae, ^^ 
Olenus, by which flows the great river Peirus. ^^^'"™- 
Dyma, Tritaea. These two last towns are the only Patrae.' 
ones which lie in the interior.^ oienus.' 

VII. Elis in the time of Herodotus applied to THuea. 
the whole western portion of the Peloponnesus vii. elis. 
between Arcadia and the sea, and having Achaia ^ri^tion. ^" 
on the north and Messenia on the south. This 
western side is the lowest slope of the Pelopon- 
nesus, and has the most gradual inclination to the 
sea. It includes the largest extent of champaign 
country in the peninsula. It is divided into three 
districts. (1.) Northern or hollow Elis, anciently 
peopled by the Epeans, who were probably Pelasgi- 
ans, and were mingled with some Aetolian tribes. 
(2.) Central Elis, or Pisatis, the ancient seat of the 
kingdom of Pelops the Phrygian, who gave his 
name to the entire peninsula. (3.) Southern Elis, 
or Triphylia, which seems to have included the an- 
cient kingdom of the Neleid princes of Pylos.^ 
Some of the Aetolians migrated to Northern Greece, 
and from thence accompanied the Dorians in the in- 
vasion of the Peloponnesus, and received Elis as 
their share of the conquest. The Eleans were pre- 
sent in all the engagements fought against the Per- 

The northern district of Elis round the capital Herodotus's 
was inhabited by the Aetolians.^ The southern dis- Aetoiiaiis. 
trict (or Triphylia) was peopled originally by the 
Pelasgian Caucones.* The Minyae, also called Lem- ^1^^^°^^^' 
nians, who migrated from Laconia, drove out the 
Caucones and retained their name of Paroreatae, or 
'' dwellers on the side of a mountain." ^ 

1 i. 145. 

^ Three towns of this name disputed the title of being the capital of 
Nestor's dominions ; viz. Pylos of Messenia ; Pylos close by the town of 
Elis ; and the above-mentioned Pylos in Triphylia. 

3 viii. 73. 

■• Strabo says that, according to some authoi-s, the whole of Elis once 
bore the name of Cauconia. Strabo, viii. p. 345. 

* iv. 148. 


EUROPE. Numerous seers were to be found amongst tlie 
CHAP. ni. Eleans, and some from the families of the lamidae/ 
Eiean seers. Telliaclae,^ and Clytiadae ^ are especially men- 
No mules Horodotus was surprised that no mules could be 
eS. '"^ bred in the whole territory of Elis, for the climate 
was not cold, nor could he discover any other cause. 
The Eleans themselves maintained that it was in 
consequence of a curse, and therefore bred their 
mules in a neighbouring country.* 
Topogiaphiy Tlic following towiis in Elis are mentioned by 
Elis. Herodotus. Elis, the only city in the Peloponnesus 

Pisa. occupied by the Aetolians.^^ Pisa, which appears to 

lie near Olympia, for Herodotus says : From Athens 
to Pisa and the temple of the Olympian Zeus is 
1485 stadia.*' [It was the ancient capital of the 
Olympia. kingdom of Pelops the Phrygian.] Olympia, with 
the above-mentioned temple to Zeus, and numerous 
statues dedicated there by the Rhegian Micythus 
dm^ing his exile at Tegea.^ Also a brazen Zeus ten 
cubits high, made from a tenth of the spoil taken at 
Plataea.^ The oracle here was consulted by vic- 
tims the same as the one at Thebes.^ 
Minyan 'Yh.Q Miiiyac who settled in Elis distributed them- 

pinixae. selvcs iuto six divisioiis, and founded the following 
Epium™' cities : Phrixae, Nudium, Epium, Macistus, Lepre- 
Macistus. jjj^ Pwffus I but uiost of thcso wcrc already de- 

Lepreum. ? J n 7 . , . ^ -^^ ■, -^ ,„ 

Pyrgus. stroyed by the Eleans ni the time oi Herodotus.'" 

Lepreum sent 200 hoplites to Plataea.^^ 
VIII. mes- YIII. Messenia included the south-western quar- 
nerai cie- ° tcr of the Pelopoiincsus. It was bounded by Elis and 
scnption. ^pgadia on the north, and by Laconia on the east. 
Pausanias describes it as the most fertile country in 
the Peloponnesus. The western part was moun- 
tainous, but the country generally was less rugged 
and more productive than the neighbouring country 
of Laconia, with which Euripides happily contrasts 
it.'^ It contained two important plains. On the 

viii. 73. 

1 V. 44. 

2 ix. 37. ^ ix. .33. 

4 iv. 30. 5 V 

« ii. 7. 

■> vii. 170. « ix. 81, 

» viii. 1.34. 

1" iv. 148. 

'1 ix.28. 

'3 Sec sect. Laconica. 


north, near Arcadia, lay the plain of Stenyclerus, Europe. 
surrounded by a hilly barrier. On the south, along chap, m. 
the banks of the river Pamisus, down to the Mes- 
senian bay, ran a large and beautiful valley called 
Macaria, or " The Happy." 

When the Dorians invaded the Peloponnesus ac- History. 
companied by the Aetolians, they appear to have 
first assisted the Aetolians in conquering Elis, and 
then to have passed on in two detachments. One 
of these settled at Sparta and the other at Steny- 
clerus, or, to use the words of Grote, '' One of these 
bodies ripened into the stately, stubborn, and vic- 
torious Spartans; the other into the short-lived, 
trampled, and struggling Messenians." The Spar- 
tans coveted the more fertile territory of their 
brother Dorians. After many disputes between the 
two nations, war at last broke out. The first Messe- 
nian war continued for twenty years, b. c. 743 — 723. 
It ended with the captm-e of Ithome and the Mes- 
senians agreeing to become the subjects of Sparta. 
The second Messenian war commenced 38 years 
afterwards and lasted 17 years, b. c. 685 — 668. It 
terminated with the complete subjugation of the 
country. Most of the Messenians left the Pelopon- 
nesus, and those who remained behind were re- 
duced to the condition of helots or serfs. Two 
centuries afterwards, and between the Persian and 
Peloponnesian contests, the third Messenian war 
broke out. It lasted ten years, b. c. 464 — 455, and 
ended by the Messenians surrendering Ithome to 
the Spartans on condition of being allowed a free 
departure from the Peloponnesus. They accord- 
ingly migrated to Naupactus. 

Messenia is very little mentioned by our author. Heiociotus's 
In his time, as we have already seen, the territory ^^'^°'^'^ " 
was occupied by a mingled population of perioeci 
and helots, and entirely subject to Sparta. Arista,- 
goras, when he wished to induce the Spartan Idng 
Cleomenes to assist in the Ionian revolt, and con- 
quer Asia, said to him : ^ ' Here you must carry on 
war with the Messenians, who are yom* equals in 



EUROPE, valour, and with the Arcadians and Argives, who 
CHAP. III. have nothing that approaches gold or silver.^ He- 
rodotus also mentions a victory gained by the Spar- 
tans over the Messenians near Ithome.^ 
Topography Tlic following are the only towns noticed by He- 
Pyius. rodotus. Pylus, from whence the Pisistratidae 
Asine. originally came.^ Asine, near Cardamyle in La- 
stenycierus couia, inhabited by Dryopians.* Stenyclerus, where 
A'imnestus with 300 Spartans engaged with the 
Messenians, but was killed with all his forces/ 
ithome. Itliome, wlicre the Spartans, assisted by Tisamenus 

an Elean diviner, defeated the Messenians.^ 
IX. laco- IX. Laconica was formed by two mountain chains 
rai^descrj- running immediately fr^om Arcadia and enclosing 
the river Eurotas. The town of Sparta was seated 
on the right bank of this river, about twenty miles 
fr'om the sea. Above and below the town, rocks and 
hills aproached the banks on both sides, and enclosed 
a plain upon which the city stood. This enclosed 
plain is without a doubt the " hollow Lacedaemon" 
of Homer. The mountain slopes were fertile, but 
the soil of the plain was poor. The country was 
most fortunately situated for purposes of defence. 
The interior of Laconica was only accessible from 
Arcadia, Argolis, and Messenia by narrow passes 
and mountain roads. The want of harbours like- 
wise contributed to its natural isolation. Euri- 
pides has successfully seized the peculiar character 
of the country, and contrasted it with the more fa- 
voured territory of Messenia.' 

1 V. 49. 2 ix. 35. 3 V. 65. * viii. 73. ^ ix. 64. ^ ix. 35. 

'' The following poetical translation of the description of Euripides 
I have extracted from the English edition of Miiller's History of the Do- 

" Far spreads Laconia's ample bound, 
With high heaped rocks encompassed round, 

The invader's threat despising ; 
But ill its bare and rugged soil 
Rewards the ploughman's painful toil ; 
Scant harvests there are rising. 

" While o'er Mcssenia's beauteous land 
Wide watering streams their arms expand, 
Of nature's gifts profuse ; 



The most ancient inhabitants of Laconica are said Europe. 
to have been Cynurians and Leleges. Herodotus chap. m. 
considered the Cynurians to be autochthonous, but 
calls them lonians/ These were expelled or con- 
quered by the Achaeans. Argos then became the 
principal city in the Peloponnesus, and Sparta is re- 
presented as subject to it. At the Dorian invasion 
Laconica fell to the share of Eurysthenes and Procles, 
the two sons of Aristodemus, the Heracleid. Three 
distinct classes now existed at Sparta. (1.) The Do- 
rian conquerors, who resided in the capital, and were 
called Spartiatae or Spartans. (2.) The perioeci or 
old Achaean inhabitants, who became tributary to 
the Spartans, and possessed no political rights. (3.) 
The helots, who were also a portion of the old 
Achaeans, but were reduced to slavery. The helots 
were rustic serfs, as distinguished from the perioeci, 
who dwelt in the towns. The Messenians were sub- 
sequently included amongst the helots. 

The Lacedaemonians were the chief of the Do- Herodoms's 
rians, and were descended from the Hellenes.^ They 
affirmed, in opposition to all the poets, that Aristode- 
mus himself, and not his two sons, brought them to 
Laconica. Two kings subsequently reigned at 
Sparta. One line descended fi-om Eurysthenes : the 
other line descended from Procles.^ Lycurgus the 

legislator belonged to this line of Procles 

The celebrated constitution which lasted about six 
hundred years, was a mixture of monarchy, aristo- 
cracy, and democracy, and may be thus summed up. 
Two kings ; a senate of twenty-eight nobles ; five 
yearly-elected Ephori; assemblies of the people, com- 

Bright plenty crowns her smiling plain ; 
The firuitful tree, the full-eared grain, 
Their richest stores produce. 

Large herds her spacious valleys fillj 
On many a soft, descending hill 

Her flocks unnumbered stray ; 
No fierce extreme her climate knows, 
Nor chilling frost, nor wintry snows, 

Nor dog-star's scorching ray." 

1 viii, 73. 2 i 5g_ 3 V. 52. 




EUROPE, posed however only of the citizens of Sparta ; equal 
CHAP. III. (Jiyigion of land among 39,000 families ; no trade ; 
iron money ; public and equal education ; no walls ;' 
no fleets ; common tables ; all luxury forbidden ; no 
theatre ; enslaved helots, who alone attended to agri- 
culture and trade. 
Description The Laconians were a numerous people, and dwelt 
nia*ns! ^'^^°' 11^ many cities. They paid an especial attention to 
religious observances,^ and were remarkable for stu- 
dying an extreme brevity of speech,^ but at the 
same time they often said one thing whilst they 
meant another.^ The Spartans themselves were the 
most valiant men amongst the Greeks, and were all 
equal to those who fought at Thermopylae ; the 
other Laconians were also vaKant, but rather infe- 
rior.'^ Demaratus thus briefly sketched their cha- 
racter to Xerxes. " In single combat, the Laconians 
are inferior to none, and v/hen combined they are 
the bravest of mankind. Few indeed they are, and 
. yet not absolutely few ; for they have a master — 
THE Law : whom they fear, far more than your slaves 
fear you. Whatever that master commands they 
will do ; and it inflexibly forbids them to fly from 
battle before any number of enemies, and enjoins 
them to remain in their ranks, and to conquer or 
die. It is utterly impossible that they should list- 
en to your proposals for enslaving Hellas. They 
would oppose you for ever, even if all the rest of 
the Grreeks went over to you ; and you need not 
ask their number, for whether a thousand men or 
more or less should march out, they would cer- 
tainly give you battle." ^ 
Rights and Tlic Spartaus gave to their kings two priest- 
tiKjhkmgs! hoods ; that of the Lacedaemonian, and that of 
the Uranian Zeus. Also the following privileges, 
which may be divided into those during war, and 
those during peace. ^ 
In war. The Spartan kings might levy war against any 

1 ix. 7. Comp. V. f)3; vi. lOG ; vii. 206. ^ ijj, 45. 

3 ix. 54. Comp. V. <J2; vi. 108; viii. 142. * viii. 209, 234. 

5 vii. 102, 104. '■ vi. 56, 57. 


country they pleased, and any Spartan wlio opposed europe. 
them fell under a curse. They were always the ^hap. m. 
first in an advance, and the last in a retreat. A 
hundred chosen men formed their body-guard in the 
field of battle. During the expeditions they sacri- 
ficed as many cattle as they pleased, and took as 
their own share the skins and chines of all the 

In times of peace the Spartan kings enjoyed the in peace. 
following honours. At public sacrifices they were Atpiibiic 
the first to sit down to the feasts ; they were served feasts.'^and 
first ; and they each received a double portion, games. 
They had the right of offering the first libations, and 
were entitled to the skins of the cattle that were sacri- 
ficed. At every new moon, and on the seventh day 
of the month, the state presented each of them with 
a perfect animal fit for sacrifice, in the temple of 
Apollo ; together with a medimnus of barley flour 
and a Laconian quart of wine. At all public 
ffames, they had particular seats appointed. They ^^s^* ^^ 

<D J J ^ 1. ^ xx^ J appointing 

also had the right of selecting the proxeni, or officers the proxeui, 
to receive and entertain foreign ambassadors ; and ^" ^^* ^"" 
of appointing the pythii, or persons sent to consult 
the oracle at Delphi, who dined publicly with the 
kinffs. If the kin^s were absent fi-om the daily pub- Daily aiiovv-- 

^^ T , 1" en 1 jii' ance of food. 

lie meal, two choenices oi nour, and one cotyle oi 
flour were sent to each of their houses. When they 
were present, a double portion of everything was 
given to them ; and they received the same honour 
at every private banquet among-st the citizens. They Keepers of 

J X. JL o J til© orticlcs. 

also preserved the oracles with the privity of the 
pythii, and were the sole iuda^es in deciding upon Guardians 

i--^ -'- -„ ..-•'. o ___ oJr of heiresses. 

the husband for a virgin heiress, who had not been 
betrothed by her father ; and in determining re- Commis- 
specting the public high-ways. If any one desired theTigii- 
to adopt a son, it was also necessary to do it in the ^^'^^^' ^^^- 
presence of the kings. Finally, the kings sat in the Entitled to 

X ^ o J 7 <D ^ scat m the 

council of twenty-eight, where they each had two council of 
votes ; and if prevented fi^om attending the sittings, ^^\^^l^' 

^ vi. 56. 
E 2 


EUROPE, they were represented by their nearest relations 
CHAP. III. amongst the senators.^ 

' ' Oui' author mentions the following particulars re- 

andTustoms specting the manners and customs of the Laconians. 
of Ae peo- ^£^gp ^\^q death of a king, horsemen announced the 
Burial of evcut througliout the whole country; in the town 
"^^'^' however it was made known by an old woman, who 
paraded through the streets, beating a kettle. As 
soon as this had taken place, two freed persons, a man 
and a woman from each house, were forced, under 
the penalty of heavy fines, to disfigure themselves as 
mourners. The Laconians also had the same cus- 
tom as the Asiatic barbarians, for besides the citizens 
of Sparta, a certain number of their subjects through- 
out the country were obliged to join in the lament. 
Accordingly many thousand helots, perioeci, and 
Spartans, men and women, all assembled together in 
one place, and struck their foreheads, and gave them- 
selves uj) to unbounded lamentations, affirming that 
the last king had been the best. If however one of 
the kings fell in war, they made his efiigy, and ex- 
posed it on a richly ornamented couch. After the 
interment, all public business was sujDended for ten 
days ; no assembly was held, and no elections for 
public officials, but the whole interval was spent in 
mourning.^ The people had a custom similar to the 
Persians, for a new king remits all debts due from 
any Spartan to the deceased king, or to the state. ^ 
Hereditary Tlicy also rcsemblcd the Aegyptians, inasmuch as the 
professions. ^^^^ ^^ hcralds, flutc-players, and cooks followed the 
same profession which their father had exercised.* 
At the same time, handicraftsmen were the least re- 
spected, and those were esteemed the most noble 
MisceUane- wlio dcvotcd thcmsclves to war.^ Executions were 
never carried into effect in the day-time, but only at 
night.^ The La(;onians dressed their heads, when 
about to hazard their lives in combat.'^ To the man 
dislumoured by cowardice, a Spartan would neither 
speak nor give any fire.^ When they wished to per- 

1 vi. .57. 2 vi. 58. ' vi. .59. * vi. 60. « jj 157, 

« iv. 14G. ' vii. 209. « yii. 231. 

ous customs. 


suade a man to take a good draught, they said, Europe. 
'' Pour out like a Scythian ; " an expression which ^«^^- "i- 
they had adopted from the time of Cleomenes, who 
contracted from the Scythians a habit of drinking 
unmixed wine, and at last died insane.' 

Herodotus mentions a few towns and other locali- Topography 
ties in Laconica. The most celebrated of all was Sparta. 
Sparta, the noblest city and kingdom in Greece,^ 
and contained 8000 men.^ Near the palace gates 
was a shrine to the hero Astrabacus.* The city 
contained a temple of Talthybius, the herald of 
Agamemnon, whose descendants were called Talthy- 
biadae, and as a privilege, were intrusted with all 
embassies from Sparta.^ There was likewise a tem- 
ple of Apollo,*^ together with temples of the celestial 
Zeus, and of the Lacedaemonian Zeus, of which the 
two kings of Sparta held the two priesthoods.'' Men- 
tion is also made of the Aegidae as being a principal The Ae- 
tribe in Sparta.^ They seem to have been a priest ^^ ^^' 
family of the Cadmeians, like the Grephyraeans at 
Athens.^ Herodotus likewise mentions the Car^ 
neian,'" Hyacinthian,'' and Gymnopaedian festi- 
vals.'^ At the town of Therapne stood a temple of Therapne. 
Helena, situated above stood a temple of Phoebus.'^ 
The town of Pitane sent a lochus of troops to Pitane. 
Plataea.'* Cardamyle is alluded to as being situ- Cardamyie. 
ated near Asine.'^ Oresteum was on the borders of oresteum. 

On Mount Thornax stood a golden statue of Mount 
Apollo : the Laconians wished to buy this gold of 
Croesus, but he gave it them as a present.'^ Mount ^ount 
Taygetus was once the seat of the Minyans, who 
from thence migrated partly to Elis, and partly to 
the island of Thera.'^ Cape Taenarum is the place Cape Tae- 

-•■ ■'• narum. 

1 V. 84. 2 vii. 209. 3 vii. 234. * vi. 69. 

5 vii. 134. « vi. 57. '^ vi. 56. ^ jy, 149 

9 The Aegidae probably became incorporated with the three general 
tribes, which are to be found in every Dorian community. There does 
not appear to have been much distinction between the tribes at Sparta, 
as by the constitution of Lycurgus, all the freemen were placed on a 
footing of equality. 

!« vii. 206. " ix. 7, H. '' vi. 0,7. '^ vi. 61. '* ix. 53. 

15 viii. 73. 16 ix. 11. iM. 69. "1^,145,149. 


EUROPE, where Arion is said to have been carried by a dol- 
CHAP. III. phin, and where there was a small brazen statue re- 
^^Q presenting the story.' To Cape Malea the Argolic 

Maiea. territory had extended in ancient times. ^ 

The Laconians sent ten ships to Artemisimn,^ and 
sixteen to Salamis.* The description of this people 
concludes the geography of the Peloponnesus. 

1 i. 23, 24. 2 i. 82, ^ viii, 1. * viii. 43. 



Division into ten distiicts. — I. Megaris, general description. — Hero- EUROPE, 
dotus's account. — -Erroneously supposed to be the most westerly point in chap. iv. 

Greece. — Topography: Megara, Nisaea, Scu-onian Way. — -11. Attica, 

general description. — Ancient history: kings, archons. — Herodotus's ac- 
count : origin of the Athenians. — lonians enter Attica.^ — Ionian migi'a- 
tion. — Athenians regarded as Ionian Pelasgians. — Manners, customs, 
etc. — Herodotus's description of Attica and Athens. — Four ancient divi- ■ 
sions of the Athenians. — Re-classification into ten tribes. — Each tribe 
formed ten demi. — Three factions. — Public buildings, etc. : temple of 
Aeacus, sepulchre of Cimon, grotto of Pan, temple of Boreas, Ennea- 
crunos, Barathron, temple of Heracles, Areiopagus, harbours of Phale- 
rum, Munychia, and Piraeus. — The Acropolis, general description. — He- 
rodotus's account : sanctuary of Aglaurus, ancient wooden hedge, 
Pelasgic wall, temple of Erectheus, the Serpent, the salt Spring, the 
sacred Olive, trophies in the Propylaea. — Topography : Eleusis, Mara- 
thon, Lipsydrium, Alopecae, Oenoe, Hysiae, Brauron, Decelea, Thoricus, 
Anaphlj^stus, Oropus, Pallene, Anagyrus, Aphidnae, Sphendale, Thriasian 
plain. Cape Sunium, Mount Laurium, Cape Colias, Zoster, Paeonia, 
Mount Hymettus, Mount Aegaleos, Mount Cithaeron, river Ilissus. — 
ni. BoEOTiA, general description : History. — Herodotus's account : Cad- 
means. — Topogi-aphy: Thebes, with the temple of Amphiaraus, the 
oracle, and the gifts of Croesus ; Delium, Thespia, Eleon, Tanagra, river 
Thermodon, Coronaea, Lebadeia, Scolus, Acraephia, Orchomenus, Ery- 
thrae, Plataea. — General description of the Plataean territory. — View of 
the scene of the battle.— Plan of the battle : 1st position ; 2nd position ; 
3rd position. — Sepulchres of the slain. — IV. Phocis, general description. 
- — General description of Delphi : Castalian spring, temple of Athene 
Pronaea, temple of Apollo, the oracle.' — Herodotus's account of the temple, 
and its treasm-es : throne of Midas ; silver offerings and golden bowls of 
Gj^ges ; silver bowl andiron saucer of Alyattes. — Gifts of Croesus : 117 
golden demi-plinths, golden lion, gold and silver mixing vessels, and 
other offerings.-— Miscellaneous gifts from the Lacedaemonians, Euel- 
thon, Phocians, Pausanias, and fi-om the Greeks after the battle of Sala- 
mis. — Herodotus's description of Mount Parnassus. — -Topography : route 
of the army of Xerxes. — V. LocRis, general description.— Eastern or 
Opuntian Locrians.— Western, or Locri Ozolae. — Herodotus's account of 
the Ozolae : Amphissa.— The Opuntian Locrians. — Thermopjdae as de- 
scribed by Herodotus and including Mails : — enclosed by the Trachi- 
nian rocks ; Anticyra ; river Spercheius ; river Dyras ; river Melas ; 
Trachis — the widest part ; ravine of the river Asopus ; river Phoenix ; 
narrowest part ; Thermopylae ; Anthela ; temple of Demeter ; seats of 
Amphictyons ; hot springs ; Phocian wall and gates ; stone lion to 
Leonidas ; Alpenus ; the encampments ; pass of Anopaea ; inscriptions 




EUROPE, at Thermopylae. — VI. Doris, mother country of the Dorians. — Topogra- 
phy: Pindus, Erineus. — VII. Aetolia; scattered notices. — VIII. Acar- 
NANIA ; river Achelous, Echinades islands, Anactorium, and Teloboae. 
— IX. Thess.aly, general description. — Thessaly Proper, viz. Histiaeotis, 
Pelasgiotis, Phthiotis, and Thessaliotis. — Two other districts. Magnesia 
and Mahs. — Herodotus's account : Thessaly anciently a lake enclosed 
by Pehon and Ossa, Olympus, Pindus, and Othrys ; formed by the rivers 
Peneus, Apidanus, Onochonus, Enipeus, Pamisus, and Lake Boebeis. — 
Outlet at Tempe formed by an earthquake. — Tribes of Thessaly. — Pass 
of Tempe.-— Pass of Gonnus. — Topography : lolcus, Gonnus, Mehboea, 
Alos, Larissa, Casthanaea, Gulf of Magnesia. — X. Epirus, scattered 
notices in Herodotus. — Thesprotians, Molossians, Epidamnus, Ambra- 
ciots, and Apollonia. — Oracle at Dodona : Aegyptian tradition of its 
origin ; Greek ti-aditions ; opinion of Herodotus. 

into ten 

NoETHEEN Geeece inaj be divided into ten dis- 
tricts, viz. Megaris, Attica, Boeotia, Pliocis, Locris, 
(including Malis,) Doris, Aetolia, Acarnania, Thes- 
saly, and Epirus. These included the whole terri- 
tory from the isthmus to the Cambunian and Ce- 
raunian mountains. Their relative position on the 
map was as follows. 

_, . Locris. ^ 

Phocis. (;opuntians.) 



I. Megaeis was a small mountainous district on the Europe. 
isthmus beyond Corinth, between the Corinthian and °«^p- 1^- 
Saronic Gulfs. Its only plain was the one on which i. megaris 
the city of Megara was situated. General de- 

Megaris was conquered by the Athenians^ under HeTodotus's 
Pisistratus. Herodotus says it was the most westerly ^'=''''^'^*- 
point of Europe reached by the Persians.^ This Erroneous- 
statement is incorrect, as the expedition against Jt to ^'be^tht 
Delphi^ proceeded much farther towards the west. {""'oJ'^^^-^''" 
The general course of the invaders, however, was Greece. 
from east to west ; and Herodotus speaks of the 
farthest point of this course as if it were in fact the 
farthest point westward. The Megarians sent 20 ships 
to Artemisium* and the same number to Salamis,^ 
and 3000 of their soldiers fought well at Plataea.^ 

Herodotus mentions the following places in Me- Topography 
garis. Megara, the capital, and native place of Megara. 
Eupalinus, who constructed the great aqueduct at 
Samos ; ^ Nisaea, which was taken by Pisistratus ; ^ Nisaea. 
[and was the port of Megara, and about 2 miles from 
the city ;] and the Scironian Way, which was blocked scironian 
up by the Peloponnesians during the Persian war.^ ^^' 

II. Attica is a triangular peninsula, having two of ii- attica. 
its sides washed by the sea, whilst a third is protected scription. 
by mountains. On the eastern side is the Aegean 

Sea ; on the western is the Saronic Gulf. The base 
on the north is formed by the following mountains. 
The range which descends from Northern Greece 
forms a knot at the huge mass of Cithaeron, from 
which two chief branches run off. First, the Oenean 
mountains in a south-westerly direction through 
Megaris to the Scironian rocks on the Saronic Gulf. 
Secondly, Mount Parnes, in an easterly direction to 
the sea-coast. These two branches, with the central 
mass of Cithaeron, completely protect the Attic pe- 
ninsula from the remainder of Greece. Through 
the range of Cithaeron and Parnes were three prin- 
cipal passes into Boeotia. The western was called 
the Three Heads by the Boeotians, and the Oak's 

1 i. 59. 2 ix. 14. 3 viii, 35—37. ^ viii. 1. " viii. 45. 

« ix. 21, 28. ^ iii. 60. ^ j. 59. 9 yiij. 71. 


EUROPE. Heads by the Atlieniaiis. The central was called 
^"^''- '"'"• Phyle. The eastern was called Deceleia. The 
west and eastern passes are both mentioned in He- 
rodotus. Other ranges descend into the interior 
under the names of Aegaleos, Hjnnettus, Laurium, 
etc. The whole territory of Attica is distributed 
into five natural divisions. (1.) The Eleusinian or 
Thriasiau plain. (2.) The Athenian plain. (3.) 
The Diacria, or Highlands, including the plain of 
Marathon. (4.) The Mesogea, or midland district. 
(5.) The Paralia, or sea-coast district. 
Ancient his- At a vcry ancient period we find Attica governed 
toiy. i^y g^ lijjg of kings a23parently commencing with 

Cecrops and ending with Codrus. Cecrops lived a 
little before Deucalion : Codrus reigned for some 
time after the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus. 
This monarchical period therefore extended from 
about B. c. 1550 to b. c. 1050. The most important 
princes of this mythical line were the following. 
Kings, Cecrops, the first king, called an autochthon, or 

earth-born. The Athenians called themselves au- 
tochthonous or aborigines. Cecro^^s civilized the 
Athenians, instituted marriage, divided Attica into 
twelve communities, and introduced a new mode of 
worship, inasmuch as he abolished bloody sacrifices 
to Zeus and substituted cakes. 

Cranaus, who reigned at the time of the flood of 

Amphictyon, who married the daughter of Cra- 


Ion (?) — the fabulous ancestor of the lonians. 
Traditions say that the Athenians, in their war with 
the Eleusinians, called in the assistance of Ion, who 
accordingly became their king between the reigns of 
Erectheus and Codrus. 

Theseus, who united the twelve communities 
established by Cecro^is into one state, and made 
Athens the capital. 

Codrus, tlio last king. 
Archons. After tlic dcatli of Codrus the monarchy was abol- 


ished, and tlie supreme executive power was vested europe. 
in an archon. The office at first was hereditary and ^^^^- ^^- 
for life, and the succession of these perpetual and 
hereditary archons lasted from about b. c. 1050 to 
B. c. 680, commencing with Medon and terminating 
with Alcmaeon. After the death of Alcmaeon it 
was decreed that the archonship should be held for 
ten years only. Six archons followed in succession. 
Finally another change was effected. The archon- 
ship was declared to be a yearly office, and its 
duties were distributed amongst nine archons in- 
stead of one. The facts recorded of this period 
down to the legislation of Solon, b. c. 594, are few 
and uncertain. Draco, b. c. 621, was the author of 
the first written code of laws at Athens. He affixed 
the penalty of death to nearly every crime. Solon, 
b. c. 594, established another and a better system of 
legislation. The government as altered by him 
may be thus described: 1. Division of the peo- 
ple into four classes, according to property. 2. 
Offices of state filled only by citizens of the first 
three classes. 3. Nine annual archons at the head 
of affairs. 4. Council of four hundred chosen annu- 
ally by lot to debate upon all matters previously to 
their being submitted to the people. 5. The right 
of confirming the laws, electing magistrates, and 
debating all matters decided upon by the council of 
four hundred, was given to the people. 6. The 
council of the Areiopagus was restored and reno- 
vated. The Pisistratidae subsequently obtained the 
tyranny of Athens, but were expelled prior to the 
Persian war. 

The Athenians were a Pelasgian race, who had Herodotus's 
settled in Attica fi:'om a very ancient period. ^ First origki'of 
of all they were called Cranai ; ^ next under Cecrops ^^^^ ^*^^'''" 
they were called Cecropidae ; and then under Erec- 
theus they were called Athenians.^ Their name and 

1 i. 56; vii. 161. 

2 Cranaus, as we have seen, was posterior to Cecrops. Herodotus 
therefore either followed a peculiar chronology, or else the name of 
Cranai was derived from the rough and rugged nature of the soil, 

^ viii. 44. 





loiiians en- 
ter Attica. 

Ionian mi- 

regarded as 
Ionian Pe- 

language however, and perhaps their very race, were 
all changed by the Dorian conquest of the Pelopon- 
nesus. The Ionian Aegialeis, driven from their 
Peloponnesian settlements by the Achaeans, entered 
Attica.^ The traditionary account of this migration 
is preserved in the story of Ion, son of Xuthus and 
grandson of Hellen.^ The lonians would therefore 
ajipear to be Hellenes. They either conquered 
Attica, or became amalgamated with the old Pelas- 
gian inhabitants. Ion is mentioned as the leader of 
the Attic armies ; ^ and the Athenians were subse- 
quently divided into four tribes after his four sons.* 
This addition to the Attic population led to what is 
called the great Ionian migration to the coast and 
islands of Asia Minor. The emigrants chiefly con- 
sisted of lonians, together with natives of Attica, 
and a motley band from other parts of Hellas.^ A 
doubtfal po^^ulation remained behind ; apparently a 
mixture of lonians and Pelasgians. A story is told 
of some Pelasgians from the island of Samothrace 
who became neighbours of the Athenians,^ but were 
subsequently expelled from Attica.^ In the time of 
Herodotus the Athenian people boasted of their 
Pelasgian descent, but were regarded as lonians, 
though they considered the latter name as a re- 
proach.^ Their language, which was originally 
Pelasgic, and distinct from the Hellenic, was 
changed.^ They had in fact become Hellenes, and 
they undoubtedly considered themselves as Hel- 
lenes, and to be bound to all the other nations of 
Hellas by the ties of blood, of language, and of re- 
ligion.^'^ The great difficulty in Herodotus is his ap- 
parent confusion between the Pelasgians and the 
lonians. Sometimes he regards them as the same 
race, for in one important passage he contrasts the 
Dorians as an Hellenic race with the lonians as a 
Pelasgic ; " and he certainly considered some of tlie 
lonians to be as mucli the aboriginal inhabitants of 

1 i. 14.5, 14G ; vii. 94. - viii. 44. 

' i. 14G. '■ ii. 51. ' vi. 1.37. 

'■' i. 57. '" viii. 144; ix. 7- 

3 Ibid. * V. 66, 

« i. 14.3; comp. V. 69, 
'1 i. 56. 


Hellas as the Pelasgians.* The best way of getting europe. 
over the difficulty appears to be, to suppose chap. iv. 
that the lonians and Pelasgians were identical, and ' 

that Herodotus followed the result of his own re- 
searches in o|)position to the prevalent belief that 
the lonians were Hellenes.^ 

The Athenians were the first people in Hellas J^^^^^^^^c 
who made the images of Hermes fascino erecto, 
a custom which they learnt not from the Aegyptians, 
but from those Pelasgians who came from Samo- 
thrace and settled for a while at Athens.^ Their 
women originally wore the Dorian costume, which 
nearly resembled the Corinthian. [It consisted of a 
woollen chiton without sleeves, which was fastened 
over both shoulders by clasps or buckles.] When 
the single Athenian survivor returned from the 
fatal attack on Aegina, the women pierced him to 
death with their clasps, each asking him what had 
become of her husband. The Athenians then com- 
pelled their wives to change their Dorian for the 
Ionian chiton, which had no clasps or buckles, [but 
was a long and loose linen garment, reaching to the 
feet, and having wide sleeves.] This Ionian costume 
came originally from Caria.* 

Attica was a country but ill adapted for cavalry, J®^°'^°*''^'® 
and so protected by the line of mountains on the of Attica 
north, that the only way by which an invading army ^nd Athens. 
could retreat into Boeotia was through the narrow 
passes of Mount Cithaeron.^ It is said that in ancient 
times it was the only country in the world that pro- 
duced olive trees." Athens was the chief town, and 
appears in the time of Aristagoras to have had a 
population of 30,000 men,^ including the Gephyrae- 
ans, who were descended from the Cadmeian Phoe- 
nicians. These Gephyraeans were however ex- 
cluded from certain privileges of citizenship, which 
are not worth mentioning,^ and they possessed 
sanctuaries of their own, in which the other Atheni- 

1 viii_. 73. 

2 Thiiiwall, Hist, of Greece, chaps, ii. and iv. Comp. Grote, Part ii. 
chap. 2. 

3 ii. 51. * V. 87, 88. 5 ix. 13. « v. 82. ' v. 97. ' v. 57. 





Four an- 
cient diyi- 
sious of tlie 

cation into 
ten tribes. 

Each tribe 
formed ten 

Three fac- 




Temple of 

Sepulchre of 

Grotto of 

Temple of 


ans could take no share. Theii' temj)le and mys- 
teries of the Achaean Demeter ^ were the most 
celebrated. The Athenians as a body were origin- 
ally divided into fom^ classes, which were named 
after the four sons of Ion — Geleon, Aegicores, Ar- 
gades, and Hoples. 

Cleisthenes, the Alcmaeonid, and grandson of the 
tyrant of Sicyon, abolished this classification, and 
divided the people into ten tribes, or phylae, and 
named them all but one after heroes who belonged 
to the land, [viz. Erectheis, Aegeis, Pandionis, Leon- 
tis, Acamantis, Oeneis, Cecropis, Hippothoontis, 
Aeantis, Antiochis,] in order that the Athenians 
might not have the same tribes as the lonians. The 
exception was the tribe of Aeantis, named after 
Ajax, who, though a stranger, was added because he 
was a near neighbour and ally. Each of these tribes, 
or phylae, contained ten demi.^ We also find the 
inhabitants of Attica divided into three parties or 
factions, viz. the pediaei, or lowlanders ; the parali, 
or inhabitants of the coast ; and the diacrii, or high- 

Beside the sanctuaries of the Gephyraeans already 
mentioned, Herodotus mentions many other public 
buildings in Athens. In the Agora was a temple to 
Aeacus, which had been erected and dedicated at 
the time of the Aeginetan war.* In the front of the 
city, and beyond the road through Coela, was the 
sepulchre of Cimon the father of Miltiades, and op- 
posite were buried the mares with which he three 
times obtained the victory in the Olympiades.^ Be- 
low the Acropolis was the sanctuary [grotto] of Pan, 
who was yearly propitiated by the Athenians with 
sacrifices and a torch-race, in consequence of a per- 
sonal remonstrance on the part of the deity. ^ By 
the river Ilissus was a temple to Boreas, which the 
Athenians erected in gratitude for the storm which 
destroyed 400 Persian ships off Magnesia.^ Herod- 
otus also mentions the spring called Enneacrunos ; ^ 

V. (51. 

2 V. GO, fiO. 
« vi. 10.3. 

» i. 59. 
vii. 189. 

V. 89. 
vi. 1.37. 

■' vi. 10.3. 


the baratliron,^ into wliich the Athenians threw the Europe. 
ambassadors of Darius when they^ came to demand chap. iv. 
earth and water ; and the temple of Heracles at Cy- Barathron. 
nosarffes,^ near which was the tomb of Auchimolius temple of 

7 ^ 1 A T 1 1 -n Heracles. 

at Alopecae. Oj)posite the Acropolis was the hill 
Areiopagus, from whence the Persians besieged Areiopagus. 
Athens.^ The city had three harbours, namely, Harbom-sof 
Phalerum,*' Munychia,^ and Piraeus.^ In the time MmlyXa, 
of the Persian war Phalerum was the real port.^ andPhaeus. 

The Acropolis was a square craggy rock in the The acio- 
centre of the city. It rose abruptly to a height of Snerai de- 
150 feet. The summit was flat, and about 1000 feet scnption. 
long from east to west, and about 500 feet broad 
jfrom north to south. It was the fortress, the sanc- 
tuary, and the museum of Athens. The rocks on 
the north were called the Long Rocks. On this 
side was the sanctuary of Agiaurus. Opposite the 
western declivity stood the hill Areiopagus and the 
altar of the twelve gods. On the Acropolis itself 
was the Erechtheium, which coiitained the temple 
of Athene, and the serpent, the olive, and the salt- 
spring described by our author. 

At the front of the Acropolis, [on the northern Herodotus's 
side,] behind the gate and the road, [which were ^''^""'^ ' 
apparently at the western extremity,] the ascent was 
very precipitous ; but, nevertheless, the Persians con- 
trived to mount it near the sanctuary of Agiaurus, Sanctuaryof 
the daughter of Cecrops.^" In ancient times the ele- Ancienr* 
vation was enclosed by a hedge ; and when the ora- ^eXl™ 
cle declared that a wooden wall would alone protect 
the Athenians from the Persian invaders, many of 
the old citizens considered that this hedge was the 
wooden wall to which reference was made.^^ A stone 
wall was built by the Pelasgians who came from Sa- 
mothrace,^^ and called the Pelass'ic wall or fort,^^ Peiasgic 

.' • ^ wall. 

which was sufficiently strong to defy the Spartans 

^ The barathron was a deep pit at Athens, with hooks on the sides, in 
which criminals were cast. The Persian envoj''S were told to get their 
earth and water there. 

2 vii. 133. 3 V. 63; vi. 116. * v. 63. ^ viii. 52. « viii. 91. 

•^ viii. 76. 8 viii. 85. » v. 63; vi. 116. i" viii. 53. ^' vii. 142. 

12 vi. 137. " V. 64. 

CHAP. lY. 


EUROPE, when the Pisistratidae took refage in the citadeL ^ This 
Pelasgic wall was apparently dismantled before the 
Persian war, for when the Acropolis was attacked by- 
Xerxes, the only fortifications appeared to be pali- 
sades and other works constructed of wood.^ In the 
Temple of Acropolis was a temple dedicated to Erechtheus 
Erectheus. ^^^ earth-bom.^ The Athenians said that a large 
The serpent scrpcnt uscd to Hve in the temple, whom they re- 
garded as the guardian of the Acropolis, and to whom 
they brought honey-cakes every month. These cakes 
were always consumed until Xerxes arrived, after 
which they remained untouched ; and the Athenians 
were consequently more anxious to abandon their 
city, as they considered that the god had forsaken 
The salt tlic citadcL* In the Erechtheium was the salt spring 
^^''"^' which had gushed from the trident of Poseidon, and 
The sacred ^he sacrcd olive by which Athene, when contesting 
with the latter, had proved her claim to the coun- 
try. The olive tree was burnt by the Persians with 
the rest of the temple, l)ut on the second day after, 
a shoot was seen to have sprouted from the stump 
Trophies in to tlic height of a cubit.^ Herodotus also mentions 
lael. '°^^' the two following trophies which were preserved in 
the Propylaea. 

Fii'st, a brazen chariot and four horses, which 
stood on the left hand at the entrance, and bore the 
following inscription : 

" Athena's sons o'ercame in feats of war 
Boeotians and Chalcidians, and subdued 
Their pride within a dark and iron dungeon, 
And tythed the spoil, and gave these mares to Pallas." 

Secondly, the fetters of the Boeotians and of the 
Chalcidians, who had both been defeated and taken 
prisoners by the Athenians on the same day. These 
fetters were still hanging in the time of Herodotus 
on a wall which had been much scorched by fire 
by the Mode, and which was oj^posite the temple 
that faces the west.^ The Propylaea was subse- 
quently rebuilt by Pericles in the most magnificent 

' V. G.'). 2 viii^ 51 3 yjii, 55_ 4 viii. 41. 

5 viii. .55. '"■ V. 77. 


style with white marble, and covered the whole Europe. 
western end of the Acropolis. It contained a temple ^hap. iv. 
of Ge Curatrophus and Demeter Chloe, which ap- 
pears to have been tlie temple alluded to by Hero- 
dotus as the one which faced the west. 

In Attica generally the following localities are Topography 
mentioned by Herodotus. Eleusis,' where there Eieusis. 
was a magnificent temple of Demeter which was 
burnt down by the Persians,^ and where the grove 
of the goddesses (Demeter and Cora or Perse- 
phone, called mother and daughter) was cut down 
by Cleomenes.^ Marathon, the best country in all Marathon. 
Attica for cavalry,* and containing a sanctuary of 
Heracles.^ Lipsydrium, above Paeonia,^ which was Lipsydrium 
fortified by the Alcmaeonidae, after the death of 
Hipparchus.'^ Aloj)ecae, where was the tomb of the Aiopecae. 
Spartan general Anchemolius, who assisted the 
Alcmaeonidae against the Pisistratidae.^ It was not 
far from Cynosarges. Oenoe and Hysiae, the oenoe. 
extreme demi of Attica.^ Brauron, from whence the B/auroli. 
Pelasgians carried off the Athenian virgins at the 
feast of Artemis,^*' [i. e. the young girls who carried 
the sacred baskets.] Decelea,'^ whose inhabitants had 
performed so great a service in the mythical period, 
in showing the Tyndaridae where Theseus had de- 
posited Helen, that at Sparta they enjoyed an ex- 
emption fi:om tribute, and a precedency in assem- 
blies ; and the Laconians spared the place when 
they ravaged the rest of Attica during the Pelopon- 
nesian war.^^ Also Thoricus ; ^^ Anaphlystus ;'* Thoricus. 
Oropus ; " Pallene, the native place of Ameinias tu^^ ^^ 
the Athenian, ^^ which contained a temple of the pEe. 
Pallenian Athene, where Pisistratus defeated the 

1 V. 74. 2 ix. 65. 3 vi. 75. * vi. 102. ' vi. 116. 

® Bobrik, following Wesseling and Valckenaer, reads TldpvrjOoc instead 
of Jlaioviric- I have followed Gaisford in adopting the older reading. 
This Paeonia in Attica was apparently a small town or district on the 
southern slopes of Mount Parnes, and the family seat of the Paeonids, 
who were kinsmen of the Alcmaeonids. The Paeonids of the Attic tribe 
of Leontis are mentioned in inscriptions.* 

''v. 62. ^ Y.63. «v. 75. 1" vi. 137; iv. 145. 

" vi. 92; ix. 15. ^^ ix. 73. Comp. Dahlmann, chap. iii. 

13 iv. 9. " Ibid. 15 vi. 100. i« viii. 84. 

* Grotefend de Demis Att. p. 40. 






Cape Suni- 

Mount Lau- 

Cape Colias. 


Mount Hy- 

Mount Ae- 

Atlienians. It lay on one of the roads between 
Athens and Marathon.^ Finally, Anagyrus, the na- 
tive place of Enmenes ; ^ Aphidnae, the native place 
of Timodemns ; ^ and Sphendale, at which Mardo- 
nius halted on his route from Decelea to Tanagra/ 

The Athenians sent 127 ships to Artemisium, and 
supplied 20 others which were manned by Chalci- 
dians.* Subsequently they sent 53 more ships. ^ At 
Artemisium about one-half of their vessels were de- 
stroyed, but still they furnished 180 ships at Sala- 
mis, which was more than were supplied by any of 
the other allies. '^ 

Herodotus also mentions the following physical 
features of Attica. The Thriasian plain, which was 
well adajjted for a battle-field.^ Cape Sunium,^ 
where one of the Phoenician vessels was dedicated 
after the battle of Salamis.''' Mount Lauriuim, cele- 
brated for its silver mines, the profits of which the 
Athenians were about to share at the rate of ten 
drachmas per- man, when Themistocles persuaded 
them to equip 200 triremes with the money. ^^ Cape 
Colias, where many of the Persian ships were 
wrecked after the battle of Salamis.*^ Zoster, where 
some small promontories jutted out from the main- 
land.'^ Paeonia ^^ on Mount Parnes (?). Mount 
Hymettus, whose underlying lands were given to 
the Pelasgians in return for the wall which they 
built round the Acropolis. These Pelasgians were 
afterwards driven from this settlement, either be- 
cause they insulted the young Athenian women at 
the Nine Springs, or because the Athenians desired 
repossession of the lands after seeing them culti- 
vated.'^ Mount Aegaleos, from whence Xerxes 
viewed the battle of Salamis.'^ Mount Cithaeron, 
with narrow passes leading into Boeotia, which 
were called the Three Heads by the Boeotians, and 
Oak's Heads by the Athenians.'^ Lastly, the river 

1 i. 62. 2 vjii_ 93 3 yjji 125. * ix. 15. '^ viii. 1, 

* viii. 14. ■^ viii. 44. ® viii. 65 ; ix. 7. ^ iv. 99. 

1" viii, 121. 1' vii. 144. '- viii. 96. '-^ viii. 107. 

'* See note to page 65. '^ ^i 137, ic y\{i 90. n j^. 39. 


Ilissus, near which the Athenians erected a temple Europe. 
to Boreas.' ^»^^- ^^- 

III. BoEOTiA may be described as a large hoi- ^ly^j. 
low basin, enclosed by mountains. On the south {jj'''boeo- 
were Cithaeron and Parnes ; on the west was tia. Gene- 
Mount Helicon ; on the north were the slopes of tfon.^^"'^'" 
Parnassus and the Opuntian range ; whilst on the 
east a continuation of the Opuntian chain extended 
along the sea-coast as far as the mouth of the river 
Asopus. This basin, however, is divided into two 
distinct valleys, by a range of elevations running 
across the country from Mount Helicon to the Eu- 
boean Sea. Each of these two valleys has its lake 
and river. The northern valley is drained by the 
river Cephissus, whose waters form the lake Copais. 
The southern valley is drained by the river Asopus, 
and includes Lake Helice. 

In ancient times these two valleys were under the History, 
separate dominion of two celebrated towns ; Orcho- 
menus in the north, and Thebes in the south. Or- 
chomenus was inhabited by the Minyans ; Thebes, 
by the Cadmeans. Sixty years after the taking of 
Troy the Aeolian Boeotians, driven from Phthiotis 
in Thessaly by the Thessalians, invaded this terri- 
tory, and expelled the Minyans from Orchomenus 
and the Cadmeans from Thebes. The Minyans fled 
to Laconica.^ The Cadmeans went first to Athens, 
and then to Lemnos, Samothrace, and the coasts of 
Aeolis ; but the Gephyraeans and Aegids, who were 
priest families of the Cadmeans, permanently set- 
tled at Athens and Sparta.^ Twenty years after 
this Aeolian conquest of Boeotia, the Dorians in- 
vaded the Peloponnesus ; and some of the old Pelo- 
ponnesian inhabitants, instead of subsiding into an 
inferior caste, proceeded through Boeotia towards 
Asia. "On their way they were joined by so many 
of the Aeolian Boeotians, that the movement was 
called the Aeolian migration. At the commence- 
ment of the historical period, we find the principal 
cities of Boeotia formed into a confederacy, of which 

^ vii. 189. ^ Comp. page 45, 46. ^ Comp. page 53,. 61. 

F 2 



■with the 
temple of 

EUROPE. Thebes was the head, and Orchomenus the second 
«iAP. IV. jj-^ importance. Plataea withdrew from this con- 
federacy, and placed herself under the protection of 
xithens as early as b. c. 519. 
Heiodotus's Scarccly any information respecting the Boeotians 
is furnished by our author. We can only learn 
that their sandals, or clogs, must have been different 
from those worn by the other Hellenes, for Herodo- 
tus compares them with those of the Babylonians.' 
cadmeaus. The foUowcrs of the Phoenician Cadmus, called 
Cadmeans, settled in Boeotia, and introduced the 
knowledge of letters.^ Many of them, together with 
many Minyans of Orchomenus, joined the Ionian 
Topography Hcrodotus mcntious the following places in Boeo- 
Thebes, ^ia. Thcbcs, the capital, and a fortified town,^ con- 
taining a temple and oracle of the Ismenian Apollo, 
and a sanctuary of Amphiaraus. The oracle of 
Apollo was consulted by victims, the same as at 
Olympia. In his temple Herodotus saw several 
tripods bearing inscriptions in Cadmean letters, 
which nearly resembled the Ionian. The first was 
about the age of Laius the son of Labdacus, who 
was grandson of Cadmus. It bore the following in- 
scription : 

" Amphitryon dedicated me on his return from the Teleboans." 

The inscriptions on two other tripods were in hex- 
ameters. One was in the time of Oedipus the son of 
Laius, and ran thus : 

" Scaeus, the victor boxer, placed me here, 
A beauteous gift to darting-far Apollo." 

The other was given by King Laodamas, son of 
Eteocles, and had these words : 

" Laodamas, the monarch, placed me here, . 

A beauteous gift to glancing-far Apollo." * 

The oracle. The oraclcs of Ampliiaraus were given to persons 
in their dreams, for they had to sleep one night in 
the temple, [after fasting one day and abstaining 


V. 57, 5S. 3 i. 14G. * ix. 86. 

V. 59—61. 


from wine for three days.^ ] This oracle could only Europe. 
be consulted by strangers, as no Theban might chap. iv. 
sleep in the temple ; for Amphiaraus had sent to ask 
whether Thebes would have him for a prophet or an 
ally, upon which the Thebans chose the latter.^ 

Croesus, king of Lydia, having learnt the virtues Gifts of 
and sufferings of Amphiaraus, presented to him a 
shield made entirely of gold and a massive golden 
spear, which were still to be seen in the time of 
Herodotus in the temple of the Ismenian Apollo.^ 
The Thebans sent 400 men to Thermopylae.* 

Beside Thebes, notice is taken of the following 
cities. Delium, which was situated in the Theban Deiium. 
territory on the coast opj)osite Chalcis. A Phoeni- 
cian vessel carried away from this place a gilt image 
of Apollo, but Datis the Persian general deposited 
it at Delos, where it remained until the Thebans 
fetched it back twenty years afterwards.^ Thespia, Thespia. 
which was burnt by Xerxes,^ and sent 700 men to 
Thermopylae.'' Eleon.^ Tanagra,^ and its district, Eieon. 
which on the arrival of Cadmus was given up to the 
Gephyraeans. The latter were afterwards expelled 
from thence by the Argives, and proceeded to Athens, 
where they were enrolled as citizens under certain 
restrictions.^" Between Tanagra and Glissas flowed 
the river Thermodon.^^ Coronaea, near Thebes. ^^ River Ther- 
Lebadeia, which contained the cave and oracle of coronaea. 
Trophonius.^" Scolus, which was included in the scoiS?'^' 
Theban territory.^* Acraephia, close by the precinct AcraepMa. 
of the Ptoan Apollo, which belonged to the Thebans, 
and stood above Lake Copais, at the foot of a moun- 
tain. The oracle was consulted by the messenger 
from Mardonius, and replied in the Carian language.^^ 
Orchomenus, the native place of Thersander.^** Ery- oichome- 
thrae.^^ Lastly, Plataea, which was burnt by Xerxes.'^ Erythrac. 
Its territory was separated from that of Thebes by ^^^t-'^^^- 
the river Asopus, and by a line drawn by Llysiae, 
from the Asopus to Mount Cithaeron.^'' The Pla- 

1 Philostrat. Fit. Apoll. ii. 37. ^ viii. 134. ^ i. 52. 

* vii. 202. 5 vi, 118. « viii. 50. ^ vii. 202. * v. 43. 

« ix. 15. 10 V. 57. " ix. 43. i^ v. 79. ^^ i. 46; viii. 134. 
1* ix. 15. 15 viii. 135. i« ix. 16. " ix'. 15. '^ vii. 50. i» vi. 108. 


EUROPE, taeans assisted the Athenians with all their forces 
CHAP. IT. Marathon ; ^ they manned several of the Atheni> 

ships at Artemisium ; ^ but were prevented by an 
accident from fighting at Salamis.^ They furnishe'^ 
600 hoplites at the battle of Plataea.* 
General de- The city of Plataca was situated on the slope 
the^piatae- Mouut Cithacron, where its terraces descend into 
an territory, ^j^g great plain of Tlicbes. The Plataeans, intrenc' 
ed behind their native crags, had early defende^^ 
themselves from the encroachments of Thebes, anrl 
separated their state from the Boeotian confederacy 
Close behind the mountain wall of Cithaeron, w 
the fo"iendly territory of Attica, ever ready to su 
com* in the hour of need. The fortunes of Plataea 
were thus naturally united with those of Athens. 
Both had shared the glory and danger of Marathon ; 
and both fought side by side at the great battle o. 
Plataea ; whilst the Thebans appeared as traitors in 
the ranks of the Persian invaders. 

An idea of the country may be obtained by a due 
consideration of the following prominent features. 
First, the range of Cithaeron, gradually sloping to- 
wards the north in a succession of terraces to the 
great plain of Thebes. Next, the river Oeroe, which 
runs away to the west ; and, farther north, at the 
bottom of the slope, the river Asopus, which runs 
away to the east. Lastly, the city of Plataea, which 
was situated in the west, on the river Oeroe ; and 
the towns of Hysiae and Erythrae, which stood in the 
east, on the slope of Cithaeron, and near the Asopus. 
The circumstances of the battle may be clearly un- 
derstood, by remembering that the Greek forces oc- 
cupied three distinct positions to the south of the 
Asopus at three different periods ; whilst the Per- 
sians remained, for the most j^art, to the north of th 
river Asopus, where they j^ossessed a fortified camp, 
from Avhencc they made tem2:)orary advances against 
the enemy. ^ 

1 vi. 108. '^ viii. 1. ^ viii. 44. ^ ix. 2S. 

* The geograi^hical difficulties in Herodotus's description of Plataea 
have induced us to go more minutely into the details. 

ixeoffrV CT Serodi^ltLS-.p 70. 


( after Eepert &: Orote . ) 

S >CX^ Persians 

fimiTTTTITr AOienians 
^^^^ Zacede^ < 
^^^^ iHher breeks 

I . n . m , dmoie Ihe First. Jeamd. and Third 
positions of the respective annies, 

W:Mu0hcs. .re 

londcii lonoman tf- Co. 18S4. 


Mardonius liad posted his army on the river Europe. 
Asopus in the Theban territory/ beginning at Ery- _chap. iv. 
thrae and stretching along by Hysiae to the terri- ^^n of the 
tory of Plataea.^ He also fortified an area of 10 is^f^osiji^jj 
stadia square with wooden walls and towers ; ^ but • 

the front of this area, of course, occupied a much 
less space than the extended front of the army/ 
Meantime the Greek allies had passed over Mount 
Cithaeron to Erythrae, where they learnt that the 
enemy were encamped on the Asopus. Accordingly 
they formed opposite, in the Theban territory at 
the foot of Cithaeron, and this was their first posi- 
tion.^ Here they were charged by the Persian 
cavalry; but the latter were defeated and obliged 
to return to their camp.^ 

The Greeks ^ at length determined to remove into Sad posi- 
tlie Plataean territory, where they would be better 
supplied with water. Accordingly, they marched 
along the foot of Mount Cithaeron westward to the 
fountain Gargaphia,^ and the precinct of the hero 

^ ix. 15. Comp. vi. 108. 

^ It is difficult to decide whether the first position of the army of Mar- 
donius was on the northern or southern bank of the Asopus. The words 
of Herodotus indicate a position south of the Asopus. In the second 
position, however, we find the Persians north of the Asopus, (ix. 40, 59,) 
without any mention of his having previously crossed the river, and the 
fortified camp was evidently on the northern bank. Kiepert and Grote 
place the first position on the southern bank, and the fortified camp on 
the opposite side. 

3 ix. 15, 70. * ix. 15. 5 ix. 19. « ix. 23. 

■^ Bobrik has here made an unfortunate error, by confounding the Per- 
sians with the Greeks. 

^ Col. Leake has identified the fountain Gargaphia with a fountain at 
the source of a streamlet fiowing into the Asopus, and incased in an arti- 
ficial basin covered with squared stones of ancient fabric. Mr. Grote 
objects to this identification on the gi-ound that the Greek right, if sta- 
tioned at this point, would be farther from the Asopus than is consistent 
with the description of Herodotus. Mr. Grote also, in copying Kiepert's 
plan of the battle of Plataea, has moved the second Greek position much 
nearer to the river. Kiepert, however, fixed the position according to 
Herodotus's own measurement, viz. 10 stadia from the island. 

The question stands thus. It will presently be seen that in this second 
position the river fiowed between the rival armies, (ix. 40, 59,) the Per- 
sians being on the northern bank and the Greeks on the southern. The 
Greeks were evidently close to the river-side, for each army could see and 
distinguish the particular nations which composed the other, and each 
could see the changes from right to left of the opposing line (ix— 47). 
Moreover, all the Greek army, except the Spartans, were so near the 
Asopus as to be able to draw their water from it, (ix. 49,) until the Per- 



EUROPE. -Androcrates ; and here they formed in line, nation by 
CHAP. IV. nation, and encamped on the right or southern bank 
of the Asopus, on slight elevations and the level 
plain.' This was their second position. When Mar- 
doniiis heard of this movement, he marched his army 
to the same part of the Asopus, but on the left or oppo- 
site bank, and thus the river divided the rival armies.^ 
From this new position Mardonius at night sent 
some cavalry to the passes of Cithaeron, called Three 
Heads by the Boeotians, but Oak Heads by the 
Athenians. These passes were in the rear of the 
Greeks, and the detachment of cavalry was enabled 
to intercept the supplies of men and provisions 
which came through Attica from the Peloponnesus. 
3rdposition. After ten days the Persian cavalry^ drove the 
Greek position farther back from the Asopus, and 
choked up the fountain Gargaphia. The Greek 
generals being thus deprived of water, determined on 
retreating to a spot called the Island, but which is 
more properly a peninsula.* This supposed island 

sian cavalry hindered them. On the other hand, Herodotus says, that 
the Greeks were posted at a distance of 10 stadia from the island, (ix. 
51,) whereas, by a modern measurement of the country, we find that the 
river-bank must be 20 stadia from the island. Mr. Grote, as a historian 
relying upon the general account, places the Greek army close to the 
river-bank; Kiepert, as a hydrographer, and implicitly following the 
measurement of 10 stadia, places the Greek army half way between 
the island and river. 

Mr. Grote has nothing to interfere with his view, but the plain mea- 
surement of 10 stadia. Herodotus, however, is always a very doubtful 
authority for exact measurement. He generally preferred round num- 
bers for the sake of the memory of his readers, and frequently his 
estimates of distances are exceedingly loose and inaccurate. In the 
present naiTative of the battle of Plataea 10 stadia is a perfect hobby. 
Everything is 10 stadia. The island was 10 stadia from Gargaphia, 
and also 10 stadia from Asopus (ix. 51). Pausanias, however, marched 
10 stadia from Gargaphia towards the island, and found himself not there, 
but at Argiopius and the river Moloeis (ix. 56, 57). The Heraeum was 
10 stadia beyond the island, and therefore 20 stadia from Gargaphia (ix. 
52). The fortified camp was 10 stadia on every side (ix. 15) ; and it was 
for 10 days that the Greeks continued to be posted in this second position 
(ix. 41). I would therefore adopt Mr. Grote's view in preference to 

1 ix. 25, .30. 2 ix. .31. Comp. 40, 59. 

^ Not the detachment at the passes of Cithaeron, but the great body 
of cavalry, who were still with Mardonius on the Asopus. 

* This place, which Herodotus indicates as being before the city of 
Plataea, and at a distance of 10 stadia from the Asopus as well as from 
Gargaphia, is nothing more than a level meadow intersected by several 


was formed by two tributary streams flowing down Europe. 
the. slopes of Citliaeron, about 3 stadia apart, into chap. iv. 
the river Oeroe, which was called by the neighbour- " ' 

ing inhabitants, the daughter of Asopus/ The island 
was 10 stadia distant from the Asopus and the foun- 
tain Grargaphia. Accordingly at night the Greek 
forces prepare to decamp.^ It will be remembered 
that their right wing was formed by the Lacedae- 
monians, the left by the Athenians, and the centre 
by the other Grreek nations. The centre now pro- 
ceeded beyond the island of Oeroe to the temple of 
Hera, which stood by the city of Plataea, and about 
20 stadia from Gargaphia.^ The right wing, com- 
posed of Lacedaemonians, next marched 10 stadia 
along the hills to the river Moloeis, at a place called 
Argiopius, where stood a temple of the Eleusinian 
Demeter. The left wing, composed of Athenians, 
retired in the same direction along the plain/ This 

brooks uniting into one stream, and this is probably all that the historian 
meant by an island. His description of it as formed by two streams 
which were separated from one another in Mount Cithaeron, and were 
afterwards united, is entirely conformable to present appearances. If 
he had intended a real island, it would not have been necessary for him 
to make any mention of the two branches in Mount Cithaeron, since the 
separation of the waters of a single stream and their reunion would have 
been sufficient to form the island. It is easy to imagine that the Pla- 
taeans may have distinguished this part of their plain by the name of 
Island, although it was in reality no more than a peninsula. The am- 
biguity of the passage has not been diminished by the translators of 
Herodotus, who, by referring the word ol to vrjiroQ instead of to Trorafidg, 
have represented Oeroe as the name of the island, whereas the historian, 
in describing the island as the place (;^Wj5ov) which Oeroe the daughter 
of Asopus surrounds, {TrspKJxiZtTai,) clearly shows Oeroe to have been the 
river. Their mistake may have partly arisen from the belief that the 
river v^'hich formed the island was a branch of the Asopus, a very natural 
supposition for them to have made in ignorance of the real topogra- 
phy, as Herodotus nowhere indicates the contrary, and as it is greatly 
favoured by the local mythus, according to which Oeroe was the daughter 
of Asopus. We find however, as before stated, that although the sources 
of the Asopus and Oeroe are very near to one another, they are not only 
separate rivers, but flow in opposite directions, the former to the Euboic 
channel, the latter to the Corinthian gulf. Leake. 

^ It is surprising how difficult it is to eradicate the mistakes concern- 
ing the river Oeroe and the island even from our recent geographical 
works. The river Oeroe is sometimes mentioned as a branch of the 
Asopus, and the island has often been represented as having been formed 
by the Asopus. It is however to be hoped that the scholar will find no 
greater mistakes in the present volume. 
2 ix. 51. 3 ix. 52. 4 ix. 56,57. 


EUROPE, was the third position. Meantime Mardonius crossed 
CHAP. IV. the Asopus, with all his army. His Persians and 
cavalry fell upon the Lacedaemonians, whilst the 
Boeotians and other allies, who formed his right 
wing, attacked the Athenians. The Greek centre, 
who were drawn up by the temple of Hera, took no 
part in the battle.^ 
Sepulchres Tlic scj^ulclires of tlic Grccks who were slain were 
of the slain. g^£|2 ^^ l^g seeii in the time of Herodotus on the field 
of battle. The Lacedaemonians distributed their 
dead into three several burial-places : one for the 
select warriors or officers ; ^ a second for the rest of 
the Spartans ; and a third for the helots. The Tegeans 
buried theirs in a separate spot ; as also the Athe- 
nians, Megareans, and Phliasians. Sepulchres of 
other Hellenic nations were also to be seen, which He- 
redotus was informed were only empty mounds 
thrown up by those who were ashamed of their ab- 
sence from the battle. For instance, that of the 
Aeginetans was thrown up ten years after the vic- 
tory.^ Mardonius was also buried there,* and his 
funeral monument was still to be seen in the time 
of Pausanias.^ 
ly. Pnocis ly. Phocis was bounded by Boeotia on the east, 
scription. the Locri Opuntians on the north, Doris and the 
Locri Ozolae on the west, and the Corinthian Gulf 
on the south. A mountain range traverses it in a 
south-easterly direction, connecting the rugged chain 
of Oeta with Cithaeron and Parnes, and including 
the lofty summits of Parnassus. Northern Phocis, or 
the country between Parnassus and Oeta, includes 
the upper valley of the river Cephissus. In some 
parts the banks are fertile, but in others the heights 
approach very near to the river. Southern Phocis is 
ahnost entirely covered with the mountains which 
branch off to the south from the huge mass of Parnas- 
sus, but there are a few fertile valleys between them, 

I ix. 59—69. 

^ The critical student has a choice of readings, but Jptvig is generally 
adopted. The I(j£i/fe of Herodotus however were certainly not youths, but 
commanders. Amompharetus, in parlicular, was lochagus of the Pita- 
netan lochus. '' ix. 85. * ix. 84. ^ Paus, ix. 2, 2. 


of which the largest is the celebrated Crisaean plain. Europe. 
The early history of the Phocians is comparatively chap. iv. 
unknown, but they appear to have been frequently 
engaged in hostilities with the Thessalians, and were 
successful in maintaining their independence. Their 
territory was dreadfully ravaged by Xerxes during 
the Persian war. 

The small town of Delphi was the most important General dc- 
in Phocis, and on account of its oracle of Apollo was Delphi. 
also the most celebrated in all Hellas. It occupied 
a rocky theatre-shaped position on the southern slope 
of Parnassus, and was reached by a steep and diffi- 
cult road. On its north were two great cliffs with Castaiian 
peaked summits, and from between the two issued ^^"''^" 
the waters of the Castaiian spring. It contained the 
temple of Athene Pronaea, with the adjoining pre- Temple of 
cinct of the hero Phylacus ; but above all, the great pJonaea. 
temple of Apollo occupied a large space in the high- Temple of 
est point of the city. Immense treasures were con- ^° °" 
tained in this temple. Kings and private persons who 
had received favourable replies from the oracle pre- 
sented rich offerings ; and many of the Greek states 
had separate thesauri, in which they deposited for the 
sake of security many of their valuable treasures. 
In the innermost sanctuary, or adytum, was the 
golden statue of AjdoIIo, and before it a fire of fir 
wood was kept constantly burning on an altar. 
Laurel was also burnt as incense on the altar, and 
the inner roof of the temple was covered all over 
with laurel garlands. In the centre of the temple The oiacie. 
there was a small opening in the ground, through 
which from time to time an intoxicating smoke arose 
from the hidden well of Cassotis. Over this chasm 
stood a high tripod, to which the Pythia was led by 
the prophetes, and took her seat whenever the oracle 
was to be consulted. The smoke rising from under 
the tripod affected her brain in such a manner that 
she fell into a state of delirious intoxication, and the 
sounds which she uttered in this state were believed 
to contain the revelations of Apollo. These sounds 
were carefully written down by the prophetes, and 





account of 
the temple 
and its 

Throne of 

Silver offer- 
ings and 
bowls of 

Silver bowl 
and iron 
saucer of 

Gifts of 

afterwards communicated to the persons who had 
come to consult the oracle.^ 

The old temple of Delphi was burnt down by an 
accident. The Amphictyons then contracted to 
build a new one for 300 talents. The Delphians 
were required to furnish one-fourth of this sum, and 
accordingly went from city to city to raise contri- 
butions. In Aegypt the king, Amasis, gave them 
1000 talents of alum, and the Hellenic settlers there 
contributed 20 minas.^ Afterwards the Alcmaeonidae 
undertook alone to rebuild the temple; and being 
wealthy men, they completed it in a more beautiful 
manner than the plan required. In particular, they 
built the front of Parian marble, though, according 
to the contract, they might have used Porine stone.^ 
Herodotus, who had evidently visited Delj)hi, men- 
tions the following curiosities and rich offerings in 
the sanctuary, together with the names of the do- 
nors. Midas, king of Phrygia, was the first barbarian 
who dedicated offerings at Delphi. He gave the 
royal tln"one on which he sat. Next after him was 
Gyges, king of Lydia, who sent most of the silver 
offerings contained in the temple, together with a 
vast quantity of gold, including six golden bowls 
weighing 30 talents. The Delphians called these 
articles Gygadian gold and silver, from the name of 
the donor. The bowls of Gyges and the throne of Mi- 
das stood together in the Corinthian treasury, which, 
however, was not built at the cost of the state, but 
by the celebrated Cypselus son of Eetion.'* Afterwards 
Alyattes, another Lydian king, on recovering from 
sickness, dedicated a large silver bowl, with a saucer 
of iron inlaid, made by Glaucus the Chian, who in- 
vented the art of inlaying iron. " This object," says 
our author, " is deserving of more attention than all 
the other offerings at Delphi."^ But the most bril- 
liant and costly gifts in the temple appear to have 
been those of the unfortunate Croesus. Tins mon- 

^ Dr. Smith, Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Antiquities, art. Oracnlnm. Comp. 
Leake's Northern Greece, vol, ii. p. .5.51, et seq. 
2 11. 180. 5 V. fi2. * vi. 14. 5 1. 25. 


arch dedicated 117 golden demi-plintlis, or half-in- euhope. 
gots, eacli of which were 6 palms long, 3 broad, chap. iv. 
and 1 thick. Four of them were of pm-e gold, and nygoiden 
weighed 2 talents and a half each : the remainder <iemi- 
were of pale or alloyed gold, and weighed 2 ta- Goideu 
lents each. He also gave a lion made of refined ^^°"" 
gold, which originally weighed 10 talents, and stood 
on the demi-23linths. When, however, the temple 
was burnt down, the lion fell from the demi-plinth. In 
the time of our author it was standing in the Corinth- 
ian treasury, and weighed only 6 talents and a half, as 
3 talents and a half had been melted from it.' Croe- ooid and 
sus also sent two mixing-cups, one of gold and the ing-^yesseis. 
other of silver, which were placed at the entrance of 
the temple — the golden one on the right hand, and 
the silver one on the left. After the fire, however, 
they were removed : the golden one, weighing 
8 talents and a half and 12 minas, was placed 
in the treasury of Clazomenae ; and the silver one, 
which would contain 600 amphorae, lay in a 
corner of the vestibule. The silver one was used 
by the Delphians for mixing the wine on the Theo- 
phanian festival, and they say that it was made by 
Theodorus the Samian. Herodotus also thought 
that this was the case, as it appeared to him to be 
no common work. Croesus likewise dedicated four other offer- 
silver vessels which stood in the Corinthian treasury, croesus. 
and two lustral vases, one of gold and the other of 
silver. The golden one bore the inscription, AuKsSaL- 
[jLoviwy, '' of the Lacedaemonians," who said that it was 
their present ; but this was incorrect, for a Delphian, 
whom Herodotus could name if he pleased, engraved 
the inscription in order to please the Lacedaemo- 
nians. Many other offerings he also sent without 
any inscription,^ including some spherical-shaped 
ewers of silver ; a golden statue of a female 3 cubits 
high, which the Delphians said was an image of the 
Artocopus, or baker, ^ of Croesus ; and the necklaces 

^ i. 50. ^ Probably because they were of inferior value. 

' The importance here ascribed to a baker is perfectly in keeping with 
the manners of despotic eastern courts. The officers of the Tvu-kish 





ous gifts 
from the 

and from 
the Greeks 
after the 
battle of 

of Mount 

and gii'dles of his queen. The Lacedaemonians 
dedicated the statue of a boy through whose hand 
the water flows. ^ Euelthon, the tyrant of Salamis 
in the island of Cyprus, gave a cmious censer which 
was deposited in the Corinthian treasury.^ The 
Phocians gave half of the shields which they cap- 
tured from the Thessalians, when 600 of their 
number attacked the enemy in chalked armour ; 
and with a tenth of the spoil taken on the same oc- 
casion they constructed those great statues around 
the golden tripod,^ which stood upon a three-headed 
brazen serpent close to the altar. The tripod and 
serjDent were dedicated by Pausanias from a tenth 
of the spoil taken at Plataea.* A statue, twelve 
cubits high, holding the beak of a ship in its hand, 
was also dedicated by the Grreeks from the iirst- 
fr-uits of the spoil taken at Salamis. It stood in the 
same place as the golden statue of Alexander the 
Macedonian. The Pythia however demanded a 
further offering from the Aeginetans on account of 
their suj)erior valour, and the latter accordingly 
gave three golden stars on a brazen mast, which was 
placed in a corner near the mixing-cup of Croesus.^ 
Such were the temple treasures which our author 
must certainly have seen with his own eyes. 

Of Mount Parnassus two summits are mentioned 
by Herodotus. One was called Tithorea, and lay near 
the city of Neon. This was sufficiently large to 
receive a great multitude on its top ; and the Phoci- 
ans carried their effects to this spot when their 
country was overrun by the army of Xerxes.^ The 
other summit was called Hyampeia, and beneath it 
was the Castalian spring.^ On the heights of Par- 

janizaries, so long as that corps existed, were all named from the duties 
of the kitchen, the colonel being styled the Soup-maker. In the time of 
Xenophon, there was an officer called Artocopus in the Persian court. 
(Hellen. VII. i. 26.— Cyrop. V. v. .39.) At a later period (Juvenal, Sat. 
V. 72) the word appears to have become common. 

The statue here mentioned was subsequently converted into money, 
and assisted the Phocians in maintaining the Sacred War. Died. Sic. 
xvi. .56. 

' i. .51. 2 jv. 162. 3 viii. 27. " ix. 81. 

5 viii. 121,122. « viii.32. '• viii. 39. 


nassus was the Coiycian cavern, ^ where the Delphi- Europe. 
ans secured their goods and chattels from the Per- ^hap. iv. 
sian army.^ Near the Hyampeian summit was the 
sanctuary of Athene Pronaea, which was the first 
spot reached by the Persians in their advance on 
Delphi. Here thunder fell on them from heaven, 
and two large crags bore down upon them with a 
loud crash and killed many.^ These crags were 
still preserved in the time of Herodotus in the en- 
closure of Athene Pronaea.^ Beyond the sanctuary 
of Athene and by the side of the road was the pre- 
cinct of Phylacus, a hero of the country ; and near 
the Castalian spring, under the Hyampeian summit, 
was that of another hero of the country, named 

The Persian army advancing along the banks of Topography 
the river Cephissus, burnt the following cities, viz. the\rmyof 
Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphi- ^^^^'^^• 
caea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, 
Parapotamium, and Abae.^ Near Hyampolis was a 
narrow pass, where the Phocians destroyed the 
Thessalian cavalry by digging a pit and filling it 
with empty jars lightly covered with earth, over 
which the cavalry charged and broke the legs of 
their horses.'' At Abae the Persians plundered and 
burnt the rich temple of Apollo which contained 
many treasures and offerings, including half of the 
shields which the Phocians took from the Thessali- 

^ " The cavern is about seven miles from Delphi. . . We ascended more 
than half way to the summit of the mountain, when a small ti-iangular 
entrance presented itself, conducting into the gi-eat chamber of the 
cavern, which is upwards of 200 feet in length, and about 40 feet high in 
the middle. Drops of water from the roof had formed large calcareous 
cr3fstallizations rising at the bottom, and others were suspended from 
every part of the roof and sides. The inner part of this great hall is 
rugged and irregular, but after climbing over some rocks, we arrived at 
another small opening leading into a second chamber, the length of 
which is nearly 100 feet, and has a direction nearly at a right angle with 
that of the outer cavern. In this inner apartment there is again a nar- 
row opening, but inaccessible without a ladder ; at the foot of the ascent 
to it is a small natural chamber. There seems to have been ample space 
for the Delphians and other Phocians to deposit here their valuable pro- 
perty and even their families." Leake. 

2 viii. 36. 3 viii, 37_ 4. viji_ 39^ 5 ii^]^^ ^iji. 33. 

' viii. 28. 





V. Lociiis. 
General de- 

Eastern or 



"Western, or 
Locri Ozo- 

account of 
the Locri 

ans, and some great statues like those at Delphi/ 
and where also there was an oracle which still ex- 
isted in the time of Herodotus.^ Passing by 
Parapotamium the Persians reached Panopeus, and 
then divided into two bodies : the largest pro- 
ceeding under Xerxes through Boeotia to Athens/ 
whilst the other, keej^ing Parnassus on the right, 
biu-nt Panopeus, and the two cities of the Daulians 
and Aeolidae."^ The to^vn of Thyia is also men- 
tioned, as the place where Thyia the daughter of 
Cephissus had a sacred enclosure, and where the 
Delphians erected an altar and sacrificed to the 
winds, because the Pythia had assured them that 
the winds would prove the most powerfid allies of 
Greece against the Persians/ The Phocians sent 
1000 men to defend Thermopylae.^ 

V. LocRis was a name aj^plied to two distinct 
territories, situated at a considerable distance from 
each other. 

1. The eastern Locrians occupied a territory ex- 
tending fi'om Thessaly and the pass of Thermopylae, 
along the coast of the Euboean Sea, as far as the 
frontiers of Boeotia. They were separated from 
Phocis by a mountain range which stretches from 
Oeta to the Boeotian borders. The northern part 
of this district was inhabited by Epicnemidii ; the 
southern by the Opuntians.^ 

2. The western Locrians, or Locri Ozolae, occu- 
pied a territory on the Corinthian Gulf Accord- 
ing to Strabo,^ they were a colony from the eastern 

Om- author makes no mention of the Epicnemidii, 
but he describes the country round the pass, called 
Thermopylae, or Hot-gates, by the Greeks generally, 
but by the inhabitants and neighbours only Pylae, 

1 viii. 27. 2 vjji 33 3 y^n 34^ i y^^i ^5. 

•^ vii. 178. <■' vii. 203. 

' The northern pail of the mountain range, which is much higher than 
the southern, was called Cnemis, whence the Epi-cnemidii Locrians de- 
rived their name. The Opuntian Locrians were so called ,from Opus, 
their chief town, which was situated on the borders of Boeotia. 

** Strabo, ix. p. 427- 



33 i K 



or Gates. ^ The city of Alpenus, however, which he europe. 
describes as the first Locrian city coming from Ma- chap. iv. 

lis,^ evidently belonged to the Epicnemidii. He also 

names the Locri Ozolae and their city of Amphissa, Amphissa. 
which was situated above the Crisaean plain ; ^ and 
the Opuntian Locrians who appeared among the TheOpun- 
Grreek forces at Thermopylae.'^ S^.^"''"" 

About the bay of Malis lies a plain country, in one Thermopy- 
part wide and in the other very narrow, and around Sibed by 
it are high and impassable mountains, called the f^ci"ied'b 
Trachinian rocks, which enclose the whole Malian the Trachi- 
territory.^ The first city on the bay, in coming from ^^^ ^°^^^' 
the Thessalian district of Achaia, is Anticyra, by Anticyra. 
which the river Spercheius flows into the sea. River 
Twenty stadia farther is the river Dyras, which, |^ye?Dy!' 
according to tradition, gushed forth to assist He- ^'^^• 
racles when he was burning. Twenty stadia from 
the Dyras is a third river, called Melas." The city River Me- 
of Trachis is 5 stadia from this river. Near it is xrachis. 
the widest part of the pass, for the Trachinian rocks widest 
and the sea are 22,000 plethra^ apart.^ The nar- p^^*' 
rowest part of the same locality is half a plethrum 
wide.^ In the Trachinian mountains which enclose 
the territory or district of Trachis, there is a ravine Ravine of 
to the south of the city of Trachis through which Js^opus!"^ 
the river Asopus flows along the declivity.^" Farther 
on to the south of the Asopus is the Phoenix, a Ri^er 
smaller river, which flows from these mountains into 
the Asopus. Here, at the river Phoenix, is the nar- Narrowest 
rowest part of the entire pass, for the road has been ^^"^ " 
made so as only to admit of a single chariot. Fifteen 
stadia beyond the river Phoenix is Thermopylae, Thermopy- 
and between the two is a village named Anthela, by Intheia. 

1 vii. 201. 2 vii. 216. 3 viii. 32. * vii. 203. 

' Our author's description of this celebrated pass leading from the 
Thessalian plain of Malis into the Locrian territory, includes an account 
of the Malian district It has not, however, been thought advisable to 
disunite the narrative for the sake of an arbitrary division of the matter. 

6 vii. 198. 

'' A palpable mistake of a transcriber, as 22,000 plethra would be 366 1- 
stadia, or 90 Enghsh miles. Baehr, however, does not know how to 
correct the blunder. 

« vii. 199. 3 vii. 176. " vii. 199. 


EUROPE, which the river Asopus, after receiving the waters of 
cH.vr. IV. the Phoenix, falls into the Maliac Griilf.^ The conn- 
Tempie of ^^T ^^oiit here is more sj^acious, and contains a tem- 
Ss^of'tiie P^^ ^^ ^^^^ Amphictyon Demeter, the seats of the 
Amphic- Amphictyons, and the temple of Amphictyon him- 
tyons,etc. ^^^2 Q^^ ^|^g wcstem sidc of Thermopylae is an 
inaccessible and precipitous momitain, stretching to 
Mount Oeta : on the eastern side is the sea and a 
morass. At the entrance to this passage there are 
Hot springs, liot spriugs, or baths, which the inhabitants call 
Chytri, and above them is an altar to Heracles. In 
Phocian this passago a wall with gates had been formerly built 
gSls^^^^ by the Phocians to keep out the Thessalians ; and 
at the same time the Phocians had diverted the hot 
springs into the entrance in order to render the pass 
more impracticable. This wall had been built in 
very ancient times, and in the time of the Persian 
war the greater part had fallen down from age ; the 
Greeks, however, at that critical moment determined 
to rebuild it, and then repel the invaders.^ On a 
neighbouring hill,* aj^parently to the north of the 
Stone lion Wall, there stood, in the time of Herodotus, the stone 
toLeonidas. ^ion to the memory of Leonidas.' South of Ther- 
Aipenus. uiopylac, and near the town of Alpenus, the road 
contracts, and will only receive a single chariot.^ 
Alpenus is the first Locrian city towards the Ma- 
lians.^ Thus the general scene of the pass of Ther- 
mopylae, as pictured by Herodotus, may be described 
as two narrow openings, one near Anthela and the 
other at Alpenus, having an intermediate mile of en- 
larged road, and hot springs between them. Xerxes 
Encamp- was cncampcd in the Trachinian territory of Malis, 
and the Greeks in the pass of Thermojoylae.^ 

' The territory of Malis we may regard as extending to Thermopylae 
and including Anthela. Locris, as beginning at Thermopylae and in- 
cluding Alpenus. The pass itself led from one territory to the other 
without actually belonging to either. Formerly it had been a part of 
Phocis. 2 vii. 200. ^ vii. 176. 

* This glorious spot, where the remnant of the Spartan band made 
their last stand against the Persians, has been identified in a remarkable 
hillock a little to the east of the hot springs. Near its base, the indica- 
tions of the deposited soil are plainly discernible, having all the appear- 
ance of a sea beach. '' vii. 225. ^ vii. 176. '' vii. 216. 

^ The configuration of the coast, the course of the rivers, and the ge- 


The pass of Anopaea, which Ephialtes discovered Europe. 
to Xerxes, began at the ravine through which the ^^^^- ^^• 
river Asopus flowed into the Maliac Gulf, and con- Pass of 
tinning along the ridge of the mountain which is ^"^^paea. 
called by the same name of Anopaea, ended at Al- 
penus, by the rock of Melampygus, and the seats of 
the Cercopes, where also the path is narrowest.^ 
The whole of the mountain in this neighbourhood 
was covered with oaks.^ 

At Thermopylae were the following inscriptions, inscriptions 
One was written over the grave of those who fell pyiae.^^"^" 
before Leonidas dismissed the allies : 

From Peloponnesus came four thousand men, 

And on this spot fought with three hundred myriads. 

Another was placed over the tomb of the Spartans : 

Go, stranger ! tell the Lacedaemonians — here 
We He, obedient to their stern commands. 

The third was inscribed over the tomb of Megistias 
the augur, by his friend Simonides : 

The monument of famed Megistias, 

Slain by the Medes what time they passed the Spercheius : 

A seer, who, though he knew impending fate, 

Would not desert the gallant chiefs of Sparta.^ 

neral local phenomena have now entirely changed ; and Thermopylae itself 
no longer exists as a pass, and can only be identified by its hot springs. 
But still, as Col. Leake observes, a comparison of Herodotus's description 
with modern topography carries with it the conviction that the places 
mentioned by Herodotus are there correctly placed. Surprising changes 
however appear to have been created by the accumulation of soil brought 
down from the upper countiy by rivers, especially by the Spercheius. The 
Asopus is recognised by its rocky gorge, through which it issues into the 
plain : between it and the Spercheius are found the two streams corre- 
sponding to the Melas and Dyras, which now, instead of falling separ- 
ately into the sea, unite, and then discharge their waters, as does the 
Asopus itself, into the Spercheius. The latter, instead of meeting the coast 
nearly opposite Lamia, as it appears to have done in the time of the Per- 
sian war, not only receives the Dyras, Melas, and Asopus as tributary 
streams, but continues its course on a line parallel to the pass of Thermopy- 
lae, at a distance of a mile from the hot sources. It then forms a delta in 
that new plain which has been created beyond the pass, and which has 
thus caused the head of the gulf to be removed three or four miles from its 
ancient position. The consequence is, that all the lower plain, although 
intersected with marshes at all seasons, and scarcely passable in the 
winter, affords in summer a road through it, which leaves Thermopylae 
two or three miles on the right, and renders it of little or no importance 
as a pass in that season. Leake's Northern Greece. 
1 vii. 215,216. 2 vii. 217. ^ vii. 22S. 

G 2 






country of 
the Dorians. 

VII. Aeto- 
liiA. Scatter- 
ed notices. 






IX. Thes- 
SALY. Ge- 
neral de- 

Proper, viz. 

VI. DoEis was a narrow strip of mountamous ter- 
ritory about 30 stadia broad, and situated between 
tlie Malian and Phocian territories. We learn from 
Herodotus that it was anciently called Dryopis, after 
its older inhabitants the Dryopes. It was the mother 
comitry ofthe Dorians of the Peloponnesus,^ and con- 
tained two cities, Pindus and Erineus.^ 

VII. Aetolia is scarcely mentioned by our author. 
Wlien the Dorians invaded the Peloponnesus, they 
were accompanied by some Aetolians, who received 
Elis as their share of the conquest.^ Males the Aeto- 
lian went to Sicyon as a suitor for the hand of the 
daughter of Cleisthenes. He was the brother of that 
Titormus, who excelled all the Greeks in strength, 
but fled from the society of men to the extremity of 
the Aetolian territory.^ 

VIII. AcAENANiA was watered by the river Ache- 
lous, which flowed through this country and fell into 
the sea. In the time of Herodotus the Achelous had 
converted one-half of the islands of the Echinades 
into continent."'^ Acarnania contained the city of 
Anactorium, which in conjunction with the Leuca- 
dians sent 800 men to Plataea." The Teleboans 
also are mentioned in a Cadmean inscription on a 
tripod in the temple of the Ismenian Apollo in the 
Boeotian Thebes.^ 

IX. Thessaly Proper is an irregular square plain, 
shut in on every side by mountain barriers — the Cam- 
bunian range on the north, Ossa and Pelion on the 
east, Othrys on the south, and the Pindus range on the 
west. In addition to this great plain, two other dis- 
tricts were included under the general name of 
Thessaly : one called Magnesia, a narrow strip of 
land running from Tempe to the Pegasaean Gulf; 
the other being a long narrow valley drained by the 
river Spercheius, and running along the south of 
Thessaly Proper, between Othrys and the range of 
Mount Oeta. From the earliest times the plain of 
Thessaly Proper was divided into four districts or 

^ viii. 31. 2 viii. 43. ^ viii. 73. Comp. page 45. 

* vi. 127. = ii. 10. « ix. 28. ' v. 59. 


tetrarchies, viz. Histiaeotis in the north, Pelas- euhope. 
giotis in the east, Phthiotis in the south, and Thes- chap. iv. 
sahotis in the interior.^ The other two districts ^^r^~^ 
were as ah-eady mentioned : Magnesia east of Mount Peiasgiotis," 
Ossa and Pehon, and Malis south of Mount Othrys. fnci Thia- 
The great plain of Thessaly is watered by the Pe- Two'other 
neus and its tributaries ; the southern valley between districts : 
Othrys and Oeta is drained by the Spercheius. m^s!^"^' 

Herodotus gives us a very graphic and spirited Herodotus's 
account of the physical geography of Thessaly. 
According to a tradition it was anciently a lake Anciently a 
enclosed on all sides by lofty mountains. On cioTedby 
the east were the united bases of Pelion and Ossa ; oSl! o^m- 
on the north was Mount Olympus ; on the west was pus, Pindus, 
Pindus ; and on the south was Othrys. The vale of ^"^ "^' ' 
Thessaly was thus a hollow space shaped like a cal- 
dron. From these surrounding mountains numerous formed by 
rivers flowed into Thessaly. The most celebrated Peneus? 
were the Peneus, the Apidanus, the Onochonus, the onoehomis, 
Enipeus, and the Pamisus.^ Of all the rivers in P^^p^^^^^' 
Thessalia Proper, the Onochonus was the only stream and Lake 
whose waters were exhausted by the Persian armies ; 
but none of the rivers in the Thessalian district of 
Achaia, not even the Apidanus, or Epidanus,^ which 
was the largest, could hold out.^ The five rivers 
meet together in the plain, and discharge themselves 
through one narrow ravine into the sea, but after 
their union they are called by the one name of Pe- 
neus. In ancient times, before this ravine or outlet 
existed, these rivers, together with the lake called 
Boebeis, made the whole of Thessaly a sea. The Outlet at 
Thessalians say that the outlet was formed by Posei- formed by 
don, and Herodotus thinks that all who believe that q^aTe* 
earthquakes are the works of this deity will be of the 
same opinion, as the separation of the mountains was 
evidently effected by an earthquake.^ On this ac- 
count Xerxes commended the prudence of the Thes- 

^ The territory of Peiasgiotis is not mentioned by Herodotus, who 
seems to include it in the district of Thessaliotis (i. 57). 

2 vii. 129. 

3 Called 'Amdavog (vii. 129), and 'HmSavbg (vii. 196). * vii. 196. 
5 vii. 129. 





Tribes of 









of Phthiotis 

salians in surrendering to him at once, as lie had 
only to dam up tlie Peneus, and the whole country 
would be inundated.' The lofty heights of Ossa and 
01ymj)us were visible at Therma, and Xerxes beheld 
the mouth of the Peneus with great astonishment.^ 

Herodotus mentions the following tribes who oc- 
cupied the country, viz. the Thessalians, Dolopes, 
Enienes, Magnetes, Malians, Perrhaebi, and Achae- 
ans of Phthiotis,^ which last he seemed to consider 
as scarcely belonging to Thessaly Proper.^ The 
Thessalians originally came from Thesprotia in 
Epirus to settle in the Aeolian territory, which they 
still possessed in the time of Herodotus.^ The Eni- 
enes dwelt upon the banks of the river Spercheius.^ 

The following diagram will show the position of 
the tribes occupying Thessaly and Epirus. 


(Old Aeolian 





Pass of 

Of the various districts Herodotus notices Phthiotis 
and Histiaeotis, anciently occupied by the Hellenes ; "^ 
Thessaliotis, anciently occupied by the Pelasgi ; ^ 
Magnesia;^ and Malis.^" '' Two passes led from 

1 vii. 129. 2 vii. 128. ^ yji, 132, 4 vii. 195. s yji. 176. 
« vii. 198. ' i. .56. ^ i. 57. » vii. 183. i" vii. 198. 

" Malis, like Achaia of Phthiotis, was also scarcely regarded by ovir 
author as belonging to Thessaly Proper. The river Spercheius is not 


Macedonia into Thessaly. First that of Olympus, Europe. 
which led from Lower Macedonia into the vale of chap. iv. 
Tempe,^ up the outlet between Olympus and Ossa, 
through which the river Peneus flows. ^ Secondly, 
that by the city of Gonnus, which led from Upper Pass of 
Macedonia through the country of the Perrhaebi.^ * 
Xerxes entered Thessaly by this latter pass, as he 
was informed that it was the safest way ; ^ but he 
first employed a third of his army, then encamped 
in Pieria, in clearing the road.^ 

The following places in Thessaly are mentioned Topography 
by Herodotus. lolcus, which the Thessalians offered loicus. 
to Hippias, who however did not accept it.^ Gon- Gonnus. 
nus, l3y the pass through which Xerxes entered 
Thessaly.^ Meliboea, and the places called Ipni or Meiiboea. 
Ovens, on the coast in the neighbourhood of Mount 
Pelion, where 400 Persian ships were dashed to 
pieces by a Hellespontine gale.'' The Ovens were 
probably concealed crags or breakers. Alos in aios. 
Achaia, where there was a sanctuary of the Laphys- 
tian Zeus, with the mythus of the cm^se of the de- 
scendants of Athamas, and a prytaneum called Lei- 
tum.^" Larissa, the native place of the Aleuadae.^^ Larissa. 
Lastly, Casthanaea and the acte Sepias in Magnesia. ^^ casthanaea. 
Ameinocles, who possessed some lands near Sepias, 
was enriched by the great treasures, including many 
drinking vessels of gold and silver, which were 
thrown on shore after the shipwreck of the Persian 

included in the description of the celebrated Thessalian rivers, whilst 
the account of Malis itself is given in the description of Thermopylae. 

^ The lovely scenery of this beautiful and romantic valley has been 
too often described to require much repetition here. The whole glen is 
rather less than five miles long, and opens gradually to the east into a 
spacious plain stretching to the shore of the Thermaic Gulf. On each 
side the rocks rise precipitously from the bed of the Peneus, and in some 
places only leave room between them for the stream ; and the road, 
which at the narrowest point is cut in the rock, might in the opinion of 
the ancients be defended by ten men against a host. See ThirlwaWs 

2 vii. 172, 173. ' vii. 173. 

^ This defile passed by the village of Pythium at the north-east ex- 
tremity of the range of Olympus. It was also crossed by Brasidas in the 
eighth year of the Peloponnesian war. Thucyd. iv. 78- 

5 vii. 12S. 6 vii. 131. 7 V. 94. 8 vii. 128, 173. 

» vii. 188. " vii. 197- " ix. 1. ^- vii. 183, 188. 





Gulf of 

X. Epirtjs. 
notices in 





Oracle at 

fleet. All the coast belonged to Thetis and the 
other Nereids, because Peleus had carried that god- 
dess away from thence.^ 

The Gulf of Magnesia is also mentioned. It ran 
up to Pegasae. On it was a place called Aphetae, 
Avhere Heracles was abandoned by the Argonauts. 
The Persian fleet moored here after the storm.^ 
Xerxes got up a match at Aphetae with his own 
horses for the purpose of trying the Thessalian 
cavalry, which he was told were the best in all 
Hellas. On this occasion the horses of Thessaly 
proved far superior to all the others.^ 

X. Epirus, or ' ' the mainland," the country between 
Thessaly and the sea, is not mentioned under this 
comprehensive heading, but the following scattered 
notices of this region are to be found in Herodotus. 

Thesprotians dwelt on the river Acheron, where 
there was an oracle of the dead^ [where those 
who consulted called up the spirits of the dead and 
offered sacrifices to the gods of the lower world]. 
The Thessalians formerly lived here, either before 
the Thesprotians, or else as a branch of the same 
people.^ From the Molossians came Alcon to con- 
test for the hand of the daughter of Cleisthenes of 
Sicyon.^ On the Ionian Gulf was the city of Epi- 
damnus, from which place Amphinestus also came 
to Sicyon.^ The Ampraciotae, or Ambraciots, bor- 
dered Thesprotia and the river Acheron on the 
eastern side.^ They sent seven ships to Salamis." 
The city of Apollonia was situated on the Ionian 
Gulf. Here a flock of sheep were kept sacred to 
Helios. By day they grazed near the river that 
flows from Mount Lacmon through Apollonia, and 
discharges itself into the sea near the port of Oricus. 
At night they were folded in a cavern at some dis- 
tance from the city, and watched by eminent citizens, 
who were appointed every year for the office.'" 

Above all, Herodotus mentions the celebrated 
oracle of Zeus at Dodona," which was the oldest in 

' vii. 190, 191. - vii. 19.3. ^ vii. 196. " v. 92. « vii. 176. 
« vi. 127. Mbid. « viii. 47- ■' viii. 45. i" ix. 92, 93. 'M. 46. 


Hellas. Two different traditions were told of its europe. 
origin ; one by the Aegyptians and the other by the chap. rv. 
Greeks. The priests of Zeus at the Aegyptian Aegyptian 
Thebes told Herodotus that two holy women, or 5[g^Jj.V°^°^ 
priestesses, were carried away from that city by cer- 
tain Phoenicians, who afterwards sold one of them 
in Libya and the other in Hellas ; and these women 
were the first who established oracles in these two 
countries. On the other hand, the prophetesses of Greek tra- 
Dodona said, that two wild black pigeons flew from 
Thebes, one to Libya and the other to Dodona, and 
that this last one perched on an oak tree, and com- 
manded in a human voice, that the oracle to Zeus 
should be established there. It was Herodotus's Opiniouof 
opinion, that if the Phoenicians did really carry 
away the women, that the one in question was sold 
to some Thesprotians in that country, which in his 
time was called Hellas, but was originally named 
Pelasgia ; and that here the woman erected a temple 
to Zeus under an oak in memory of the one she had 
left at Thebes. Further, that the woman was called 
a dove, because at first she spoke a foreign tongue, 
which must have sounded like the chattering of birds; 
and also a black dove, because of the dark colour of 
her Aegyptian complexion ; and that when she be- 
gan to speak the language of the country, it was said 
that the black dove spoke with a human voice. 
Oracles were delivered in Thebes and Dodona in a 
very similar manner.' 

Such then is the geography of the Hellas of He- 
rodotus ; we shall now proceed in a separate chapter 
to develope and explain his knowledge of the islands. 

1 ii. 54—57. 





tion of the 

Islands in 
the loniiin 

Distribution of the Islands.^ — -Islands in the Ionian Sea. — Corcyra. 
— Leucas. — Cephallenia. — Zacynthus. — Islands in the Mediterra- 
nean. — Cyrnus. — Sardo. — Sicily. Topography of Sicily : Syi-acuse, Ca- 
marina, Gela, Megara, Zancle, ErjTC country, Egestaea, Selinus, Minoa, 
Mactorium, Inycus, Callipolis, Naxos, Leontini, Himera, Agrigentum, 
Hybla, Camicus, river Elorus, Cithera. — Crete, its history. Topography 
of Crete: Cydonia, Cnossus, Itanus, Axus. — Carpathus. — Rhodes. — Cy- 
prus. Topography of Cyprus : Paphos, Soli, Curium, Amathus, Salamis, 
Key of Cyprus. — Islands of the Aegean, or Grecian Archipelago, ge- 
neral description. — I. The Cyclades. — Delos, the centre ; its sacred charac- 
ter ; sanctuary of Artemis ; banqueting-hall of the Ceians ; gi-ave of the 
two Hyperborean virgins, Hyperoche and Laodice ; grave of two other 
Hyperborean virgins, Opis and Arge- — Islands round Delos, viz. Rhenea, 
Myconus, Tenos, Andros, Scyros, Ceos, Cythnos, Seriphus, Siphnos, Me- 
los, Paros, Naxos.^ — II. The Sporades, viz. Thera, Telos, Cos, Leros. — 'III. 
Other islands of the Aegean. — Samos. — The aqueduct; the mole; the 
temple of Hera and its curiosities, viz. the gi'eat brazen mixing- vessels, two 
wooden statues of Amasis, picture of the Bosphorus bridge, furnitm'e of 
Polycrates, linen corselet of Amasis, brazen vessel on a tripod : descrip- 
tion of the city of Samos ; curious festival observed by the Samians ; 
flourishing condition of Samos under Polycrates ; Samians in Libya ; 
artistic skill of the Samians ; their dialect, etc, — Lade. — Chios. — To- 
pography of Chios : Chios, Caucasa, Coeli, Polichne : notices of the Chi- 
ans. — Lesbos. — Hecatonnesi. — Tenedos. — Lemnos, atrocities committed 
there. — Imbros. — Samothrace. — Thasos, its valuable mines.- — Sciathus. 
— Euboea. — Topography of Euboea : Eretria, Chalcis, Styi'a, Geraestus, 
Carystus, Histiaeotis ; description of the beach of Artemisium ; Coela, 
Cape Cephareus, mountains, the Abantes. — Salamis. — Psyttalea. — Aegi- 
na, its trade and shipping. — Hydrea. — Belbina. 

The Islands pertaining to the geogra2:)liy of He- 
rodotus we have included, for the sake of clearness, 
in a single chapter under the division of Europe, 
though many of them lay off the Asiatic coast. They 
are divisible into three classes, namely, those in the 
Ionian Sea, those in the Mediterranean, and those 
in the Aegean, which last are usually known by the 
name of the Grecian Archipelago. 

The Islands in the Ionian Sea mentioned by our 


author are only four in number, viz. Corcyra, Leu- Europe. 
cas, Cepliallenia, and Zacynthus. chap. v. 

CoRCYRA is the modern Corfu. Its inhabitants corcyra! 
manned 60 ships before the battle of Salamis, but 
anchored about Pylus and Taenarum to await the 
issue of the contest.^ Leucas (or the modern Santa Leucas. 
Maura) was peopled by Dorians from Corinth, who 
sent three ships to Salamis,^ and in conjunction with 
the Anactorians supplied 800 men at Plataea.^ Ce- CephaUenia 
PHALLENIA (or Ccphallonia) included the town of Pale, 
which sent 200 men to Plataea.^ Zacynthus (or Zante) zacynthus. 
contained several lakes, of which the largest was 70 
feet every way, and 2 orgyae in depth. Herodotus Lake ceie- 
had seen pitch drawn from this lake, by dipping in usytch?'^ 
a pole with a myrtle-branch fastened to the end, 
upon which the pitch adhered to the mjrrtle. The 
pitch had the smell of asphalt, but in other respects 
was better than the pitch of Pieria. It was poured 
into a cistern near the lake, and when a sufficient 
quantity had been collected, it was put into jars. 
All that fell into the lake passed under ground, and 
reappeared in the sea 4 stadia distant.^ The 
Zacynthians are also mentioned as being in Crete. ^ 

The Islands in the Mediterranean mentioned islands in 
by Herodotus, were eight in number, viz. Cyrnus, terraneln. 
Sardo, Sicilia, Cythera, Crete, Carpathus, Rhodes, 
and Cyprus. 

Cyrnus was the modern Corsica. Here the cymus. 
Phocaeans, in obedience to an oracle, built the 
town of Alalia. Twenty years afterwards their 
own city of Phocaea was destroyed by the Persians, 
and accordingly they proceeded to Cyrnus. After 
five more years their fleet of 60 ships engaged 60 
ships belonging to the Carthaginians and Tyrrhe- 
nians in the Sicilian Sea, upon which the Phocaeans 
gained a Cadmean victory, forty of their own ships 
being destroyed, and the remaining twenty disabled.' 
The Cyi-nians fought in the Carthaginian army 
against Gelon.^ 

1 viii. 168. 2 yiii, 45. 3 jx. 28. * Ibid. ^ iv. 195. 

" iii. 59. i. 165, 166. « vii. 165. 


EUROPE. Sardo (or Sardinia) Avas a large and important 
CHAP. V. island, wnicli however Histiaeus offered to make tri- 

s^^o. butary to the Persians, and even assured Darius that 
he would not lay aside his clothes until he had done 
so.^ Bias of Priene advised the lonians to sail in 
one common ileet to Sardo, and build there one 
common city for all.^ This advice, which Herodotus 
considered to be of the most salutary character, was 
rejected, and we subsequently find Aristagoras pro- 
posing a sunilar course to the Milesians.^ The 
Sardonians fought in the Carthaginian army against 
Gelon.^ The sm-rounding waters were called the 
Sardonian Sea/ 

Sicily. Sicily was called Sicania in the time of Minos, 

but Sicilia in the days of Herodotus ; ^ and our 
author mentions the Sicelians and the war against 
them, in which Hippocrates fell.^ He, however, 
says nothing about the island in a general way. 

Topography thougli wc are able to extract some information 
'^' ^' concerning the following cities. 

Syracuse. Syracusc sccms to have been the most important 
town. Under the government of Gelon it rapidly 
grew up and flourished,^ until it became far superior 
to any other Hellenic state. ^ The Demus or popu- 
lace had united with the Cyllyrii or slaves, and 
driven out the Gamori or landholders.^** The latter 
then settled in the city of Casmene, but Gelon 
brought them back again." He also removed all 
the Camarinaeans, half the Geloans, and all the more 
opulent of the Sicelian Megarians and Euboeans, to 
Sjo-acuse, and admitted them to the citizenship.'^ 

1 V. 106. 2 i. 170. 3 V. 124. " vii. 165. ^ i jge. 

» vii. 170. ■' vii. 155. « vii. 156. » vii. 145. 

1" Three classes existed at Syracuse. (1.) The Gamori, or old Corinth- 
ian colonists, who had divided the land amongst themselves and form- 
ed the iroKuTEvna, or body politic. (2.) The Demus, or populace ; whom 
Gelon regarded as " an unpleasant fellow-lodger " (vii. 156). (3.) The 
Cyllyrii, or slaves, who were without doubt native Sicelians, as is shown 
by the various forms of their name, KnXXvpioi, KtXXtKvptoi, KaXXiKwpiot, 
which, as MiJller says, cannot be explained from the Greek. Miiller adds 
that the Gamori and their Cyllyrians stood in nearly the same relation 
to the Demus as tlie patricians with their clients did to the plebeians at 
Rome. Dor. B. iii. c. 4. 

'1 vii. 145. '^ vii. 1.56. 


The town of Camarina originally belonged to the europe. 
Syracusans, but the latter gave it up to Hippocrates, ^hap^ 
the tyrant of Gela. Subsequently Gelon destroyed camarina. 
the city and removed all the inhabitants to Syracuse, 
of which place he made them citizens.^ Gela was Geia. 
founded by the Lindians from Rhodes, and among 
the colonists was an ancestor of Gelon, who came 
from Telos, and whose descendants became priests 
of the infernal deities.^ Gelon removed half of the 
inhabitants to Syracuse.^ The town of Megara was Megara. 
taken by Gelon, who removed the more opulent in- 
habitants to Syracuse, but sold the populace, whom he 
regarded as an unpleasant fellow-lodger, for exporta- 
tion from the island.'^ The Euboeans of Sicily were 
treated by Gelon in the same way as the Megarians.^ 
The town of Zancle, or '' a sickle," was so called from zancie. 
the shape of its harbour. After the suppression of 
the Ionian revolt, the Zanclaeans invited the loni- 
ans to found a city in Cale acte, which lay on that 
side of Sicily which faced the Tyrrhenians. The 
Samians and Milesians alone accepted the invitation, 
but afterwards seized the city of Zancle for them- 
selves, whilst its citizens were absent at a siege, 
being persuaded to commit this treacherous act by 
King Anaxilaus of Rhegium, who was at enmity with 
the Zanclaeans.^ The Eryx country was the place Eryx coun- 
where Dorieus, the Lacedaemonian colonist, was '^" 
advised by Antichares to found Heraclea, as, accord- 
ing to the oracles delivered to Laius, all the region 
of Eryx belonged to the Heracleidae.'' 

The following miscellaneous localities are also 
noticedby Herodotus. Egestaea, which contained the Egestaea. 
tomb of Philippus, the handsomest man of his time, 
together with a shrine where the Egestaeans propiti- 
ated him with sacrifices ; ^ Selinus, which contained Seimus. 
an altar to the Forensian Zeus ; ^ Minoa, a colony of Mmoa. 
the Selinuntines ; ^ Mactorium, a city situated above Mactorium. 
Gela;^^ Inycus, where Scythes king of Zancle was i"ycus. 

1 vii. 154, 156. 

2 vii. 153. 

3 vii. 156. 

* Ibid. 

5 Ibid. 

6 vi. 22, 23. 

7 V. 43. 

8 V. 47. 

9 V. 46. 

10 Ibid. 

" vii. 153. 


EUROPE, sent in chains ; ^ Callipolis ; Naxos ; Leontini ; ^ 
CHAP. V. Hiniera, where the Carthaginians were defeated by 
Callipolis Grelon ; Agrigentum ; ^ Hybla ; * and Camicns, 
Naxos. which in the time of Herodotus was possessed by 
nlmcra.' tho Agrigcntincs, and which was besieged for five 
tSn!^^"^ j^ears by all the Cretans, except the Polichnitae and 
Hybla. the Pracsians, after the death of Minos/ Lastly, 
River Ei'o- thcrc was tlic river Elorus, where the Syracusans 
I'^s. were defeated by Hippocrates.^ 

Attempts of Tlic conqucst of Sicily was attempted by the Car- 
g^iansto'^" thaginians in the time of Gelon. The latter requested 
conquer Si- -^lie Grocks to assist him against the invaders, and thus 
avenge the death of Dorieus, who had been slain by the 
Phoenicians '^ and Aegestaeans ; and he even promised 
to free the ports, but could obtain no assistance.^ 
Subsequently, at Himera, he gained a brilliant vic- 
tory over the Carthaginians, who at the instigation 
of Terillus, the exiled tyrant of Himera, had invaded 
Sicily with 300,000 men under Hamilcar.^ The 
battle was fought on the same day as that at Sa- 
lamis.^*^ Gelon offered to furnish 200 triremes, 
20,000 heavy-armed troops, 2000 horse, 2000 
archers, 2000 slingers, and 2000 light horse, to the 
allied army of Hellas at the Persian invasion, and 
also to su]3ply the whole army with corn until the 
conclusion of the war, upon condition of being made 
commander-in-chief; but this offer was declined.'^ 
cythera. Cythera, uow Called Ccrigo, lay off the Malean 

promontory of Laconica. Chilon, the wisest man 
amongst the Lacedaemonians, said that it would 
be more to the advantage of Sparta if it was sunk 
to the bottom of the sea, than if it remained 
above water. '^ It once belonged to Argolis, to- 
gether with al Xonral -rUbv vrjffwy, or, " the remainder of 
the islands." It is imjoossible to say to what islands 
Herodotus alludes in this last expression ; but it 
is probable that he meant either the small islets by 
Cithera, or else those in the Argolic Gulf ^^ 

' vi. 2.3. 2 vii. 154. ^ yjj. 155, 4 y\i 155. 

' vii. 170. Comp. page 95. " vii. 154. ' v. 46. " vii. 158. 

» vii. 165. 10 vii. 166. " vii. 158. '^ vii. 235. " i. 82. 



Crete, tlie modern Candia, was in ancient times in europe. 
the possession of the barbarians. The Lycians of chap. v. 
Asia Minor originally dwelt there. The Caunians ^i-ete, its 
also said that they came from Crete, but Herodotus history. 
thinks that they were aborigines of Caria. The two 
sons of Europa, Sarpedon and Minos, had struggled 
for the sovereign power. Minos obtained the su- 
premacy, and Sarpedon and his partisans migrated 
to Asia Minor. ^ Minos was subsequently killed in 
Sicily, where he had gone in search of Daedalus ; 
and all the Cretans excepting the Polichnitae and the 
Praesians sailed there to avenge his death, but being 
unable to take the city of Camicus, they proceeded to 
lapygia and founded Hyria. Crete being thus al- 
most deserted, the Hellenes came and settled there. 
After the return from the Trojan war, which took 
place three generations after the death of Minos, fa- 
mine and plague carried off all the inhabitants and 
cattle on the island. The Cretans in the time of Xerxes 
were therefore the third people who had occupied 
Crete. ^ Herodotus seems to have joined in the general 
belief of their naval supremacy and piratic daring in 
ancient times. The Hellenes who sailed to Tyre and 
carried off Europa, he says, must have been Cretans,^ 
which corroborates the testimony of Thucydides.* 

The following towns in Crete are mentioned by Topography 
our author. Cydonia, which was founded by those cycionia. 
Samians who were exiled in the time of Poly crates,® 
but who however did not go to Crete for the purpose 
of founding this colony, but to drive out the Zacyn- 
thians. These Samian exiles remained in Cydonia 
and prospered for five years, and erected the sacred 
precincts which existed there in the time of Herodo- 
tus, and also built the temple of Dictynna ; but in 
the sixth year they were defeated by the Aeginetans, 
and enslaved with the other Cretans, and the prows 
of their boats, which represented the figure of a boar, 
were dedicated in the temple of Athene in Aegina.^ 
Cnossus was the ancient capital of Minos, who is cnossus. 

1 i. 172, 173. 2 vii. 170, 171. M. 2. * Thuc. i. 4, 8. 

^ iii. 44. " iii. 59. 








of Cjrprus. 





called the Cnossian.^ Itanus was the residence of a 
dyer of purple named Corobius, who had been to 
Libya, and who conducted the Theraeans to the 
island of Platea.^ Axus was a city where Etearchus 
was king.^ 

The Polichnitae and Praesians have been already 
mentioned, together with some strangers who were 
settled in the island.* 

Caepathus, the modern Scarpanto, is merely 
named by Herodotus.^ 

Rhodes was inhabited by Dorians.^ Herodotus 
only mentions three of its cities — Lindus, lalyssus, 
and Cameirus.'' At Lindus there was a temple of 
Athene, said to have been founded by the daugh- 
ters of Danaus, when flying from the sons of 
Aegyptus. On this account the Aegyptian king, 
Amasis, dedicated two stone statues and a linen 
corselet, well worthy of notice.^ The Lindians 
founded Gela in Sicily.^ 

Cyprus contributed 150 ships to Xerxes. Her 
kings wrapped their heads in turbans. The people 
generally wore tunics, and were in other respects 
attired like the Hellenes. The inhabitants of the 
island were a mixture of many nations, some coming 
from Salamis and Athens, others from Arcadia, others 
from Cythnus, others from Phoenicia, and some even, 
as the Cyprians themselves said, from Aethiopia.^° 
Artemisia said of the Cyprians, that they were bad 
slaves, and fit for nothing. ^^ The following localities 
are mentioned. Paphos, which sent 12 ships to 
Xerxes, 1 1 of which were destroyed in the storm oif 
Sepias.'^ Soli, which held out longer against the 
Persians than any of the other Cyprian cities, but 
was taken in the fifth month by the enemy under- 
mining their wall.^^ Curium, whose inhabitants are 
said to be a colony of Argives.^* Amathus, whose 
inhabitants refused to join in the Ionian revolt. ^^ Sa- 
lamis, whose tyrant, Euelthon, dedicated the curious 

' iii. 122. 
« ii. 178. 
" viii. 6«. 

2 iv. 151, 152. 3 iv. 154. 
7 i. 144. « ii.l82. 

'» vii. 19.5. 


< iv. 151. 
» vii. 153. 
1" V. 113. 

5 iii. 45. 
1" vii. 90. 
15 v. 104. 


censer at Delphi, which Ls deposited in the treasury europe. 
of the Corinthians.^ The promontory called the chap. t. 
Key of Cyprus.^ The island also contained a tern- j^^ ^^ 
pie of the celestial Aphrodite, which was built after cypms. 
the fashion of the one at Ascalon.^ The Cyprians 
called spears aiyvvveQ.'^ In many parts of Cyprus there 
was a custom very similar to the one observed by 
the Babylonian women in the temple of Aphrodite.'' 

The Islands of the Aegean which are included islands of 
under the name of the Grecian Archipelago, are best or^G^effa^lT' 
considered under their separate heads. First, the ^"^o^'^Qg 
group of isles off the coast of Europe, which are nerai de- 
called the Cyclades, because they were supposed to ^*^"p*^°^- 
lie in a circle round Delos. Secondly, the S]3orades, 
or " scattered islands," which lie more to the south, 
and off the Asiatic coast. Thirdly, the northern 
islands, or those lying off the more northern coasts of 
both Europe and Asia Minor. Countless numbers of 
isles or islets, beside those mentioned by our author, 
are scattered over the Aegean Sea. Many are of vol- 
canic formation ; others, like Paros, are composed of 
a pure white marble ; and we learn from modern tra- 
vellers, that in no part of Greece does the character 
and expression on the face of ancient statues so de- 
cidedly show itself, as upon the countenances of the 
fine athletic men, and very beautiful women, who 
still people 

" the isles of Greece, 
Where bui'ning Sappho loved and sung." 

I. The Cyclades mentioned by Herodotus are thir- i- The cy- 
teen in number, viz. Delos, Rhenea, Myconus, Te- ''^'^*' 
nos, Andros, Scyros, Ceos, Cythnos, Seriphus, 
Siphnos, Melos, Paros, and Naxos. 

The small island of Delos, which formed the cen- Deio.s,the 
tre of the Cyclades, was celebrated as having been sacred cha- 
the birth-place of the two deities, Apollo and Arte- '"^'''"'' 
mis ; and its inhabitants were apparently regarded 
as sacred.^ It contained a sanctuary of Artemis sanctuary 
with an altar ; and also a hall called the banqueting- BanquTing 

hall of the 
1 iv. 162. 2 V. 108. 3 I 105. * v. 9. Ceians. 

5 i. 199. Comp, Asia, chap. iii. ^ vi. 97- 






Grave of the 
two Hyper- 
boi-eau yir- 
gins, Ilype- 
roche and 

Grave of 
two other 
rean vir- 
gins, Opis 
and Arge. 

round Da- 
les, viz. 



room of the Ceians/ On the left-hand side of the 
entrance to the sanctuary of Artemis was the grave 
of two Hyperborean virgins, Hyperoche and Laodice, 
who died at Delos ; and on the grave there grew an 
olive tree. The two virgins had carried some sacred 
things, wrapped in wheat straw, from their native 
country to Delos, attended by five of the principal 
Hyperborean citizens, who were afterwards called 
Perpherees, and highly venerated at Delos. The 
maidens and youths of the island dedicated their 
hair to these two virgins ; the maidens cutting off a 
lock before marriage, and laying it on the sepulchre 
wound round a distaff ; and the youths placing their 
hair on the sepulchre wound round a plant.^ Be- 
hind the temple of Artemis, facing the east, and very 
near the banqueting-room of the Ceians, was the se- 
pulchre of two other Hyperborean virgins, named 
Opis and Arge, who came with the gods themselves 
long before the two others. The Delians paid them 
different honours, and the women collected contri- 
butions for them, and invoked their names in a hymn 
sung by Olen the Lycian ; and the ashes of the thighs 
of victims burnt on the altar were strewed uj)on 
their grave. ^ Delos was spared by the Persians 
under Datis, but after their departure was shaken 
by an earthquake, which Herodotus says had 
never happened in his time before or since.* In 
obedience to an oracle, Delos was purified by Pisis- 
tratus, who dug up all the dead bodies within sight 
of the temple, and removed them to another part of 
the island.^ 

West of Delos was the island of Rhenea, which is 
merely named by Herodotus.^ To the east was the 
island of Myconus, also scarcely noticed.^ Northward 
was Tenos ; ^ then Andros, which was dependent on 
Naxos.^ South of Andros was Scyros.^" Again, to 
the north-west was Ceos, whose inhabitants were 
lonians from Athens, and furnished two triremes and 

' iv. 35. 2 iv. 33^ 34, 3 iy. 35. 4 y^ 93. 

5 i. 64. Comp. Thucyd. iii. 104. « ^i 97. 1 yi. 118. 

« iv. .'«. " V. 31. "> vii. 183. 


two penteconters, both at Artemisium and Salamis.' Europe, 
Southwards of Ceos was Cythnos, whose inhabitants ^hap. v. 
were Dryopes, and sent one trireme and one pente- cythnos, 
center to Salamis.^ Many of the Cythnians were 
settled at Salamis.^ Next came Seriphus, whose in- Seriphus. 
habitants were lonians from Athens. They refused 
to send earth and water to Xerxes, and had one 
penteconter at Salamis.* 

The island of Siphnos came next. In the time of siphnos. 
Polycrates it was in a very flourishing condition, 
and so rich in gold and silver mines that Herodotus 
considered the Siphnians to be the richest of all the 
islanders. A tithe of the produce went to Delphi, 
and the remainder was shared by the inhabitants. 
When the Siphnians sent their treasure to Delphi, 
they inquired of the oracle if their prosperity would 
continue. The Pythia thus replied : 

" In Siphnos when the hall and mart are white, 
Then she will need a prudent man to guard 
From wooden ambush and a crimson herald." 

This prophecy was fulfilled. The prytaneium and 
agora of Siphnos were faced with Parian marble,' 
and at that time all ships were painted with red 
ochre or vermilion. Ambassadors came in a ship 
from Samos to request the loan of ten talents, and 
when this was refused the Samians ravaged the 
country, and exacted a fine of 100 talents.^ Siph- 
nos was one of the few islands that refused to send 
earth and water to Xerxes, and one of its ships with 
50 rowers fought on the side of the Greeks at Sala- 
mis. Its inhabitants were of Ionian extraction, and 
came from Athens.'^ 

Lastly came the three islands, Melos, Pares, and 
Naxos. The inhabitants of Melos were Dorians Meios. 
from Lacedaemon. They refused to send earth and 
water to Xerxes, and furnished two penteconters at 
Salamis.^ Paros included a town of the same name, Paros. 
which was surrounded by a wall. When the Pa- 
rians were threatened by Miltiades, they raised the 

^viii. 1, 46, 47. ^ viii. 46. ^ vii. 90. * viii. 46, 48. 

5 iii. 57. 6 iii. 58. ' viii. 46, 48. « viii. 46, 47. 

H 2 




CHAP. A-. 


II. The 



most exposed parts of this wall to double the former 
height.^ On a hill in front of the city was a temple 
of Demeter Thesmophora, surrounded by a fence, 
which Miltiades leaped over, as he could not open 
the door. He then entered the interior, which con- 
tained things that ought not to have been revealed 
to the male sex, but a thrill of horror came over 
him, and he turned back ; but on again leaping the 
fence, dislocated his thigh, or, as others say, hurt his 
knee.^ The Parians were chosen by the Milesians 
to reconcile the factions at Miletus/^ Naxos was 
regarded by Herodotus as an island of no great 
extent, but otherwise beautiful and fertile. It was 
near Ionia, and contained much wealth and many 
slaves. Pares, Andros, and the other islands that 
are called Cyclades, were dej^endent upon it.* In 
the time of Darius, its inhabitants were the richest 
of all the islanders,^ and possessed 8000 heavy-armed 
men, and a considerable number of shijDS of war.^ 
Aristogoras built a fortress for the Naxian exiles.' 
The island was apparently mountainous in the inte- 
rior.^ The Naxians were lonians from Athens, and 
sent four triremes to Salamis.^ 

II. The Spoeades mentioned by our author are 
only four in number, viz. Thera, Telos, Cos, 
and Leros. They lie off the western coast of Asia 

The island of Thera (the modern Santorin) was 
anciently called Callista, and Avas inhabited for eight 
generations after Cadmus by the descendants of 
Membliares and some Phoenicians. Theras, found- 
er of a colony ft-om Sj)arta including Laconians 
and Minyans, re-named it after himself.'" The Py- 
thia admonished the Theraeans to send a colony to 
Libya, but the latter did not know where Libya lay. 
Seven years of drought followed, during which no 
rain fell, and all the trees in the island except one 
withered away. The Pythia then renewed her ad- 

1 vi. 133. - vi. 133, 134. 

3 V. 29. 

^ V. 31. 

5 V. 2S. « V. 30. ■^ V. 34. 

« vi. 96. 

8 viii. 46. 

"> iv. 147, 14S. 


vice, and it was followed.^ A Theraean merchant europe. 
is mentioned as living in Axns, a city of Crete. ^ chap. v. 

Of the other three islands, Telos lay off Triopium, ^^^ 
and was the native place of an ancestor of Gelon ; ^ 
Cos was inhabited by Dorian Epidamnians ; * and cos. 
Leeds was brought before the notice of the Milesians Leros. 
by Hecataeus the historian, who advised them to 
occupy it after the sujjpression of the Ionian revolt.^ 

III. The Islands in the Aegean not reckoned iii. other 
amongst the Cyclades and Sporades, include seven- thrAegean. 
teen which are mentioned by Herodotus, viz. Samos, 
Lade, Chios, Lesbos, Hecatonnesi, Tenedos, Lem- 
nos, Imbros, Samothrace, Thasos, Sciathus, Euboea, 
Salamis, Psyttalea, Aegina, Belbina, Hydrea. 

Samos was one of the most important of them all, Samos. 
and Herodotus dwelt longer on the affairs of the 
Samians because they possessed the three greatest 
works that have been accomplished by the Hellenes. 

First, there was a mountain, 150 orgyae or fathoms The aque- 
in height, at the base of which a tunnel was dug, 
having an opening at each side. The excavation 
was seven stadia long, eight feet broad, and eight 
feet high. Throughout the whole length of it ran a 
trench 20 cubits deep and three feet broad, through 
which the water was conveyed by pipes from an 
abundant spring into the city. The constructor was 
Eupalinus from Megara. 

Secondly, there was a mole carried out to sea, and The moie. 
surrounding the harbour. This mole was 20 orgyae 
or fathoms deep, and more than two stadia long. 

Thirdly, there was a temple of Hera, the largest that The temple 
had ever been seen,^ of which the first architect was cfuSsiUes!^ 
Rhoecus, a Samian.^ Amongst other consecrated 
gifts and curiosities, it contained a large brazen mix- The great 
ing- vessel, covered outside to the rim with various in|!vessTr" 

1 iv. 150. 2 [y^ 154. 3 vii. 153 4 yji 99 s y. 125. 

^ Herodotus seems to have seen this temple, and perhaps wrote his 
description of it before he visited Aegypt ; for speaking of the Lab)nrinth 
a little above Lake Moeris (ii. 148) he says, " This I have seen myself: 
it is greater than can be described. This Labyi-inth must have been the 
work of more labour and money than all the buildings and public works 
in Hellas, though the temple in Epliesus is worthy of mention, as well 
as that of Samos." ' iii. 60. 


EUROPE, figui'es, and capable of containing 300 amphorae. 
CHAP. V. Tliis mixing- vessel liad been sent as a present by 
^ the Lacedaemonians to Croesus, king of Lydia, in 

retm-n for the gold he had given them for the Apollo 
statue on Mount Thornax. The mixing-vessel how- 
ever never reached Sardis. The Lacedaemonians 
said that on its way it was seized by the Samians, 
and forcibly carried off. On the other hand, the Sa- 
mians affii-med that the Lacedaemonians who were 
carrying it to Croesus, hearing that Sardis was taken 
and that the king was a prisoner, sold it to some 
private persons in Samos, who thereupon dedicated 
it in the Heraeum. Herodotus adds, that perhaps 
those who sold it pretended that they had been 
T^vowood- robbed.' Amasis, on account of his friendship for 
AmlsSr** °^ Polycrates, sent two images of himself carved in 
wood to this same temple, and they were standing 
behind the doors in the time of Herodotus.^ Man- 
picture of drocles the Samian, the architect of the bridge over 
rusfridg^?' the Bosphorus by which Darius and his army cross- 
ed into Europe, having been amply rewarded by the 
king, dedicated in return in the Hera temple a pic- 
ture of the entire construction of the bridge, with 
king Darius on his throne, and the army crossing 
over. Attached to the picture was the following in- 
scription : 

" Mandrocles bridged the fishy Bosphonis, 
And this memorial to Hera gave : 
Thus having pleased Darius, he has earned 
Glor}^ to Samos, for himself a crown." ^ 

Furniture of Macandrius dedicated in this temple all the magnifi- 
Poi) crates. ^^^^ omamcutal ftirniture from the men's apartment 
Linrn in the house of Polycrates.'^ Here also was probably 
the corselet, which Amasis had sent to the Lacedae- 
monians, l3ut which the Samians stole the year before 
they took the brazen mixing- vessel. This corselet was 
made of linen, inwrought with many figures of ani- 
mals, and adorned with gold and cotton wool ; and 
each thread, though fine, consisted of 360 small 
threads, which were all distinct.^ Lastly, the Samians 
' ' i. 70. 2 ji, 182. 3 iv 88_ i iii. 123. « iii. 47. 

corselet of 


wlio were carried to Tartessus, set aside from the im- Europe. 
mense profits of the voyage, one-tenth, amounting chap. v. 
to six talents, with which they made a brazen vessel Brazen mix- 
like an Argive mixing-jug, with griffins' heads pro- 'j'spQ^®^°'' 
jecting round the edge. This vessel they dedicated 
in the temple, upon a pedestal of three colossal 
brazen figures, seven cubits high, leaning upon their 
knees. ^ 

The city of Samos was fortified by walls and sur- Description 
rounded by a moat, which had been dug by some of samos.^ 
Lesbian captives. ^ Near the sea, and facing the suburbs, 
was a tower, and farther from the coast was another, 
which Herodotus calls the upper tower, and which 
stood on the ridge of the mountain.^ There were 
also arsenals or docks, literally " ship houses," in 
which Polycrates imprisoned some women and chil- 
dren.* In the former stood a monumental column 
bearing the names and ancestry of the eleven cap- 
tains, or steersmen, who refused to desert the lonians 
at Lade ; ^ and in the suburbs was an altar and sacred 
precinct to Zeus the liberator, which had been 
consecrated by Maeandrius.^ Both the column and 
altar stood in the time of Herodotus. Maeandrius 
also dug a secret passage, from the citadel to the 
sea.'^ The place called Calami was near the cele- 
brated Hera temple.^ 

The Samians celebrated a festival in consequence ^^^'J""^*/*^^' 
of the following circumstance. Periander, tyrant of served by 
Corinth, sent 300 Corcyraean boys, who were sons mian^s? 
of the principal men, to Sardis for emasculation. 
On their way the Corinthians landed at Samos, and 
the Samians instructed the youths to hold to the 
temple of Artemis. The Corinthians cut off all pro- 
visions from the youths, but the Samians instituted 
choruses of virgins and young men to carry cakes of 
sesame and honey by night to the temple. This 
custom continued not only until the departure of 
the Corinthians, but also down to the time of Hero- 

1 iv. 152. - iii. 39. ^ [\[ 54^ 4 [^ 45. s ^i 14 

« iii. 142. ' iii. 146. » jx. 96. " iii. 48. 





coudition of 
Sainos un- 
der Poly- 

Samians in, 

skill of the 

ravaged by 

Under Poly crates Samos flourished. He had 100 
galleys with 50 rowers to each, together with 1000 
archers, but he plundered without distinction. 
Having taken the Lesbians prisoners, he forced them 
to dig the ditch round the city walls of Samos. ^ 
The commerce of the island must also have been 
very considerable. The Samians built a temple of 
Hera in Aegypt ; ^ and one of their vessels having 
been driven by an easterly wind to Tartessus, 
wliich was at that time an unfrequented port, they 
made more money by the voyage than any one 
else, except Sostratus of Aegina, with whom our 
author says it is impossible for any one to compete. 
It was on this occasion that the Samians relieved 
Corobius with a year's provisions, when he was re- 
duced to the last extremity on the Libyan island of 
Platea ; and this timely relief led to the great friend- 
ship wliich existed between them and the Cyrenae- 
ans and Theraeans.^ 

Some Samians of the Aeschrionian tribe inhabited 
the oasis called Island of the Blessed, which is about 
seven days' march from the Aegyptian Thebes, from 
which it is separated by a sand desert.* 

The Samians must have been celebrated for their 
sliill in works of art from an ancient period. Poly- 
crates possessed an emerald signet ring mounted in 
gold, the work of Theodorus of Samos ; ^ and also 
found native artisans sufficiently skilful to strike a 
number of coins in lead, and gild them sufficiently 
well, in imitation of the Samian money, to enable 
him to impose them upon the Lacedaemonians as a 
bribe to induce them to raise the siege of the city.^ 

The Samians sent 60 ships to Lade.'' Their 
island had been previously scoured and hunted 
through by the Persians under Otanes, who had 
drawn it as with a net, and delivered it up to 
Syloson utterly destitute of inhabitants ; but Otanes, 
in consequence of a dream and distemper, subse- 
quently rcpeoplcd it.^ 

iii. .39. 
■' iii. 41. 

ii. 17H. 
« iii. 5f>. 

3 iv. 152. 

' vi. 8. 

" iii. 26. 
« iii. 149. 


The Samians spoke a peculiar dialect of the Europe. 
Ionian language.^ Their cubit was the same length chap. v. 
as that of the Aegyptians.^ ^~^a. 

Near Samos was the small island of Lade, which lect, etc. 
was celebrated as the spot where the Ionian fleet 
assembled and were defeated during the Ionian 

In the island of Chios the following places are Chios. To- 
mentioned by Herodotus. The city of Chios, which chfos."^ ^' 
contained a sanctuary of Athene Poliuchus,* and a 
school of which the ceiling fell in upon 120 boys as 
they were learning to read, and only one escaped.^ 
Caucasa, a port from whence Aristagoras with a Caucasa. 
north wind wanted to sail to Naxos.^ Coeli, where coeii. 
Histiaeus defeated the Chian garrison : '' the name 
appears to indicate a valley or hollow way. Lastly, 
the little town of Polichne.^ Poiichne. 

The Chians sent 100 ships to Lade,^ forty chosen Notices of 

• ,• • •! T r 1 110 the Chians. 

Citizens serving as marines on board oi each vessel. 
The island was afterwards scoured and depopulated 
by the Persians, who took one another by the hand, 
and extending from the northern to the southern 
sea, marched over the whole of it, hunting out the 
inhabitants.^^ From Chios came Grlaucus, who first 
invented the art of inlaying iron.' ^ The Chians 
possessed the Oenyssae islands, and refused to sell 
them to the Phocaeans.'^ 

In the island of Lesbos the three following places Lesbos. 
are mentioned by Herodotus. Methymna, the na- 
tive place of Arion ; '* Mitylene, the birth-place of 
Charaxus, the brother of Sappho ; ^^ and Arisba, 
whose inhabitants the Methymnaeans reduced to 
slavery though of kindred blood.'*' Herodotus how- 
ever says that five Aeolian cities were situated in 
Lesbos, and he mentions Arisba as the sixth. '^ 

The Lesbians sent 70 shij^s to Lade,'^ and their 
island was netted by the Persians the same as 

1 i. 142. 

Mi. 168. ^Yi.7,U5. 

* i. 160. « vi. 27. 

« V. 33. 

■> vi.26. 8 Ibid, 

9 vi. 8. " vi. 15. 

" vi. 31. 

12 i. 25. " i_ ig5_ u 

i. 23. 15 ii. 135. 

1" i. 151. 

" Ibid. 18 vi_ 9_ 








Chios. ^ The Sc}i;hian cauldrons for cooking the 
flesh of their sacrifices are compared with the Les- 
bian mixing-vessels, only the former were much 

The Hecatonnesi, or Himdred Islands ; a group of 
small islands, of which the real number is reckon- 
ed by some at 20, by others at 40, in number. They 
lay between Lesbos and the continent, and their 
name, according to Strabo, is derived not from eKarov, 
a hundred, but from "EKaro?, a surname of Apollo. 
Herodotus merely mentions the solitary circum- 
stance of their containing one Aeolian city.^ Tene- 
dos he also names as containing one Aeolian city,* 
and having been netted by the Persians like Chios. ^ 
The island of Lemnos was famous for bloody atro- 
cities. In ancient times all the Lemnian women 
murdered their husbands.^ Subsequently the island 
was occupied by the descendants of the Argonauts, 
called Minyans, who were expelled by the Pelas- 
gians.' These Pelasgians carried oif the Athenian 
women from Brauron. The sons of the latter, how- 
ever, were perpetually fighting with the sons of the 
Pelasgian women, and accordingly the Pelasgians 
murdered all the Athenian women and their pro- 
geny. In consequence of this atrocity, and of the 
former murder of the Lemnian husbands by their 
wives, Lemnian Deeds became a proverb in Greece 
for all atrocious acts.* Lemnos was still inhabited 
by Pelasgians when taken by Otanes, the general of 
Darius, against whom they fought bravely. ^ Milti- 
ades subsequently delivered Lemnos from the Per- 
sians, and brought it under the sway of Athens, the 
Hephaestians yielding at once, but the Myrinaeans 
not surrendering until after the siege. ^^ Some islands 
are mentioned as lying oif Lemnos, and Onomacritus 
was discovered in the very act of interpolating 
among the oracles of Musaeus a prophecy imj^orting 
that these isles would disappear beneath the sea." 
imbros. Imbros was taken l^y the Persians at the same 

1 vi,31. 
7 iv. 145. 

2 iv. 61. 
" vi. 1.3S. 

' i. 151. 

" V. 26. 

Ibid. 5 vi. 31. " vi. 138. 
'" vi. 140. " vii. 6. 


time as Lemnos, and was also inhabited by the europe. 
Pelasgians/ Samothrace was celebrated as having chap. v. 
been also occupied by Pelasgians who taught the samothra^ 
mysteries of the Cabeiri.^ 

The island of Thasos was visited by Herodotus, Thasos, its 
who found there a temple of Heracles, which had ^S^^ 
been founded by the Phoenicians five generations 
before Heracles the son of Amphitryon appeared in 
Greece.^ The Phoenicians discovered the island 
and its valuable mines whilst sailing in search of 
Europa, and being led by Thasus they called it 
after him. Before the Persian conquest the Thasi- 
ans derived a clear surplus revenue of 200 talents 
yearly, and sometimes even 300 talents ; of which 
sum 80 talents came in from the gold mines of 
Scapte Hyle on the opposite coast of Thrace, whilst 
the mines in the island itself produced somewhat 
less, and the produce of the soil was exempt from 
taxes. Herodotus himself saw the mines in Thasos, 
and says that the most wonderful were those which 
were discovered by the Phoenician colonists. These 
were between Aenira and Coenyra, opposite Samo- 
thrace, and a large mountain had been thrown up- 
side down in the search for ore. The Thasians 
having been besieged by Histiaeus the Milesian, ap- 
plied their wealth to building ships of war and 
fortifying their city with a stronger wall ; but 
at the command of Darius they demolished the wall 
and sent their ships to Abdera.* The entertain- 
ment to Xerxes cost the Thasians 400 silver talents.^ 
They possessed several cities in Thrace, of which 
Stryme is mentioned.^ 

Next comes the island of Sciathus, which is prin- Sciathus. 
cipally celebrated as being one of the posts of observ- 
ation at the invasion of Xerxes. Between Sciathus 
and Magnesia was a sunken rock,^ called Myrmex 
or Ant, upon which the crews of three of the ten 

' V. 26 ; vi. 41. 2 ii. 5i_ 3 ii. 44^ i yi 46, 47. 

5 vii. 118. 6 vii. 108. 

'' Bobrik makes «p/za signify a sand-bank ; but this is an evident 


EUROPE. Persian vessels erected a stone pillar to mark its posi- 
CHAP. Y. tion. Three Grreek ships were stationed at Sciathus 
at the Persian invasion, and from thence announced 
the apj)roach of the enemy by fire signals.^ 

Eiiboea. The large island of Euboea, now called the Negro- 

opogiap y p^j^^^ contained the following cities and districts^ 

Eretria. mentioned by Herodotus. The most important 
was the town and territory of Eretria, from whence 
the Gephyraeans of Athens said that they themselves 
were sprung; but Herodotus found upon diligent 
inquiry that they formed part of those Phoenicians 
who came with Cadmus to Boeotia.^ An Eretrian 
was amongst the suitors for the hand of the daughter 
of Clisthenes of Sicyon, and at that time it was 
flourishing.* The territory of Eretria also included 
the towns of Tamynae, Choereae, and Aegilia. The 
city of Eretria was plundered, its temples fired, and 
its inhabitants enslaved by the Persians in accord- 
ance with the commands of Darius.^ Eretria sent 
seven ships to Artemisium,*^ and the same number to 
Salamis.'^ The people were lonians,^ and those who 
were enslaved by the Persians were transported to a 
station called Arderica in Cissia.^ 

chaicis. T}2e city of Chalcis was situated at the straits of 

Em^iDus.^" The most opulent of the Chalcidians were 
called Hippobotae, and after the defeat of the Chal- 
cidians near Euripus, their lands were occupied by 
4000 Athenian settlers." The Chalcidians were lo- 
nians. They manned 20 ships at Artemisium, which 
were furnished by the Athenians, and the same num- 

styia. ber at Salamis.^^ The city of Styra sent four ships to 
Artemisium, and the same to Salamis. The Styreans 
were Dryo2:)es,^^ and also possessed a small island call- 
ed Aegilia.'* The following towns and localities are 

Goraostus. also briefly noticed. Geraestus, where Hermolycus 

1 vii. 179—183. 

* The Histiaeans dwelt in the north, with the EUopians in their 
neighhourhoocl. In the south were Dryopes. The centre of the island 
was inhabited chiefly by lonians, and it was in this part of Euboea 
that the Athenians planted the colonies of Chalcis and Eretria. 

3 V. 57. * vi. 127. ^ vi. 101. « viii. 1. ' viii. 46. 

« viii. 46. s vi. 119. '" v. 1']. i' Ibid. i- viii. 1, 46. 

'3 viii. 1, 46. 11 vi. 107. 


the Athenian was buried/ Carystus,^ which in- europe. 
eluded the place called Cyrnus.^ Histiaeotis, which chap. v. 
included the city of Histiaea, and the Ellopian dis- cavjstus. 
trict with all its maritime villages/ Histiaeotis. 

The celebrated beach of Artemisium, (in northern Description 
Euboea,) was, according to Herodotus, 80 stadia of Artem^ 
distant from the opposite point of Aphetae in Thes- ^'""'• 
saly," and so near Thermopylae that what happened 
at one place could be seen from the other/ It was 
situated just where the Thracian bay contracts into 
a narrow strait, passing between the island Sciathus 
and the main-land of Magnesia. On it was a temple 
of Artemis,^ from which it naturally took its name. 
It was here that Themistocles engraved inscriptions 
upon the stones, calling on the lonians either to de- 
sert, or to withdraw, or else to purposely behave ill 
in the approaching action.^ 

Herodotus also notices the following. Coela, coeia. 
where 200 Persian ships were dashed against the 
rocks. ^"^ The Caphareus promontory. ^^ The moun- cape Ca- 
tains of Euboea, namely, those in the south, which in- Mountains. 
eluded the fastnesses where some of the Eretrians 
proposed to retire on the approach of the Persian 
fleet ; ^^ and those of the north, where the Greek 
scouts were stationed. ^^ Many of the Abantes of The Aban- 
Euboea went with the lonians to Asia Minor. ^* 

The island of Salamis is celebrated for the famous Saiamis. 
naval battle fought off its shores. A Phoenician 
trireme was dedicated in the island to Ajax, from 
the first-fruits of the spoil. '^ A temple of Athene 
Sciras stood upon the coast. ^'^ Some lands in Salamis 
were presented by the Athenians of Antidorus, a 
Lemnian, as being the only Greek in the service of 
Xerxes who went over to the Greek side at the 
battle of Artemisium.^'' Ceos and Cynosura were 
undoubtedly promontories, though not expressly 
stated to be such by Herodotus. ^^ Near Salamis 

1 viii. 7 ; ix. 105. 2 iv. 33. ^ jx. 105. * viii. 23. 

« vii. 175. « viii, 8. ^ vii. 175. » y^ j^g. " viii. 22. 
10 viii. 12. " viii. 7. ^^ vi. 100. '^ vii. 182. " i. 146. 

15 viii. 121. i« viii. 94. "viii, 11. 

1^ viii. 76, Comp. Baehr's note. 


EUROPE, was the little island of Psyttalea, upon wliich the 
CHAP. T. Persians landed some troops prior to the battle.^ 
Psyttalea South of Salamis was the island of Aegina, whose 

Aegina. inhabitants were Dorians from Ej^idaurus. The 
island was formerly called Oenone.^ The Aeginetans 
wore very long clasps to their garments, for a reason 
ah-eady explained.^ The capital was apparently 
divided into the old and new town : Herodotus men- 
tions that part which he said was called the old 
town/ The city contained a temple of Athene, in 
which the Aeginetans dedicated the beaks of the 
Samian ships they captured at Cydonia. The beaks 
or prows represented the figm-e of a boar/ There 
was also a temple of Demeter Thesmophoria, with a 
propylaea/ At the village of Oea in the interior of 
the island, and about 20 stadia from Aegina, the 
Aeginetans erected two olive-wood statues of Damia 
and Auxesia, which they had captured from the 
Epidaurians; and here they propitiated the two 
deities with sacrifices and derisive dances of women, 
ten men being assigned to each deity as leaders of 
the chorus. In these choruses the women of the 
island, and not the men, were the subjects of rail- 
Trade and The trade and shipping of the Aeginetans must 
s ippmg. liave been very important. They erected for them- 
selves in Aegypt a temple of Zeus.^ They sent 18 
ships to Artemisium,^ and yet kept back many vessels 
ready manned to guard their own island. They also 
sent 30 of their best sailing vessels to Salamis, which 
was half as much again as any of the other island- 
ers ; ^° and here they obtained more renown than any 
other Hellenic nation. ^^ Our author says that their 
immense riches originated after the battle of Plataea, 
when they purchased a great quantity of gold and 
silver vessels from the helots almost at the same 
price as brass. '^ Herodotus however states, that at a 
much earlier period the profits which Sostratus of 

' viii. 76. 2 viii. 46. ^ v. 88. Comp. page 40. * vi. 88, 

' iii. 59. « vi. 91. ^ v. S3. » ii. 178. » viii. 1. 

'" viii. 46. " viii. 93, 122. »'^ ix. 80. 


Aegina derived from a single cargo, were larger than eijrope. 
any that had ever been gained by the Greeks.^ c"ap. v. 

Lastly, two small islands are mentioned by our 
author, Hydeea, which the Hermionians gave to the Hydrea, 
Samian exiles ; ^ and Belbina, whose inhabitants ap- Beibma. 
pear to have excited either general hatred or con- 
tempt. Timodenus of Aphidna, who envied The- 
mistocles, reproached him by saying that the honours 
he had received at Sparta had not been paid to him 
as Themistocles, but as a citizen of Athens. The- 
mistocles however replied : " Were I a Belbinite I 
shoidd not have been honoured, nor would you, fel- 
low, though you are an Athenian." 

1 iv. 152. 2 iii. 59. 



EUROPE. Countries north of the Cambunian and Ceraunian hills. — I. Mace- 
chap Ti I^ONIA : difference between Macedonia Proper and the Macedonian em- 

' pire. — General description of the Macedonian empire. — Watered by four 

rivers: Haliacmon, Lydias, Axius, Echeidorus. — Divided into five dis- 
tricts : Pieria, Macedonia Proper, Bottiaeis, Mygdonia, Crestonica. — 
Peninsula of Chalcidice. — Eastern frontier formed by Mount Dysorum. 
— Herodotus's geography illustrative of Xerxes's progress. — Route of the 
Persian fleet : description of Mount Athos ; canal through the isthmus ; 
bay of Singus ; Sithonia ; Cape Canastraeum ; Pallene ; Crossaea ; 
Therma ; river Axius ; gulf of Therma ; Olynthus ; Scione ; Potidaea. 
— Route of the Persian army : river Echeidorus ; camels attacked by 
lions ; rivers Lydias and Haliacmon ; Pieria. — Additional topographical 
notices : Mount Dysorum ; Anthemus ; Creston ; mythus of the Teme- 
nidae; sacred river; gai'dens of Midas ; Mount Bermion. — II. Thrace: 
its geography illustrative of the routes of Darius and Xerxes. — General 
description. — Northern Thrace. — Southern Thrace. — Herodotus's idea of 
the magnitude of Thrace. — Its frontier towards Scythia. — Route taken 
by Darius : bridge over the Bosphorus ; two columns of white marble ; 
Byzantium ; Cyanean isles ; river Tearus ; Heraeopolis ; Perinthus ; 
ApoUonia ; rivers Contadesdus, Agrianes, and Hebrus ; Aenus ; river 
Artiscus ; the Odrysae, Scyrmiadae, Nipsaei, and Getae ; Mesambria ; 
bridge at the Ister. — Route of Xerxes from the Hellespont to Acanthus : 
the Chersonesus ; inhabited by the Thracian Dolonci ; wall across 
the isthmus ; topography — -Elaeus, sepulchre of Protesilaus, Sestos, Ma- 
dytus. — Xerxes leaves the Chersonesus. — Apsinthians. — Agora. — Bay 
and river of Melas.— Aenus. — Lake Stentoris. — Doriscus. — Valley of the 
river Hebrus. — Sala and Zona. — Cape Serrhium. — Mesambria. — River 
Lissus. — Stryme. — Briantica, anciently Galaica. — Maroneia. — Dicaea. — 
Abdera. — Lakes Ismaris and Bistonis. — Rivers Travus and Compsatus. — 
River Nestus. — Pistjnns. — Paeti. — Cicones. — Bistones. — Sapaei. — Der- 
saei.-^Edoni. — Satrae. — Pierian forts. — Mount Pangaeus. — Pieres. — 
Odomanti. — Paeones. — Doberes. — Paeoplae. — District of Phyllis. — 
River Angites. — Paeonia : its extent. — Siro-paeones. — Scapte Hyle. — 
Paeones on the Strymon. — Paeones above Crestonica, and on Mount 
Orbelus and Lake Prasias. — Agrianes. — River Stiymon. — Eion.^ — Stry- 
mon bridge. — " Nine Ways." — Edonia. — Myrcinus. — Datus. — Bisaltia. — 
Argilus. — Plain of Syleus. — Acanthus. — Miscellaneous notices of south- 
em Thrace : Bryges ; gold mine of Scapte Hyle ; Cape Sarpedon ; 
Perinthus ; Selybria ; Aegospotami ; Tyrodiza ; Leuce Acte ; Bisanthe ; 
Hellespontines. — Northern Thrace, but little known : its seven rivers ; 
Istria'; Pillars of Sesostris. — Manners and customs of the Thracians. — 
Peculiar tenets of the Getae. — Belief in the immortality of the soul. — 


Their deity Zalmoxis. — Greek account of Zalmoxis. — ^Effect of his teach- 
ings on the Thracians. — His subterranean dwelUng, and re-appearance. 
— Herodotus's opinion. — Pecuhar custom of the Trausi : mournful births 
and happy funerals. — Thracians above Crestonica, their polygamy. — 
The favom-ite wife killed at her husband's death. — Customs of the Thra- 
cians generally. — Sale of children. — Profligacy of the unmariied women. 
— Tattooing. — Fondness for war. — Worship of Ares, Dionysus, and Arte- 
mis. — Worship of Hermes. — Funerals. — Sepulchral monuments. — Gar- 
ments of Scythian hemp. — Paeonians on Lake Prasias : living in huts 
supported over the lake by planks and piles. — Polygamy. — Horses and 
cattle fed on fish. — Satrae, the only independent Thracians. — Their 
oracle of Dionysus. — III. Illyria; scarcely noticed by Herodotus.— 
Sale of maidens amongst the Eneti. — River Angrus. — Tiiballic plain. — 
River Brongus. — The Enchelees. — 

We must now leave the Aegean Sea, and return europe. 
to tlie European continent. The regions south of chap. vi. 
the Cambunian range, and of the hills which connect ^^^^~~" 
Pindus with the Ceraunian mountains, have already north of the 
been described in the chapters on Hellas ; and we and^cerau- 
have already noticed the chain of Pindus, which ex- ''^^'^ ^^^®- 
tended through Greece from the Balkan range like 
the back-bone of the country, and sent out ribs on 
every side. East of Pindus were the Macedonians, 
and the rude tribes of Thrace and Paeonia, stretch- 
ing northward from the Cambunian range over the 
Balkan or Haemustothe southern bank of the Danube 
or Ister. West of Pindus were the Illyrians, who ex- 
tended northwards from the Ceraunian mountains 
beyond the head of the Adriatic to the Save and 
the Alj)s. The geography of these three nations 
will be comprised in the jDresent chapter. 

I. The Macedonia of Herodotus was much more i..macedo- 
limited in extent than the Macedonia of a later pe- ^^^^ £'5''''' 
riod, and our author himself almost seems to employ tween Ma- 
the name in two different senses. First, we have Proper and 
Macedonia Proper, or the small district originally 5aifem-'^° 
occupied by the Macedonian race. Then we have p"'^- 
what may be called the Macedonian empire, or the 
more extensive country obtained by conquest or 
political preponderance. After the time of Herodo- 
tus the empire embraced a still larger portion of the 
surrounding territory, and consequently the name 
had a still wider signification. 

The Macedonian empire in the time of Herodo- 





General de- 
scriptiou of 
the Macedo- 
nian em- 

Watered by 
four rivers, 

Lydias, ^ 


Divided in- 
to five dis- 
tricts, viz. 





of C'halci- 

tus stretclied j&.'om Tliessaly and the Cambunian 
moimtains to a ridge wliicli he calls Mount Dysorum,^ 
and which was situated near Lake Prasias, and 
therefore close to the frontiers of Paeonia.^ This 
region is watered by four rivers, which flow from 
very different directions ; but they all discharge 
themselves into the Thermaic Bay, now called the 
Gulf of Salonika, at very short distances from each 
other. On the south is the river Plaliacmon ; next 
above it is the Lydias. In the time of Plerodotus 
these two rivers discharged themselves at the same 
mouth, ^ and in modern maps the interval between" 
them is represented as very small. Further north 
is the river Axius, and just beyond it the river 
Echeidorus empties itself into a lagoon.'^ The 
Axius, at present called the Vardar, flows from the 
Balkan, or Mount Haemus. The Haliacmon, or 
modern Vistriza, flows from the Cambunian range. 
Between the Haliacmon and Lydias is a ridge which 
Herodotus seems to describe under the name of 
Mount Bermion.^ 

This Macedonian empire was divided into five 
districts, viz. Pieria, Macedonia Proper, Bottiaeis, 
Mygdonia," and Crestonica. 

PiEEiA was apparently the district under Mount 
Olympus. Macedonia Proper lay northward of 
it, and was divided from Bottiaeis by the united 
mouths of the Lydias and Haliacmon.^ Bottiaeis 
extended to the river Axius ; and beyond the Axius 
was Mygdonia^ on the Thermaic Bay. Above Myg- 
donia was the district of Crestonica, from whence 
flowed the river Echeidorus.^ In addition to these 
may be mentioned the peninsula of Chalcidice, oc- 
cupied by settlers from Euboea and others ; but 
though we include it in our account of Macedonia, 

' V. 17. 2 Lake Prasias was in Paeonia. v. 15, 16. 

3 vii. 127. A fuller account is given further on in the present volume. 
^ vii. 124. « viii. 138. 

" Bisaltia was reckoned as part of Thrace. 

' vii. 127. Herodotus therefore cannot make Pieria reach as far as 
the Haliacmon, because this river was north of Macedonia Proper. 
« vii. 123. Cf. 127. '■> vii. 124. Cf. 127. 






EUROPE, it certainly formed no part of tlie empire. It runs 
CHAP. VI. out into the Aegean in three prongs, viz, Athos, 

Sithonia, and Pallene.^ 
Eastern AVhctlicr, liowcver, Herodotus really alludes to 

formSby ^^^^ collectivc territory under the name of Macedo- 
Mount nia, depends upon the identification of Mount Dyso- 
yboi-um. j,^^^^ which undoubtcdly formed the eastern frontier.^ 
K. 0. Miiller identifies Dysorum with the ridge 
between the Haliacmon and Lydias,^ but if we 
adopt this theory there is no finding Lake Prasias. 
I am more disposed to follow Colonel Leake in sup- 
posing Lake Prasias to be the same as the Lake Cer- 
cinitis, and Mount Dysorum as that part of the 
range which separates the Strymonic plain from 
those mountains that extend to Thessalonica and the 
Herodotus's Hcrodotus's knowlcdgc of the Macedonian empire 
0^1 iUus-^ is only brought forward to exj^lain the route taken 
teative of "^y the flcct and army of Xerxes between Acanthus 
progress, and the parts of Macedonia bordering on Thessaly. 
It will therefore be advisable, for the sake of clear- 
ness, to follow in these two separate tracks ; one 
illustrating the geography of the coast, the other the 
geography of the interior. 
Route of The army and navy of Xerxes had reached Acan- 
fl^et^^'^^'^'^ thus on the eastern coast of the Chalcidian peninsula. 
At this point the king dismissed his fleet, with orders 
to proceed to Therma, on the western coast and at 
the head of the Thermaic Gulf, and there to await his 
arrival with the land forces. Accordingly the fleet 
left Acanthus, and sailed through the canal which 
divided the peninsula of Mount Athos (or eastern 
prong of Chalcidice) from the main-land.^ 
Description Athos is a large and celebrated mountain, stretch- 
Athor"^ ing into the sea, and joined to the continent by an 
isthmus 12 stadia across. At the isthmus the coun- 
try is level, nor are there any considerable hills be- 

' See preceding Diagram of Macedonia, Thrace, and Illyria. 

2 V. 17. 

^ Dorians, vol. i. Appendix I., on the settlement, origin, and early his- 
tory of the Macedonian nation, with map. 
^ Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 210; iv. p. 581. * vii. 121. 


tween the Acanthian Gulf and that of Torone.^ The europe. 
isthmus was cut through to avoid the disasters chap. vi. 
which befell the fleet of Mardonius, when 300 of his ^~^ 
ships were wrecked in endeavouring to double the througii the 
promontory, and 20,000 men were either dashed ^^ 
against the rocks, or destroyed by the numerous 
sea-monsters which abounded in the neighbour- 
hood.^ Three years were employed upon the canal. 
Triremes were stationed at Elaeus in the Cherso- 
nesus, and men of all nations, having been drawn 
from the army, were sent out from these triremes, and 
compelled to dig under the lash in successive sets, 
and the inhabitants of the surrounding country 
were also compelled to take a part in the labour. 
The excavation was thus managed. A straight 
line was drawn near the city of Sana, (at the nar- 
row part of the isthmus,) and the entire space was 
allotted in parcels to the several nations that were 
to be employed. In the progress of the excavation 
the earth dug out was handed up by man to man 
from the bottom of the canal to the top — the whole 
being performed by hand, without any aid of cranes 
or barrows. The canal was made sufficiently wide for 
two triremes to pass abreast, and the Phoenicians 
showed their superior intelligence, by being the only 
people who took the precaution of beginning the 
excavation at a breadth far greater than that pre- 
scribed, so as to enable them to gradually narrow 
the canal as they approached the bottom, and leave 
a convenient slope for the sides. The others dug 
straight down, so that the time as well as the toil of 
their work was doubled by the continual falling in 
of the sides. ^ A mound was placed at each end 

1 vii. 22. 2 vi. 44. 

3 The present condition of the canal has been thus described by Lieut. 
Wolfe : " The canal of Xerxes is still most distinctly to be traced all the 
way across the isthmus, with the exception of about 200 yards in the 
middle, where the ground bears no appearance of ever having been 
touched. But as there is no doubt of the whole canal having been ex- 
cavated by Xerxes, it is probable that the central part was afterwards 
filled up, in order to allow a more ready land passage into and out of the 
peninsula. In many places the canal is still deep, swampy at the bot- 
tom, and filled with rushes and other aquatic plants : the rain and small 
springs ^draining down into it from the adjacent heights afford, at the 





Bay of 


Cape Am- 



Cape Canas- 



of the canal to prevent its mouths from being 
choked up/ A market and bazaar were held in a 
neighboming meadow, and great abundance of meal 
was brought fi^om Asia. On the isthmus stood the 
Hellenic city of Sana. On the peninsula of Athos 
itself stood the cities of Dion, Olophyxus, Acro- 
thoon, Thyssus, and Cleonae.^ 

After leaving the canal the fleet entered the Bay 
of Singus, now called the Grulf of Monte Santo, on 
which were situated the cities of Assa, Pilorus, Sin- 
gus, and Sarta. Having taken troops on board from 
these cities, the fleet doubled the Toronaean foreland 
of Ampelus, and passed by the following Hellenic 
cities, viz. Torone, Galepsus, Sermyle, Mecyberna, 
and Olynthus ; and from thence took both ships and 
men. The district in which these places lay was 
called Sithonia.^ The fleet then stretched fr^om 
Cape Ampelus to Cape Canastraeum, the most promi- 
nent point of all Pallene, which was anciently called 
Phlegra. Pallene contained the cities of Potidaea, 
Aphytis, Neapolis, Aega, Therambus, Scione, Men- 
da, and Sana, from all of which the Persians col- 
lected both men and ships. Coasting along the 
country called Crossaea, they collected men from 
the cities of Lipaxus, Combrea, Lisae, Gigonus, 

Monte Santo western end, a good watering-place for shipping. The 
distance across the isthmus is 2500 yards, which agrees very well with 
the breadth of 12 stadia assigned by Herodotus. The width of the 
canal appears to have been about 18 or 20 feet. The level of the earth 
nowhere exceeds 15 feet above the sea. The soil is alight clay. It is 
on the whole a very remarkable isthmus, for the land on each side, but 
more especially to the westward, rises abruptly to an elevation of 800 to 
1000 feet." Fen. Ct/chp. 

Herodotus (vii. 24) considers that Xerxes performed this laborious 
work from motives of mere ostentation, for the ships might have been 
easily drawn across the isthmus. Col. Leake however says, that there 
can Ije no doubt that even now this canal, which might be renewed 
without much labour, would be useful to the navigation of the Acgean,^ — 
" for such is the fear entertained by the Greek boatmen of the strength 
and uncertain direction of the cmTcnts around Mount Athos, and of the 
gales and high seas to which the vicinity of the mountain is subject dur- 
ing lialf the year, that I could not, as long as I was on the peninsula, and 
though offering a higli price, prevail upon any boat to carry me from 
the eastern side of the peninsula to the western. . . . The circumnaviga- 
tion of the Capes Ampelus and Canastraeum was much less dangerous." 
North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 145. 

' vii. 37. - vii. 22—24. » vii_ i22. 


Campsa, Smila, and Aenea. From Aenea the fleet Europe. 
went to Therma ; then to the towns of Sindus and ^'"^^- ^^- 
Chalestra ; and finally to the river Axius, which Therma. 
forms the boundary between the territories of Myg- ^^.^^^ 
donia and Bottiaeis. On a narrow part of Bottiaeis 
near the sea stood the cities of Ichnae and Pella.^ 

Herodotus also mentions a few particulars in con- 
nexion with some of these localities. The Ther- ^^^^ 
mian Grulf, he says, derives its name from the city 
of Therma.^ Olynthus was formerly occupied by oiynthus. 
Bottiaeans, who had been driven from the Thermaic 
Gulf by the Macedonians. Artabazus took the 
town and slaughtered the garrison in a neighbour- 
ing marsh, and then gave the place to the Chal- 
cidian people.^ Scione was the birth-place of Scyllias, scionc. 
the best diver of the period, who carried to the 
Greeks the news of the 200 Persian ships which 
were to sail round Euboea. Potidaea was also be- Potidaea. 
sieged by Artabazus for three months, at the expir- 
ation of which there happened an extraordinary 
ebbing of the sea, and the besiegers seeing the 
shallows attempted to proceed round the city.* 
When, however, they had accomplished two-fifths of 
the way, a strong flood-tide came upon them, such 
as, the inhabitants say, was never seen before, though 
floods were frequent. All who could not swim 
perished, whilst the Potidaeans put out in boats and 
slew many who would otherwise have escaped. The 
Potidaeans say, and Herodotus thinks they are cor- 

1 vii. 123. 2 vii. 121. 3 viii. 127. 

* Potidaea was situated on the narrow isthmus which connected the 
peninsula of Pallene with the main-land. The walls of the city were 
built across the entire breadth of the isthmus, and thus were a defence 
for the entire peninsula as well as for the city. Artabazus apparently 
besieged it on the north side, and was thus shut out from Pallene as well 
as fi'om Potidaea. His troops thought of proceeding along the shore 
which was left by the tide, and by getting into Pallene and to the south 
of Potidaea, to surround the city and to complete the blockade. The 
walls above and below the city were apparently connected by break- 
waters or walls running along the two shores on each side of the city. 
At the siege of Potidaea during the Peloponnesian war, (Thucyd. i. 62, 
63,) Aristeus, the commander of the Corinthians and Potidaeans, made 
a similar attempt to run along under the sea wall, and obtain an entrance 
into the town of Potidaea at one of the gates on the inner part facing Pal- 
lene. He and his troops were however more successful than the Persians 
imder Artabazus. 





Route of 
the Persian 



Camels at- 
tacked by 

Lydias and 

rect, that the Persians were thus punished for having 
profaned the temple and statue of Poseidon in the 
suburbs of the city.^ 

Xerxes and his land force proceeded also from 
Acanthus, taking the road through the interior, and 
passing through Paeonia and Crestonica^ towards 
the river Echeidorus. This river rises up amongst 
the Crestonians, flows through Mygdonia, and dis- 
charges itself in the swamp which is above the 
river Axius/ During the march some lions left 
their lairs at night and attacked the camels carrying 
the provisions, but made no attempt to seize the 
other beasts or the men ; and Herodotus wonders 
that they should thus have only attacked an animal 
like the camel, which they could never before have 
either seen or tasted.^ The lions were very numer- 
ous, but were only to be found between the rivers 
Nestus and Achelous. The country also abounded 
in wild bulls, whose horns were of an extraordinary 
size, and were exported to Hellas/ 

The army at length encamped in a district on the 
coast stretching from Therma and Mygdonia to the 
rivers Lydias and Haliacmon, which, uniting their 
waters into the same channel, divide the territories 
of Bottiaeis and Macedonia.^ The Echeidorus was 

» viii. 129. 

2 K. O. Mliller conjectures that this Crestonica was a district of 
Chalcidice, and quite different fi-om that of the Crestonaeans at the 
source of the Echeidorus ; and he urges as a reason the difficulty of sup- 
posing that Xerxes, in going from Acanthus to Therma, would pass 
through Paeonia and Crestonica. There may have been Crestonaeans in 
Chalcidice, but it is considered most advisable here to draw the map ac- 
cording to the plain meaning of the author. The student, however, can 
compare Herod, viii. 116; Thucyd. ii. 99. 

3 vii. 124. * vii. 125. ^ ^n 126. 

6 It appears from this passage, that in the time of Herodotus the 
Haliacmon was joined by the Lydias, a discharge of the lake of Pella. 
But a change has now taken place in the course of the Lydias, which 
joins not the Haliacmon, but the Axius. The Haliacmon itself appears 
of late to have moved its lower course more to the east, so that in time 
perhaps all these three rivers may unite before they join the sea. In all 
the large rivers of Greece, similar changes of direction in the lower parts 
of their course are observable, as we have already noticed in the case of 
the Spercheius. The new soil which is brought down by the water, and 
distributed along the shore by the sea, acted upon by prevailing winds 
and currents, produces a continual change of obstacles and of relative 
levels in the maritime plain, which speedily gives a new course to the 


the only one of the above-mentioned rivers that Europe. 
proved insufficient for the wants of the army.^ chap. vi. 
Xerxes remained several days about Pieria, for a ^~~ 
third division of his army was employed in felling 
the trees on the Macedonian range, that the whole 
army might pass in that direction, [i. e. over the 
Cambunian mountains through the pass of Gronnus,] 
into the country of the Perrhaebi.^ Pieria produced 
pitch, which was however not equal to that obtained 
from Zacjmthus.^ 

The following scattered notices may also be con- Additional 
nected with those which belonged to the routes pMcli no- 
taken by the Persian armament. From Lake Prasias *'''®*- 
the road to Macedonia was very short. Adjoining 
the lake was a mine, which in later times produced 
a talent of silver daily to Alexander the son of 
Am3mtas. Beyond the mine the traveller has only 
to pass over the mountain called Dysorum to be in Mount Dy- 
Macedonia.^ Herodotus also mentions the town of ^°^^^- 
Anthemus, which Amyntas offered to give to Hip- Anthemus. 
pias, but the latter refused to accept it.^ Also the Creston. 
town of Creston, above the Tyrrhenians. The 
inhabitants of Creston had once held possession 
of Thessaliotis, and were distinguished in the time 
of Herodotus as conservators of the old Pelasgian 
language.^ It was probably the capital of the Cres- 
tonaean race. 

A few notices of north-western or Upper Mace- Mythus of 
donia are also to be found in a mythus. Three nidae.''°^ 
brothers of the race of Temenus, named Gauanes, 
Aeropus, and Perdiccas, fled from Argos to the IHy- 
rians, and from thence to Lebaea in Upper Macedo- 
nia, where they hired themselves to the king as 
servants. At length they were expelled, and pur- 
sued by horsemen. In this region there was a river Sacred 
to which the descendants of these men from Argos "^ 
afterwards sacrificed as their deliverer ; for when 
the three Temenidae had crossed over, it swelled to 

waters, even in the land which is not of the latest formation. See 
Leake's North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 437. 

1 vii. 127. "" vii. 131. » iv. 195. * v. 17. ' v. 94. " i. 57- 





Gardens of 


II. Thrace 
its geogi-a- 
pliy illiistra- 
tive of the 
routes of 
Darius and 


such a lieight tliat tlieir pursuers were unable to ford 
it. The three brothers then dwelt in another 
quarter of Macedonia, near the gardens that were 
said to have belonged to Midas, son of Grordias. 
Wikl. roses grew in this region, each one hav- 
ing sixty leaves, and surpassing all others in fra- 
grance.^ The Macedonians relate that Silenus was 
taken in these gardens. Above them is a mountain 
called Bermion, which was inaccessible fi'om the cold. 
The three brothers having possessed themselves of 
this tract, subsequently issued from thence and sub- 
dued the rest of Macedonia.^ 

Such is the extent of our author's knowledge of Ma- 
cedonia. We next come to the geography of Thrace, 
and as this also is chiefly brought forward to illus- 
trate the routes taken by Darius and Xerxes, we 
shall pm'sue the subject in a similar manner, namely, 
first review the general geography of the country, 
and then follow in the tracks marked out. 

II. The Thrace of Herodotus extended from the 
north-eastern frontier of the Macedonian empire to 
the right bank of the Ister or Danube. It included 
the Roman provinces of Moesia and Thracia, and the 
districts of Paeonia, and thus answered to the mo- 
dern territories of Bulgaria, Rumilia, and eastern 
Macedonia, which now belong to European Turkey. 
This region is divided into two parts by the Balkan 
range, (or Plaemus,^) which runs from west to east, 
separating the plain of the lower Danube from the 
rivers which flow into the Aegean Sea. Three ex- 
tensive chains branch off from the southern side of 
Haemus, and traverse Thrace. One, about 100 miles 

^ " The roses of Miletus," says Pliny, " have no more than twelve 
petals : the rose called Spineola has many, but they are small. The 
least leafy roses have five petals ; and there is a species called ' centifo- 
lia,' which has a hundred petals ; these are found in Campania, and in 
Greece not far from PhiHpin. The territory of that city does not pro- 
duce them ; the shruhs are brought from Mount Pangaeus, and, being 
replanted in a rich soil, produce roses larger than those that grow on the 
mountain itself." Jlist. Nat. xxi. iv., quoted by Larcher. 

2 viii. 1.37, 138. 

^ This mountain probably derived its name from its cold and snowy 
top, since Haemus seems to contain the same I'oot as the Sanscrit hima, 
" snow," whence also comes the name of the Himalaya mountains. 


from tlie Euxine, runs in a sontli-easterly direction Europe. 
towards Byzantium. The second, which is much c"^!"-^^- 
larger, branches off near the sources of the Hebrus, ~ 
(or Maritza,) and likewise runs to the south-east. 
This latter chain is alluded to bj Herodotus as 
Mount Rhodope : at present it bears the name of 
the Despoto mountains. A third branch, which ap- 
pears in Herodotus under the name of Orbelus, ex- 
tends from the northern elevations of Rhodope along 
the eastern bank of the Str^mion to Mount Pan- 
gaeus. The whole of this mountain system is dis- 
tinguished by craggy summits and steep sides, and 
is everywhere rent by terrific fissures so deep and 
narrow that daylight is almost excluded. 

The northern half of Thrace, or the region beyond Northern 
the Balkan, is watered b}^- several small streams, 
which take their rise from the northern declivities 
of the mountain range, and discharge themselves 
into the Danube.^ In the time of Herodotus it was 
occupied by the celebrated G etae,^ afterwards called 
the Dacians, and by a people whom Herodotus 
merely names as the Thracian Crobyzi.^ 

The southern half of Thrace is described at far southern 
greater length and detail, in consequence of its in- 
cluding the routes taken by Darius and Xerxes. 
Twelve rivers are mentioned by Herodotus, namely, 
the Melas ; the Hebrus, (or Maritza,) which receives 
the waters of the Teams, the Contadesdus, the 
Agrianes, and the Artiscus ; the Lissus, the Travus, 
the Compsatus, the Nestus, (or Carasu,) the Angites, 
and the Strymon (or Struma). The country was 
occupied by numerous nations. On the coast of the 

^ Herodotus enumerates seven of these tributaries, viz. the Athrys, 
Noes, Artanes, Scios, Tibisis, Am-as, and Atlas (iv. 49). These are of no 
importance in history, and many others flow in a similar direction. It is 
therefore as unnecessary as it would be difficult to attempt to identify 
them. Spruner, in his map of Thracia, etc., has given the Herodotean 
names to some of the streams, but not in the order in which Herodotus 
places them. Rennell thinks that under the name of Tibisis our author 
alludes to the Tibiscus or Theiss, but that by a mistake he has made it 
descend from Mount Haemus instead of the Bastarnian Alps in the op- 
posite quarter, I am not inclined, however, to beUeve that the two rivers 
are identical, or that Herodotus could have made such a blunder. 

2 iv. 93. 3 iv. 49. 


EUROPE. Euxine were the Scyrmiadae, and Nipsaei. On the 
CHAP. VI. Propontis were tlie Hellespontines. In the Cher- 
sonesns were the Dolonci. On the river Melas were 
the Apsinthians. Between the Melas and the He- 
brus were the Paeti, and on the upper course of the 
Hebrus were the Odrysae. Lower down were the 
Trausi and Brygians. Nearer to the coast of the 
Aegean were the Cicones and Bistones. On the 
lower course of the Nestus were the Sapaei and Der- 
saei. On the lower course of the Angites were the 
Satrae, Pieres, and Edoni. Between the Angites 
and the Strymon were the Odomanti ; and west- 
ward on the Strymon was the territory of Bisaltia, 
afterwards included in Macedonia. Last of all must 
be mentioned the extensive region of Paeonia, 
which included the upper courses of the Nestus, 
Angites, and Strymon. The nations occupying this 
country were the Paeoplae, Satrae, Doberes, Agri- 
anes, Siro-paeones, and an amphibious j^eople who 
lived on Lake Prasias, (or Cercinitis,) all of whom 
were described by Herodotus under the general 
name of Paeones. 
Herodotus's Tlic Tliraciau people, according to Herodotus, 
Magnitude wcrc the uiost numcrous in the world excepting the 
of Thrace. Indians, and if they had been governed by one man, 
or had acted in concert, they would have been in 
his opinion invincible, and the most powerful of all 
nations. It was however impossible that they should 
ever be united, and therefore they were weak.^ 

From this paragraph we plainly see that Herodo- 
tus had formed an extravagant idea of the magni- 
tude of Thrace. The country was but little known, 
and the veil of obscurity which hung over the inte- 
rior served to magnify its extent in the same way 
that a Highland mist exaggerates the objects it en- 

1 V. 3. 

^ Niebuhr, in his map of the world according to Herodotus, gives a 
large accession of territory to Thrace, by representing the Ister, which 
formed the northern Ijoundary, as flowing along a parallel very much 
farther to the north, and then taking a southerly direction towards its 
present mouth, and thus forming the western side of the Scythian square. 
This theory is discussed in the next chapter. 


'' Thrace," says Herodotus, ''where it adjoins the europe. 
sea, projects before the Scythian territory, and where chap. vi. 
a bay is formed in this country Scythia begins, and j^s frontier 
the Ister discharges itself, having its mouth towards towards 
the east."^ By this description we may understand ''y*^^'^' 
our author to mean, that in that part where the 
mouths of the Ister form a bay, (probably Lake 
Rassein,) Thrace projects either into the Euxine, or 
else towards the south, and that the river there forms 
the boundary between Thrace and Scythia.^ 

We will now form an itinerary of the country by Route taken 
following in the routes taken by Darius and Xerxes. ^ 

At the mouth of the Pontus, where there was a 
sanctuary,^ and also a large mixing-vessel dedicated 
by Pausanias,* the celebrated bridge over the Bos- Bridge over 
phorus was erected for Darius by Mandrocles the rus. 
Samian. Herodotus conjectures that the bridge was 
contructed half way between the sanctuary and the 
city of Byzantium/ On the same spot Darius erect- Two co- 
ed two columns of white marble, bearing inscriptions, wWte mar- 
one in Assyrian, and the other in Greek, enumer- ^^^• 
ating all the nations which were included in his 
armament. These columns were subsequently re- Byzantium, 

1 iv. 99. 

2 The river Ister, or Danube, will be further discussed in chapters vii. 
and viii. We may however here remark, that its mouths particularly 
attracted the attention of Herodotus, and probably led him in the first 
instance to compare the Ister with the Nile (ii. 33, 34). He describes 
each of these rivers as discharging itself into the sea through five mouths 
(ii. 17 ; iv. 47) ; but the great changes which the Danube has evidently 
undergone at its mouth render it diflicult to identify his description. 
At the present day this river, about fifty miles from the coast of the 
Euxine, divides into three principal arms, besides forming, on its southern 
side, the lake now called Rasselm or Rassein, from which several minor 
arms proceed. The delta of the Danube is a vast swampy flat, inter- 
spersed with lagoons covered with bulrushes, the resort of vast flocks of 
water-fowl. The northern arm, which is named Kilia, and the south- 
ern one, named Edrillis, are shallow and of little value. The latter one 
forms the boundary between the Russian and Turkish dominions. The 
middle arm is called Sulineh, and has from ten to twelve feet of water 
over the bar at its mouth. The mouth of the Sulineh arm is now rapidly 
filling up from the deposits of mud brought down by the river, and which 
the current is not sufficiently strong to carry away. MaccuUoch, Geoff. 

3 iv. 87. * iv. 81. 

5 iv. 87. The two ancient castles, Rumili-Eski-Hissar on the Euro- 
pean side, and Anadoli-Eski-Hissar on the Asiatic side, are supposed to 
mark the points which the Persians connected by the bridge of boats. 










Rivers Con- 


River Ar- 
The Odiy- 

moved by the Byzantines into their city, and were 
used in building tlie altar of the Orthosian Artemis, 
all but one stone, which was left near the temple of 
Dionysus in Byzantium, covered with Ass}7Tian cha- 
racters.^ The Persian fleet then sailed through the 
Cyanean Isles,^ to the river Ister, whilst Darius 
proceeded through Thrace with liis land forces.^ 

The &st recorded spot reached by the Persian 
army, was at the sources of the river Tearus, which 
were celebrated amongst the neighbouring inhabit- 
ants. The Tearus was said to be the best of all rivers, 
both for its general healing qualities, and especially 
for curing the itch in men and horses. This 
river rises from 38 springs, some warm and others 
cold, which all flow from the same rock. The road 
to them was equally distant from the town of He- 
raeopolis near Perinthus, and from Apollonia on the 
Euxine, being two days' journey from either place. 
The Tearus discharges itself into the Contadesdus, 
the latter into the Agrianes, and this last again into 
the Plebrus, which falls into the sea near the city of 
Aenus.^ Darius was so pleased with the river that 
he erected a pillar at the sources bearing, this in- 
scription : ''The springs of the Tearus yield the 
best and finest water of all rivers ; and a man, the 
best and finest of all men, leading an army against 
the Scythians, Darius son of Hystaspes, king of the 
Persians, and of the whole continent." ^ 

Proceeding fr-om thence Darius reached the river 
Artiscus, which flows through the Odrysae, and here 
he left vast heaps of stones, having marked out a cer- 
tain spot and commanded each soldier to place a 

• iv. 87. 

2 These Cyanean isles, also called Symplegades by Euripides and others, 
are correctly described Ijy Strabo as " two little isles, one upon the Euro- 
pean and the other on the Asiatic side of the strait, separated from each 
other by 20 stadia." The more ancient accoimts, representing them as 
sometimes separated, and at other times joined together, were explained 
by Tournefort, who observed that each of them consists of one craggy 
island, but that when the sea is disturbed the water covers the lower 
parts, so as to make the dififerent points of either resemble insular rocks. 
The presence of copper gives to these rocks a greenish colour, and ob- 
tained for them the name of Cyaneae. 

3 viii. 99. " iv. 90. '^ iv. 91. 


stone there.^ On his way the Scyrmiadae Thraci- Europe. 
ans, who occupy Salmydessus, and the Nipsaei chap. vi. 
Thracians, who dwell above the cities of Apollonia ,; 
and Mesambria, surrendered ; but the bretae, who ciae. 
were apparently the last Thracian nation and oetae?'* 
reached to the Ister, made an obstinate resistance, 
but were at length overcome and made slaves,^ 
though they were the most valiant and most just 
of all the Thracians. The city of Mesambria was Mesambria. 
founded about this time by the Byzantines and 
Chalcedonians who fled before the Persians along 
the coast of the Euxine, and established a colony.^ 
Darius at length reached the bridge which he had Bridge at 
ordered to be thrown over the Ister, and at last en- 

the Ister. 

tered the Scythian territory.* 

The army of Xerxes proceeded in its turn, but 1°^^^^°^ 
over the Hellespont (or modern Dardanelles) instead from the 
of the Bosphorus. The Chersonesus (land-island or 2 IShis 
peninsula) was first traversed. This was 420 stadia 
long, and at the isthmus which connects it with the 
European continent it was 36 stadia broad.*' The TheCher- 
Chersonesus was originally occupied by the Thra- habited by 
cian Dolonci, who made Miltiades son of Cypselus ai^Doionci. 
their tyrant in accordance with an oracle. Miltiades 
built a wall on the isthmus, from the city of Cardia waii across 

1 A • ii • rrn • 7 the isthmus. 

to Pactya, to keep out the. Apsmtnian inracians.' 
The Chersonesus contained numerous cities,^ of Topography 
which Herodotus mentions the following : Elaeus,^ Eiaeus, and 
with a sepulchre of Protesilaus in the midst of a p^oteSu? 
sacred precinct, originally containing rich treasures 
of gold and silver vessels, and brass, robes, and other 
consecrated offerings, all of which were stolen by 
Artayctes the Persian, who sowed and pastui-ed part 
of the precinct, and profaned the sanctuary.^" Sestos, sestos. 
which was the strongest fortress in those parts, and 
occupied by native Aeolians," Madytus, between Madytus. 
which city and Sestos a craggy shore, or Acte Tra- 
chea, ran out into the sea directly opposite Abydos ; '^ 

• ' iv. 92. 3 iv, 93. 3 yi 33. 4 j^. 97. ' 5 ^n 58. 

« vi. 36. ' vi. 34,36. « vi. 33. ^ vi. 140. '" ix. 116. 
11 ix. 115. ^2 vii. 33. 




CHAP. vr. 

leaves tlie 


Bay and 
river of 


Lake Sten- 
Valley of 
the river 

Sala and 
Cape Ser- 


River Lis- 









and here Artayctes was nailed to a plank and 
lioisted aloft, because of tlie atrocious crimes lie had 
committed with women in the sanctuary of Protesi- 
laus at Elaeus. Others however say that Artayctes 
was thus crucified on a hill above Madytus/ 

The army of Xerxes proceeded tlu-ough the Cher- 
sonesus in an easterly direction, having the sepulchre 
of Helle on the right hand and the city of Cardia on 
the left,^ and then entered the territory of the Ap- 
sinthian Thracians, who subsequently, according to 
the custom of their country, sacrificed the Persian 
general Oebazus to Pleistorus their national deity.^ 
The army then marched through the middle of a 
city named Agora, and bending round the bay of 
Melas, at length crossed the river Melas, which gave 
its name to the bay, and whose stream was insuf- 
ficient for the forces. From thence the Persians 
proceeded westward by the Aeolian city of Aenus 
and the lake Stentoris to Doriscus,* under which 
name was included not only the tract along the 
coast, but also an extensive plain watered by the 
river Hebrus. Here stood a royal fortress also 
called Doriscus, where Darius had placed a Persian 
garrison at the time of his expedition against Scythia. 
On the coast stood the Samothracian cities of Sala 
and Zona ; and at its extremity was the celebrated 
promontory of Serrhium. The entire coast formerly 
belonged to the Ciconcs.^ 

From Doriscus the army first passed the Samo- 
tlu-acian fortresses already mentioned to the most 
westerly one of all, called Mesambria.^ It then 
crossed the river Lissus, which was insufficient for 
the forces, and reached Stryme, a city of the Thasi- 
ans. This country was anciently called Galaica, 
but at that time Briantica, although in strict right 
it belonged totheCicones.^ The army next passed 
the Hellenic cities of Maroneia, Dicaea, and Abdera. 

ix. 119. Comp. vi. 36. 


1 ix. 120. 2 vii. 58. 
5 vii. .59. 

^ This Samothracian fortress of Mesamhria must not be confounded 
with the city of Mcsambria on the Euxine. 
7 vii. 108. 


Between Stryme and Maroneia was the lake Ismaris, Europe. 
and near Dicaea was the lake Bistonis, into which ^^^^- ^^^ 
the rivers Travus and Compsatus emptied them- L^kes iT" 
selves.^ Abdera was peopled by the Teians, after maris and 
their own city on the coast of Asia Minor had been Rive°i^'Tra- 
taken by Harpagus. It had however been first comp'^satus. 
founded by Timesius of Clazomenae, who was after- 
wards driven out by the Thracians, but in spite of 
this was honom-ed as a hero by the Teians.^ In the 
subsequent flight of Xerxes after the battle of Sala- 
mis, he made an alliance of friendship with the 
Abderites, and presented them with a golden 
scimeter and a gold-embroidered tiara ; and the 
Abderites said, what appeared incredible to Herodo- 
tus, that at this place he loosened his girdle for the 
first time after leaving Athens. Abdera was situated 
nearer to the Hellespont than the Strymon and 
Eion, whence, as they say, he embarked.^ 

The Persian army did not pass by any lake near River Nes- 
Abdera, but in the neighbourhood of the city was 
the river Nestus, which flows into the sea.* From 
this place the army marched by several continental 
cities. Near one of these, named Pist3rrus, was a Pistyrus. 
lake 30 stadia in circumference, abounding in fish, 
but with brackish waters ; yet the sumpter beasts, 
who alone drank of it, were suflicient to exhaust it.^ 

The Thracian nations through which Xerxes Paeti. 
passed, were the Paeti, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaei, Bistones. 
Dersaei, Edoni, and Satrae.^ Then he passed the §eS. 
Pierian forts, one of which was called Phagres, and f^°^^ 
the other Pergamus, marching close to them, and Pieriaii 
keeping on his right the vast and lofty mountain of Mount Pan- 
Pangaeus, whose gold and silver mines were worked s^*^^- 
by the Pieres and Odomanti, and especially by the qJ.®^®^\ ,j 
Satrae.^ Northward of Pang-aeus were the Paeo- Paeones. " 
nes, Doberes, and Paeoplae. The country which PaeopTae. 
surrounded this mountain was called Phyllis, and pjj^^[|jf °^ 

1 vii. 109. 2 i. 168. ^ yiii. 120. 

* Abdei'a was at some distance to the east of the river Nestus. Hero- 
dotus says Kara Abdera. In another place, (vii. 126,) however, he speaks 
of it as flowdng through Abdera. 

5 vii. 109. « vii. 110. ^ vii. 112. 






River Au- 

Paeonia, its 


Paeones on 
the Stry- 

Above Cres- 
tonica, and 
on Mount 
and Lake 





" Nine 

extended westward to the river Augites, whicli 
falls into tlie Strymon, and soutliwards to the Stry- 
nion itself, which the Magi propitiated by the sa- 
crifice of white horses.^ From this river a violent 
north wind was called "a wind from the Stry- 
mon.^" ^ 

The Paeones dwelt on its banks, ^ and amongst 
others, the race of Siro-paeones,^ so called from their 
city of Siris.^ The revenues which Pisistratus drew 
from the river Strymon,'' and the rich mines of 
Scapte Hyle, must also be noticed in reference to this 
district. The Paeones on the Strymon professed to 
be descended from the Teucri of Troy,^ but the 
name has a very wide signification, for Herodotus 
also mentions the Paeones dwelling above Crestonica 
and over Mount Orbelus and the lake Prasias.^ All 
the above-mentioned races then, together with the 
Agrianes, which are drawn upon our map within these 
limits, may be regarded as so many sub-divisions of 
the Paeones. The Siro-Paeones, the Paeoplae, and 
other Paeonian tribes as far as Lake Prasias, were 
transported into Asia by Mardonius, but those upon 
Mount Pangaeus, including the Doberes, the Agri- 
anes, the Odomanti, and the people dwelling on the 
lake, were not completely subdued.^*' 

Xerxes now came to Eion," where a large store of 
provisions had been laid up for his army,^^ arid which 
was governed by Boges, the same Persian who after- 
wards, when besieged, threw all his treasures into 
the Strymon, and himself into a fire, rather than 
capitulate.'^ The Strymon was already bridged over 
by the royal command,'* and the army approached 
it by the town called the '' Nine Ways " of the Edo- 
nians, where, having heard the name, the Magi buried 
alive nine of the sons and nine of the daughters of 

' vii. 113. 

2 The ancients understood the north wind by the words,' a blast from 
Strymon^ or a blast from Thrace, because Thrace was a cold country, and 
was looked upon as the abode of Boreas. 

3 viii. 118. " V. 1, 1.3. « V. 1.5. « viii. 115. M. 64. 
8 V. 13. » V. Ifi; vii. 124. i" v. 1.5, 16. " vii. 113. 
12 vii. 25. ''^ vii. 107. '^ vii. 24. 


the inhabitants.^ Herodotus gives no account of europe. 
this place, which was originally so called from the chap. vi. 
many roads which met there. It was subsequently 
called Amphipolis, and was one of the most import- 
ant positions in this part of Thrace. This was the 
same city, though not there named by Herodotus,^ 
that Aristogoras of Miletus endeavoured to besiege, 
but both he and his army were cut off through a 
breach of faith on the part of the Thracians. In the 
country of Edonia lay Myrcinus, where Histiaeus Ecionia. 
obtained permission from Darius to found a city,^ " jicmus. 
but was afterwards recalled whilst building its walls, 
as the neighbourhood presented too many facilities 
for revolt, being thickly populated by both Hellenes 
and Barbarians, and possessing abundance of timber 
for ship-building, wood for oars, and valuable silver 
mines.* Also in the same neighbourhood was the 
city of Datus, where the Athenians, after the battle Datus. 
of Plataea, fought for the gold mines.^ At some 
distance beyond the Strymon the Persians passed an 
Hellenic city called Argilus, situated on the coast Argiius. 
towards the west. This district and the country 
above it was called Bisaltia. Proceeding from Bisaitia. 
thence, and keeping the bay near the temple of Po- 
seidon on the left, the army marched through what 
was called the plain of Syleus, and passing by the Piiin of 
Hellenic city of Stageirus, arrived at Acanthus. Aca'nthus. 
This road, along which King Xerxes and his army 
marched, was not subsequently disturbed or culti- 
vated by the Thracians, but regarded by them with 
great veneration even down to the time of Herodo- 
tus.^ Xerxes enjoined the Acanthians to show hospi- 
tality, and presented them with a Medic dress. ^ Here 
Artachaees of the Achaemenidae race died of dis- 
ease. He had superintended the excavation of the 
canal at Athos, and was the tallest of all the Persians, 
and had the loudest voice of any man. He was now 
buried with great pomp, and the whole army raised 
up a mound for his sepulchre, and the Acanthians, 

1 vii. 114. 2 V, 126. Comp. Thucyd. iv. 102. ' v. II. 

* V. 23. 5 ix. 75. 6 yji ii5_ 7 vii. 116. 

K 2 


EUROPE, in obedience to an oracle, sacrificed to liim as a hero, 
CHAP. VI. and invoked liini by name.^ 

Misceiiaue Noticcs of tlic following pcoplc and localities in 

ous notices Tliracc are also to be found in Herodotus: — The 

Brygkns!' Thraciau Brygians, who were enslaved by Mardo- 

Goid mines iiius.^ Scaptc Hylc, whcro the Thracians possessed 

Hyie?^'^ a gold mine which produced 80 talents annually.^ 

^eXn^^" Cape Sarpedon, where the fleet of Xerxes was order- 

Perinthus. ed to Wait.* Tlio citics of Perinthus and Selybria, 

A^gospota- on the Hellespont.^ Aegospotami, or the goat-river, 

Tyrodiza. wlicrc Artayctcs was captured.^ Tyrodiza of the 

Leuce Perintliiaus, and Leuce Acte, in both of which places 

provisions were stored up for the army of Xerxes.^ 

Bisanthe. Bisanthc, on the Hellespont.*' The Hellespontines 

pontines. in general are also noticed. They were Ionian and 

Dorian colonists, and contributed 100 ships to the 

navy of Xerxes, and were equipped like the Hellenes.^ 

Northern Northcm Tliracc is but little described by Hero- 

Siekno^n dotus. Wc Icam that it was watered by seven rivers. 

Its seven y{z^ i}^q Athrys, Nocs, Artanes, Scios, Tibisis, Auras, 

and Atlas. Of these the Scios flowed from the foot 

of Mount Rhodope, and after dividing Mount Hae- 

mus in the middle discharged itself into the Ister. 

The other six flowed down the northern slope of 

Haemus, and likewise fell into the Ister. ^^ The town 

istria. of Istria, colonized by the Milesians, was situated at 

the Ister mouth. ^^ Herodotus also casually mentions 

Pillars of that pillars were erected in Thrace by Sesostris.^^ 

Manners The Tliraciaus had various names according to 

of the'*'^"'^^ their respective regions, but they all observed the 

Thracians. game customs, cxccpting the Getae, the Trausi, and 

those Thracians who dwelt above the Crestonaeans.^^ 

Peculiar Tlic Gctac wcpc the most valiant and the most 

Getae.° ^ just of all tlic Thracians. They believed in the im- 

Smortaiuy mortality of the soul, inasmuch as they imagined 

of the soul, that they did not actually die, but that the soul of 

the deceased went to the deity Zalmoxis, and some 

1 vii. 117. 

2 vi. 45. 

3 vi. 46. 

* vii. 58. 

5 vi. 33. 

« ix. 119. 

' vii. 2.5. 

8 vii. 1.37. 

» vii. 9.5. 

1" iv. 49. 

" ii. 33. 

'2 ii. 103. 

13 iv. 3. 


of tliem thought that he was the same as Gebeleizis, europe. 
or " he who gives repose." Every fifth year they se- chap. vi. 
lected one of themselves by lot to go to Zahnoxis Their deity 
and tell him what they required. Their mode of zaimoxis. 
sending the messenger was as follows. Some of 
them were placed together holding three lances with 
the points upward. Others then seized the appoint- 
ed ambassador by the hands and feet, and swinging 
him backwards and forwards, tossed him upon the 
points of the lances. If he died of the wounds they 
considered that the deity, Zaimoxis, would prove pro- 
pitious ; if he did not die they decided that the 
messenger was a bad man, and selected another. 
These Getae considered that there was no other 
deity but theirs, and in storms of thunder and light- 
ning they shot their arrows towards heaven, and 
tln-eatened the god.^ 

Herodotus was informed by the Grreeks who dwelt Greek ac- 
about the Hellespont and Pontus Euxinus, that this zaimoxis. 
Zaimoxis was originally a slave of Pythagoras, ihe 
son of Mnesarchus, in Samos ; but that, having ob- 
tained his liberty and acquired great riches, he re- 
tu^rned to his own country. Here he found the Thra- Effects of 
cians living in a wretched and very uncivilized state, ingson^'the 
and being acquainted with the more refined manners Thracians. 
of the lonians, and having enjoyed familiar inter- 
course with the Grreeks, and especially with Pytha- 
goras, who was not the meanest sage in Hellas, he 
built a saloon, in which he received and entertained 
the principal persons of the country, and taught 
them that neither he, nor any of his guests, nor their 
posterity for ever, should die, but should go into a 
place where they would live eternally and enjoy 
every kind of blessing. Meanwhile he prepared for His'subter- 
himself a subterraneous dwelling, and at length sud- dwem^g 
denly disappeared from amongst the Thracians and pg^r^nc^e^' 
lived in this under-ground abode for three years ; 
but in the[^fourth year, and whilst the people were 
still lamenting his supposed death, he re-appeared, 

1 iv. 94. 






custom of 
the Trausi : 
births and 
happy fune- 

above Cres- 
tonica, their 
wife killed 
at her hus- 

Customs of 
of the Thra- 
cians gene- 
rally. Sale 
of children. 
of the un- 


for war. 

and thus obtained additional credibility for his 

Herodotus neither disbelieves nor entii'ely believes 
in this Greek account of Zalmoxis and his subterra- 
nean dwelling, but he is of opinion that the man 
lived many years before Pythagoras ; though he ap- 
pears to doubt whether he were a man or a native 
deity. ^ 

The Trausi observed a strange custom at births 
and bm'ials, which was the only one in which they 
differed from the other Thracians. When a child was 
born, its relations sat round it and deplored the many 
evils it would have to undergo, and at the same time 
they enumerated the various suiferings incidental to 
mankind. But when any one died, they buried it in 
the earth with merriment and rejoicing, that now 
being released from so many evils, the departed 
being would henceforth revel in perfect bliss. ^ 

The Thracians who dwelt above the Crestonaeans 
had a multiplicity of wives, and when the husband 
died, a great contest arose amongst his wives, and 
violent disputes between their friends, as to which 
was most loved by the deceased. When at length 
it was decided who was to be so honoured, the fa- 
voured woman received the praises of all, and was 
then slain upon her husband's tomb by her nearest 
relative, and buried in the same grave, whilst the 
surviving widows considered themselves to be dis- 

The remainder of the Thracian nations practised 
the following customs. They sold their children for 
exportation into foreign lands. Fathers kept no 
watch over their unmarried daughters, but permit- 
ted them to cohabit with any man they pleased ; but 
husbands maintained a strict watch over their wives, 
and purchased them from their parents at high 
prices. Tlie man who tattooed himself was acknow- 
ledged to be noble, but the untattooed man was con- 
sidered to be ignoble. To do no work, but to live by 
war and rapine, was accounted to be most honour- 

iv. 95. 

2 iv. 96. 

V. 4. 

V. 5. 


able, but tilling the soil was highly despised.^ Of europe. 
gods, they only worshipped Ares, Dionysus, and ^"^^- ^'- 
Artemis ; their kings however especially reverenced Worship of 
Hermes above all other deities, swore only by him, ^^^^^^'^^^^ 
and held him to be their ancestral head.^ The Artemis, 
funerals of the more wealthy Thracians were thus Hemies"? °^ 
celebrated. The dead body was laid out for three funerals. 
days, and the mourners made lamentation and killed 
various kinds of animals for sacrifice. They then 
feasted, and at last concluded the ceremony by burn- 
ins: the body or interrine: it ; a erreat mound of earth Sepulchral 

o J 070 I'l monuments. 

was afterwards thrown up over the grave, upon wliicn 
were practised all kinds of games, and the highest 
prizes were adjudged to the victors in single com- 
bat.^ Our author also incidentally remarks, that the l^'^'^'jj?^*' °^ 
Thracians made garments from Scythian hemp, hemp.' 
which bore so strong a resemblance to linen, that 
persons who had never seen that kind of hemp would 
think that the garment had been really made from 

The most sino^ular people in Herodotus's descrip- Paeonians 

o iJr 1T1 on Lake 

tion of Thrace were perhaps those who lived upon Prasias. 
Lake Prasias, and whom Megabazus was unable to hute°up- 
subdue. These actually lived on the lake itself, in P^ff^^^P°y'' 
dwellings or huts built upon planks which were pianks and 
fitted on lofty piles in the centre of the lake. A^ ^^' 
single narrow bridge alone connected this commu- 
nity with the main-land. The piles which support- 
ed the planks were anciently fixed at the common 
charge of all the citizens, and the wood was brought 
from the Orbelus mountain. Subsequently they estab- 
lished a law, that whenever a man married he should 
sink three piles for each wife, for they practised poly- Polygamy. 
gamy to a considerable extent. Every man had his 
own hut upon this extensive platform, with a trap- 
door closely fitting in the planks, and leading down 
to the lake, and a cord was tied to the feet of the 
young children to prevent their falling in. Horses hokcs and 
and draught cattle were fed with fish instead of fod- foh. 
der ; and there was such an abundance of fish, of 
1 V. 6. 2 V. 7, ^ V.8. * iv. 74. 


EUROPE, wliich Herodotus particularly notices tlie papraces 
CHAP. VI. and tilones, that when a man let down a basket 
tlirough the trap-door into the lake, he drew it up 
again after a little time completely filled.^ 
The Satrae, The Satrae, according to our author, were the only 
Spendent' Thraciau nation who kept themselves independent 
Thracians. dowii to his time. They inhabited lofty mountains 
covered with woodland and snow, and were cour- 
Thcir oracle agcous in war. They possessed an oracle of Diony- 
of Dionysus. ^^^^ ^hich was situatcd on the highest of their moun- 
tains, and was under the charge of a race of the 
Satrae called Bessi. The decrees themselves were 
deHvered by a priestess as at Delphi, and were not 
at all more ambiguous.^ 
III. Illy- UJ. The Illyeians, wcstward of Macedonia and 
ly noticecr Thracia, are but very little mentioned by Herodotus. 
tus.^''™'^°' He says that the Eneti, an Illyrian race, collected and 
Sale of sold their marriageable maidens by auction, in a 
™uongst the manner similar to the Babylonians. The handsomest 
Eueti. £^21 ^^ ^-j^g highest bidders, and the sums they pro- 
duced were given as dowries to the plainer maidens, 
who in their turn fell to those who offered to take 
them with the least money.^ In another place He- 
rodotus speaks of the Eneti on the Adriatic,* from 
which it would seem that they had inhabited the 
River An- islands aloug Dalmatia. He also says that the 
bImcpTa7n. river Angrus flowed from the Illyrians and emptied 
Bron'^ s itself iuto the Triballic plain, and into the river 
Brongus, which then discharged itself into the Ister.^ 
The Enche- The Enchclecs of lUyria are also named, but nothing 

I V. 16. 2 vii. 111. 3 i. 196. * v. 9. ^ jy^ 49, 

6 ix. 43. 



Difficulties in Herodotus's description of Scythia. — Its identification EUROPE, 
with southern Russia, Moldavia, and Wallachia. — Face of the country, chap. tii. 

— Crimea or Taurica. — Eivers of southern Russia. — Herodotus's descrip- 

tion of Scythia. — Its form and measurement. — Its boundaries. — Extent 
of our author's personal knowledge.^ — Olbia, the centre of his observa- 
tions. — Explanation of his statements respecting the route along the 
coast. — Explanation of his statements respecting the route into the inte- 
rior. — The four-sided shape of Scythia explained. — Scythian rivers. — 
The Ister or Danube, its five mouths and equal stream. — Five tributaries 
flowing into it : the Porata, Ararus, Naparis, Ordessus, and Tiarantus. — 
Difficulties in the theory of Niebuhr and Ideler. — Identification of the 
five tiibutaries with the Pruth, Sireth, Jalomnitza, Argisch, and Aluta. — 
Seven independent rivers : the Tyi-as, Hypanis, Borysthenes, Panticapes, 
Hypacyris, Gerrhus, and Tanais. — The Hyi'gis. — Modern names of the 
rivers. — The Dniester. — The Bog. — The Dnieper. — Difficulty in identi- 
fying the Panticapes, Hypacyris, and Gerrhus : probably the Samara, 
Kalantchak, and Tastchenik. — The Don and Hyrgis. — Boundaries of Scy- 
thia on the modern map. — Scythian nations : west of the Borysthenes or 
Dnieper. — I. Callipidae. — II. Alazones.— III. Aratores: Exampaeus, 
Hippoleon, and Hylaea. — IV. Georgi. — V. Nomades. — VI. Royal Scy- 
thians. — VII. TjTitae. — VIII. Tauri. — Carcinitis. — Course of Achilles. 
— History of Scythia. — Anciently occupied by Cimmerians. — Scythian 
invasion. — Sepulchre of the Cimmerian kings. — Scythian pm'suit of the 
Cimmerians.' — Cimmerians in Asia Minor. — Scythians masters of Upper 
Asia. — Plunder the temple of Aphrodite at Askalon. — Return to Scy- 
thia. — Proofs of the ancient occupation of Scythia by the Cimmerians. — 
District of Cimmeria. — Cimmerian fort and ferry .^ — Cimmerian Bospho- 
rus. — Massagetae and Sacae of Scythian race. — Climate of Scythia. — 
Eight months of the year winter, during which the sea jfreezes.^ — Four 
months of cold summer, constant rains and violent thunder-storms.— 
Effects of cold on the horses and cattle. — Scythian story of the air filled 
with feathers. — Tradition of the Hyperboreans. — ^Foot-piint of Heracles. 
— Pillars of Sesostris. — Natural productions of Scythia : grass, hemp, 
wheat, onions, gai-lic, lentils, millet. ■ — Cranes. — Swine. — National 
my thus of Targitaus, and his three sons, Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais. 
— The Auchatae, Catiari, and Traspies. — Generalname of Scoloti.^ — Greek 
mythus of the three sons of Heracles, and the serpent maiden Echidna. 
— Ignorance of the nations on the Euxine. — Wise device of the Scji;hians 
against invasion. — Their houses carried with them. — Scythian deities: 
Hestia, Zeus, Ge, Apollo, Aphrodite, Heracles, and Ares. — Poseidon. — 
Mode of sacrifice. — Enormous piles of faggots sacred to Ares. — Human 
sacrifices. — Enemies' heads presented to the king. — Mode of preparing 



the skulls and other trophies. — Soothsayers and manner of divining. — 
Ceremonies at the illness of a king. — Manner of making contracts. — 
Sepulchres of the Scythian kings. — Funeral ceremonies. — Favourite con- 
cubine, servants, and goods buried with the king. — Fifty attendants 
killed and placed on horseback round the tumulus. — Burial of private 
citizens. — Manner of purification. — Hatred of foreign customs. — Cos- 
tume. — Blinding of slaves. — Mode of milking cattle. — Habit of taking 
unmixed wine, and drinking very hard. — Contempt of trade. — Difficulty 
in ascertaining the population of Scythia. — Cauldj-on made from an-ow- 
heads, one being fm-nished by every Scythian. — Meagre remains of the 
Scytliian language. — Barbarous customs of the Tauri. 



in Herodo- 
tus's de- 
scription of 

Its identifi- 
cation with 
and "Walla- 

Face of the 

OuE autlior's description of Scythia is fall of diffi- 
culty. His meaning is so doubtixil tliat it cannot be 
developed without a critical examination of almost 
every statement ; and even when this progress is at- 
tained, it will be found next to impossible to reconcile 
his accounts with the real geography of the country. 

The Scythia of Herodotus lay on the northern 
coast of the Black Sea, or Pontus Euxinus, between 
the mouth of the Danube (or Ister), and the Don (or 
Tanais), and it stretched about 500 miles into the in- 
terior. It thus included the stej^pes of southern 
Russia, and it also extended westward to the river 
Aluta and Carpathian mountains. Accordingly 
Scythia Proper answers on modern maps to the 
country of the Uki^aine, the Nogais, the Don Cos- 
sacks, and the Tartars of the Crimea, together with 
the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, as far as 
the Aluta. The surface of all this region is chiefly 
undulating, but in many places it extends in fertile 
2:)lains. The higher land has a soil consisting of a 
reddish clay, which is very barren. The lower tracts 
consist of black mould and sand mostly covered with 
grass, which supplies good pasture for cattle and 
horses. Other portions towards the east are exceed- 
ingly fertile, and produce excellent wheat and all 
kinds of grain. Great quantities of rye are also 
raised even from districts which have rather a poor 
soil ; and flax and hemp are more extensively grown 
than in any other part of Europe, and are to be found 
in a Avild state on the steppes along the banks of the 
river Don. Many parts of the country are marked 
by salt lakes ; and salt marshes of some extent occur 



















Crimea or 

Kivers of 

of Scythia. 

Its form and 

between the Dniester and the Danube. The great 
granitic tract which traverses Russia between the 
Pruth and the Don, lies to the north of the entire 
region ; but is similar in soil and climate to the 
country already mentioned, and only differs firom it 
in the more hilly character of its surface. 

The peninsula of Crimea, which is the Taurica of 
Herodotus, projects south and east between the 
Black Sea and the Sea of Azoff, and presents con- 
siderable variety of surface. The northern part, 
comprising three-fourths of its extent, consists of an 
arid plain or steppe, occasionally diversified with 
hollows. A mountainous tract covered with rich 
pastures, and in some places enclosing delicious 
valleys, extends along the southern coast. 

The country of southern Russia is watered by 
several rivers, which however are nob navigable at 
any great distance from their mouths. From the 
scarcity of rain and snow and the shallowness of 
their beds, they possess but a comparatively small 
volume of water ; whilst their course is interruj)ted 
by rapids and cataracts where they break through 
the granitic tract already mentioned. Amongst 
these are the Danube, the Pruth, the Dniester, the 
Bog, the Dnieper, and the Don, which we shall soon 
find further occasion to describe. 

We now proceed to develoj)e our author's de- 

" Scythia," he says, '^ is four-sided, with two 
joarts extending along the sea : that which stretches 
into the interior and that along the coast are in 
every respect of equal length. For from the Ister 
to the Borysthenes is ten days' journey, and from 
the Borysthenes to the lake Maeotis is ten days' 
more ; whilst from the sea into the interior as far as 
the Mclanchlaeni, who occupy the country above 
the Scythians, is also a journey of twenty days. 
Computing the day's journey at 200 stadia, the ex- 
tent of Scythia transversely would be 4000 stadia, 
and the direct route leading into the interior would 
be the same distance." ' 

' iv. 101. 


" Scytliia begins at that part of the country europe. 
where a bay is formed, and where the river Ister, chap. vn. 
turning its mouth towards the east, discharges itself 
into the sea. From the Ister it lies towards the ai-Ls."^'^ ' 
south as far as the city called Carcinitis. Next to 
that the Tauric nation inhabits the mountainous 
country, which projects into the Pontus as far as the 
Chersonesus called Trachea, and reaches to the sea 
towards the east. For the two parts of the bound- 
aries of Scythia extend along the sea, one towards 
the south and the other towards the east, as is the 
case with Attica.^ . . . From Taurica, Scythians in- 
habit the country above the Tauri, and the parts 
along the eastern sea, and the parts lying to the 
west of the Cimmerian Bosphorus and the lake Mae- 
otis, as far as the river Tanais, which flows into the 
farthest recess of that lake."^ 

We must now endeavour to ascertain om^ author's Extent of ^ 
actual knowledge of the regions he has thus de- pei'sonli°'^ 
scribed. The Grreek settlement of Olbia on the ^^^o^^ie^ige. 
river Borysthenes, was apparently the farthest point 
ever reached by Herodotus, and we may suppose 
him to be stationed here when forming his views 
concerning the shape and extent of the country. 
We can trace him past the bay, (Lake Easselm,) and 
where the Ister discharges its waters through five 
mouths;^ next, to the river Tyras, where he was 
shown the foot-print of Heracles ; ^ and then to the 
river Hypanis, where he saw the fountain Exampeus, 
and the huge brass vessel made from Scythian arrow- 
heads.^ But beyond the Borysthenes his knowledge 
was very vague ; he supposed the lake Maeotis to be 
nearly as large as the Pontus Euxinus,*' and that 
Crimea, which he calls Taurica, was not a peninsula, 
but only an acte projecting into the Pontus, like 
Attica or lapygia.^ 

Olbia, at the mouth of the Borysthenes, was, oibia,tiie 
therefore, the centre of our author's observations. Srv.?^'^ 
The distance from the mouth of the Ister to this *^°'^- 

1 iv. 99. 2 iv_ 100. 3 ly^ 47. 4 iv_ 82. 

5 iv. 81. 6 iv. 86. ■> iv. 99. 





tion of his 
the route 
along the 

tion of his 

point he calculated from positive experience as being* 
ten days' journey, or 2000 stadia, which reckoned as 
furlongs would be 250 English miles ; and this cal- 
culation is not very far distant from the actual mea- 
surement of a land journey along the coast between 
these two rivers. Next he estimated that it was 
exactly the same distance from the Borysthenes to 
the lake Maeotis. Now to what point of the coast 
bordering on the lake did he refer ? Certainly not to 
the Siwash or putrid sea, which was -only two days' 
journey off, nor to the mountainous point called 
Trachea at the extremity of Taurica, which was oc- 
cujiied by the Tauri, and was a continuation of the 
Tauric range. I should rather fix it at the slave 
trench which was dug from the Tauric mountains to 
the lake Maeotis ; ^ and if we suppose that the line of 
road extended from the Borysthenes through the 
modern isthmus of Perkope, as far as the point 
where the Tauric mountains approach the coast, — 
say at the southern extremity of the Siwash and 
near the town of Kaffa, — then we should find that 
our author's calculation again very nearly ap- 
proached the actual measurement. The southern 
extent of Scythia, fr'om the Ister to the Maeotis, was 
therefore, according to Herodotus's calculation, 
twenty days' journey, a measurement equal to 4000 
stadia, or 500 English miles. He characterizes the 
entire route as ra eKiicdpaia, the oblique, or transverse, 
which we shall presently find to have been used as 
opj)osed to ra opQia, OT tlic direct, by which he de- 
scribes the route into the interior ; and we may 
therefore understand that he either alluded to the 
coast route as being somewhat oblique,^ or else 
merely used the word as signifying the extent of 
Scythia crossways. 

Having thus calculated the extent of the route 

1 See iv. 3. 

2 The entire coast is exceedingly indentecl, but Herodotus evidently 
considered it to be much straightcr than it really was, being probably 
misled by the bearings of places during the land journey, in the same 
way that he makes a mistake when he supposes Megaris to have been 
the most westerly point of Greece. See p. .57. 


along the coast, Herodotus notices what he calls the europe. 
direct or straight route into the interior, viz. from chap. vn. 
the sea-coast, probably at Olbia, as far as the Me- statements 
lanchlaeni on the western bank of the upper course respecting 
of the Tanais. It must be borne in mind, that the into the in- 
caravan route from Olbia towards the Ural moun- *^"°^* 
tains first passed through Hylaea, or the wood coun- 
try, and then coasted the Palus Maeotis as far as the 
Tanais, and at length crossed the river and entered 
the steppe of Astracan.^ Our author probably gained 
his information from caravan travellers, and he 
readily supposed that this was the direct route into 
the interior. He calculates it at exactly the same 
distance as the road along the coast, viz. twenty 
days' journey or 4000 stadia ; and that point of the 
Tanais at which it is most likely the caravan crossed, 
is as nearly as possible in accordance with his 

These then are the two sides, both reaching to Thefom-- 
the sea, which are described by Herodotus. One oAscytwr 
crossways along the coast, the other stretching into explained. 
the exterior. One extending towards the south, and 
the other towards the east, as was the case with 
Attica : by which last expression, I understand that 
Herodotus did not suppose his four-sided Scythia to 

be shaped thus, Q, but thus, <^. These two routes 

or boundaries of Scythia were all that Herodotus 
knew of its extent. He took it for granted that there 
must be two other sides to the country, and there- 
fore he called it r£7-|oaywj/oc, or "four-sided;" though 
whether he imagined that all the four sides were 
exactly equal, as Niebuhr supposes, is liable to 
several objections. Our author evidently thought 
that the western side was formed by the upper course 
of the Ister,^ and that this river somewhat corre- 
sponded with the eastern boundary along the lake 
Maeotis and river Tanais. The northern side he 
indicated by an imaginary line drawn from the 

' Heeren, Asiatic Nations, vol, ii. 2 jy. 99. 





The Ister 
or Danube ; 
its five 
mouths and 

Five tribu- 
taries flow- 
ing into it, 
viz. the Po- 
rata, Ara- 

in the theo- 
ry of Nie- 
buhr and 

upper corner of the Ister towards the east, and shut- 
ting out the Agathyrsi, the Neuri, the Androphagi, 
and the Melanchlaeni.' By reference to a modern 
map, it will be readily seen that the four-sided figure 
of our author was based upon a considerable mis- 
conception of the course of the Ister on the west 
and the Tanais on the east ; but before we attempt 
to reconcile his notions with the real geography, it 
will be necessary to examine further into his de- 
scription of the numerous Scythian rivers. 

The river Ister was the first amongst the Scy- 
thian streams on the western side. It was the great- 
est of all the rivers with which Herodotus had made 
himself acquainted, being much enlarged by the 
number of tributaries which discharged themselves 
into it. It had five mouths, and its stream was al- 
ways equally strong in summer and winter.^ After 
flomng through all Europe, it entered the borders 
of Scythia;^ and it would appear that Herodotus 
regarded it as the boundary between the Scythians 
and Thracians, on the banks of which the armies of 
both nations encamped opposite each other.* Five 
rivers flowing tlu'ough Scythia fall into the Ister ; 
viz. the river called Porata by the Scythians, and 
Pyretos by the Hellenes ; the Tiarantus ; the Ara- 
ms ; the Naparis ; and the Ordessus. Of these the 
Porata is large, and flows towards the east, and 
the Tiarantus is smaller, and flows more to the 
west; whilst the three other rivers flow between 
them.^ This remark of Herodotus, that these rivers 
flowed through Scythia into the Ister, some more 
towards the east and others more towards the west, 
cannot be reconciled with the theory of Professor 
Ideler, which is followed by Niebuhr, viz, that, ac- 
cording to our author's notion, the Ister, when it 
reached Scythia, changed its direct easterly course, 
and flowed exactly north and south, and thus formed 
the western side of the Scythian square.^ 

1 iv. 101. 2 iv. 47, 48. ^ iv. 49. " iv. 80, 99. ' iv. 48. 

" These five rivers are not delineated in Niebuhr's map to his Disserta- 
tion on the Geog. of Herodotus. 


With respect to the identification of these rivers europe. 
which fall into the Ister or Danube/ we have no chap. yh. 
hesitation in following Eennell and D'Anville, who ^^^^^^^ 
recognise the Porata in the Pruth, the Ararus in the tion of the 
Sireth, the Naparis in the Jalomnitza, and the Or- rilswYtiAhe 
dessus in the Argisch. The Tiarantus cannot be f^^^JJ; 
distinctly made out, but has, however, been generally "^j^}"^^^'^' 
identified with the Aluta. andAiuta. 

Beside the river Ister, Herodotus describes the seven inde- 
Tyras, the Hypanis, the Borysthenes, the Panticapes, rhTerr* 
the Hypacyris, the Gerrhus, and the Tanais. The The Tyras. 
Tyeas was next the Ister, and came from the north, 
flowing from a great lake which separated Scythia 
from Neuris.^ The Hypanis was the third river. The Hypa- 
and also flowed from a large lake, which was rightly 
called the mother of the Hypanis, and around which 
wild horses of a white colour were everywhere 
grazing. This river flowed in a small and sweetly 
tasting stream for a five days' voyage from its source. 
Farther onwards, however, to the sea, which was 
nine days' voyage distant, the water was exceedingly 
bitter ; for though the Hypanis was here of a con- 
siderable size, yet a small bitter fountain, called in 
the Scythian language " Exampaeus," and in the 
Hellenic, ''the sacred ways," discharged itself into 
it, and completely impregnated its stream. The 
Tyras and Hypanis almost approached in the coun- 
try of the Alazones, but after that bent their course 
away fr'om each other. ^ 

The fourth river was the Boeysthenes, which was The Borys- 
the largest next to the Ister, and in the opinion of 
Herodotus the most productive, not only amongst 

^ It is said that Danubius was the Thracian and Ister the Celtic name 
of this river ; but it seems most probable that Dan is the same word 
which is foimd in Eridanus, Ehodanus, Tanais, and the more modem 
names of Don, Dnieper, and Dniester, and signifies water. Adelung says, 
that Dan-ubius means "the upper water," and Dan-ister " the lower water," 
and in the later Roman period it was common to apply the name of 
Danubius to the upper course of the river, and the name of Ister to the 
lower course. According to Klaproth the word " don," signifying water, 
is still retained in the language of the Ossetes, in Caucasus, who are a 
remnant of the Alans of the middle ages. 

2 iv. 51. ^ iv. 52. 



EUROPE, the Scythian rivers, but of all others, excepting the 
CHAP. VII. Aegyptian Nile. It possessed most beautiful pas- 
tures, which were exceedingly nutricious for the cat- 
tle, and contained abundance of the very finest fish. 
Its waters were most sweet to drink, and its stream 
flowed clear and pure in the midst of muddy rivers. 
The best corn grew along its banks, and where the 
land was not sown the grass grew to a great height. 
Abundance of salt was crystallized spontaneously at 
its mouth, and it also supplied for pickling great 
water-animals without any spinal bones, which the 
natives called Antacaei, together with much more 
that was curious and wonderfal. As far as the region 
of Gerrhus, which was forty days' voyage from its 
mouth, this river was known to flow from the north, 
and was also navigable,^ but beyond Gerrhus no 
one was able to tell through what people it flowed, 
though it appeared to come through a desert to the 
country of the agricultural Scythians, who dwelt 
near its banks, ^ for the space of a ten or eleven days' 
voyage. The sources of the Borysthenes, as well 
as those of the Nile, Herodotus was unable to de- 
scribe, nor did he think that any Greek could do so. 
It continued flowing near to the sea, where the Hy- 
panis mingled with it, and discharged itself into the 
same swamp. ^ 
The Panti- The fifth rivor was named the Panticapes, and also 
capes. flowed from the north, and out of a lake, through the 
woody region called Hylaea.* It discharged itself 
into the Borysthenes.^ 
The Hypa- The sixtli rivcr was the Hypacyeis, which flowed 
^^^^' from a lake through the Scythian nomades, and after 
passing Hylaea and the place called the Course of 
Achilles on the right, discharged itself near the city 
of Carcinitis.^ 
The Gcr- Thc scvcnth rivcr was the Gerrhus, which was 
^^"' separated from the Borysthenes near the place at 

which the latter rivcr was first known. It had the 
same name as thc country which was called Gerrhus. 

1 iv. 71. 2 iy i8_ 3 iv. 53. 4 See page 152. ^ iv. 54, 
'^ iv. 55. 


Subsequently it flowed towards tlie sea, dividing the Europe. 
Nomad from the Eoyal Scythians, and at last dis- ^"^^- '^"- 
charged itself into the Hypacyris.^ 

The eighth river was the Tanais, which flowed The Tanais. 
from a large lake, and fell into the farthest recess^ 
of a still larger lake, namely, the Maeotis. It re- 
ceived the waters of the river Hyrgis, and formed The Hyrgis. 
the eastern boundary of Scythia, dividing the Royal 
Scythians from the Sauromatae.^ 

Such, according to our author, were the celebrated Modem 
rivers which watered the territory of Scythia Pro- the rivers. 
per : it is now necessary to identify them on the 
modern map. 

The Tyras is evidently the river Dniester, and is The cnies'- 
still called Tyral near its mouth. The lake from 
which Herodotus says it takes its source may be 
identified with a small lake on the Miedoborczek, 
one of the north-eastern declivities of the Carpathian 
mountains, lying in the circle of Sambor, in the 
Austrian kingdom of Gallizia, and in about 49" 
north latitude. 

The Hypanis is the river Bog, which rises in the The Bog. 
elevated plateau which extends from the Carpathian 
mountains to the Russian province of Kieff, and dis- 
charges itself into the aestuary or liman of the 
Dnieper, about twenty miles below the river port of 
Nicolaeff. Its current is extremely gentle, and the 
waters of its lower course, between Nicolaeff and the 
sea, are still of a saline taste. Our author must have 
been well informed concerning this river. He de- 
scribes it as nearly approaching the Dniester, but 
afterwards turning away ; and it is certain that 
these two rivers do approach near to each other in 
the government of Podolia, whilst their lower 
courses diverge considerably as they approach the 
sea. The Bog is between 470 and 480 miles in 
length, or, according to the computation of Hero- 
dotus, nine days' sail down the stream. 

The Borysthenes is the river Dnieper, and was TheDnie- 

J X ^ / per. 

known to Herodotus 40 days' sail from its mouth, a 

1 iv. 56. 2 iv, 100. 3 iv. 57. 

L 2 


EUROPE, measurement wliicli it is difficult to understand, 
CHAP. VII. especially as we cannot form any estimation of tlie 
rate of navigation against the stream.' The river 
really rises in the northern part of the government 
of Smolensk, and winds along with a prodigious 
bend towards the east for about 1000 miles, until at 
length it forms, in conjunction with the Bog, a 
large liman or swampy lake, by which it discharges 
itself into the Black Sea. In the upper part of its 
course it is navigable from Smolensk to Kieff, but 
below Kieff the navigation is interrupted for about 
40 miles by thirteen cataracts. Below these cataracts 
the river is again navigable, but the distance to the 
sea is only 260 miles. This latter space is all that 
could have been known to Herodotus.^ The river 
abounds in fish, particularly the sturgeon, carp, 
pike, and shad. Those without bones mentioned by 
our author were undoubtedly sturgeons, which pos- 
sess a cartilaginous skeleton. 
Difficulty in The Panticapcs, the Hypacyris, and the Gerrhus, 

identifying -tt, i i i 

the Panti- cauuot bc rcconcilcd to modern geography ; and we 
pacyrisf Ind are inclined to believe, with Rennell, that they were 
^roShi ' ^^L^-ll branches of the Borysthenes, which have since 
the Samara, bccn filled up by tlic dcpositious of its waters.^ No 
and'xast-^ such scrics of rivcrs are represented in modern maps 
in the like positions and under the like circumstances 
as our author describes. The Panticapes, I would 
suggest, may to some extent be identified with the 
Samara, a small river which falls into the Dnieper 
at the cataracts.'* The Hypacyris has been identified 

1 Larcher wishes to read fourteen instead of forty, whilst Bobrik 
reads ten. Scymnus of Chios and Pomponius Melas, however, have re- 
peated Herodotus's statement, that the river was known and navigable 
for 40 days' sail from its mouth, and it has therefore been thought ad- 
visable to leave our author's calculation unaltered. 

^ Strabo correctly describes its navigable course, (i. e. from its mouth 
to the cataracts,) as 600 stadia, or 60 geographical miles. 

^ Rennell, vol. i. p. 86. 

* Heeren thinks that the Panticapes may be recognised in the Sula or 
Pscl, and Gatterer would even look so far north as to identify it with the 
Desna. It is however doubtful whether Herodotus knew the Dnieper as 
far as the cataracts, and he certainly could not have known much of the 
country above them. Sailing up the river the cataracts commence at 
Alexandrofsk and end at EkaterinoslafT, and it is near this latter point 



by Rennell with the small stream of Kalantchak, Europe. 
which falls into the gulf of Perekop ; and the same "^^^- ^"- 
learned geographer is also inclined to recognise the 
Gerrhus in the Tastchenik, one of the small rivers 
which fall into the lake Molotchna.^ I cannot how- 
ever but think that we ought to look much farther 

The Tanais is the river Don, and the Hyrgis, The Don 
which discharged itself into it, has been generally ^"^"^ ^^''^'^' 
identified with the river Donetz, but without suffici- 
ent reason. It evidently was an eastern tributary, as 
Herodotus does not reckon it amongst the Scythian 
rivers, and if we identify it with the Syrgis,^ we 
must suppose it to have risen amongst the Thyssa- 
getae. There are two or more rivers of the name of 
Irgis in modern geography, but they flow east of 

that the Samara falls into the Dnieper. See also account of the Scy- 
thian Georgi, p. 153. 

1 The tract in which we should look for these rivers seems to be full 
of stagnant pools and lakes, in which the courses of brooks tenninate 
from the north ; so that it may be suspected that the Borysthenes and 
its branches have wandered through this space in different ages of the 
world, and in consequence may have at times gained the sea by differ- 
ent mouths, and occasionally by more than one at the same period of 
time. Indeed nothing is more likely than that a great change should 
have taken place in the course of so vast and rapid a river as the Borys- 
thenes or Dnieper, and which also flows through a deep alluvial country, 
formed doubtless either by its own deposits, or by the general subsi- 
dence of the level of the Euxine. (Pliny, iv. 12.) It may be observed on 
the modern map, what a vast elbow this river makes to the east, in the lower 
part of its course. Hence, considering some other circumstances, it is pro- 
bable that at some former period it ran straight from the cataracts into the 
western part of the Maeotis ; and that, having in the course of ages raised 
the ground too high for it to make its way through, it sought a lower bed 
in the west, but left a branch in the former channel (which it might do, 
although that channel could not contain the whole river) ; and this 
branch may have been the Gerrhus, which, Herodotus says, was really an 
emanation of the Borysthenes. Herodotus however seems to have made 
one mistake, when he represents the Gerrhus, which discharges itself 
into the Maeotis on the east of Taurica, as falling into the Hypacyris, 
which dischai'ges itself into the gulf on the western side. A liver, or 
rather several beds of rivers, whose courses fall in nearly together, are 
found in the position where the Gen-hus may be looked for, but they 
have at present to communication with the Borysthenes, and only one of 
their branches with the Maeotis ; for they terminate in a long narrow 
lake, named Molotchna, very near the western part of the Maeotis, and 
opposite to a wide gulf which enters deeply into the land, and appears 
in ancient times to have joined the lake ; when both together may have 
formed an aestuary pointing to the north. Either of the above-men- 
tioned branches may have been the Gerrhus. Rennell, vol. i. p. 87 — 93. 

2 iv. 123. . . , 


EUROPE, the Volga. Herodotus was acquainted with the Don 
CHAP. VII. to its source at the lake Ivan, which however is now 
so very small that it is not even marked in the Rus- 
sian maps. This lake is in the Russian government 
of Toola, and the river, which is very circuitous, is 
about 1000 miles in length. 
Boundaries We havo thus ascertained that the true figure of 
on the mo- Scytliia, botli according to our author's own descrip- 
dern map. ^^^^ ^^^ modem geography, was that of an irregular 
oblong.^ The southern side was formed by the coast 
of the Black Sea, from the mouth of the Danube to 
the Sea of Azoff, which Herodotus calls the lake 
Maeotis, or rather Maietis. The eastern side was 
formed by the Sea of Azoff and the river Don, (or 
Tanais,) from the point near the modern town of 
Kaffa, where the slave-trench was dug to cut off the 
Taurian acte, upward either to the lake Ivan, from 
whence the Tanais had its rise, and which was evi- 
dently known to Herodotus, or else only to that part 
of the Tanais which was crossed by the caravan 

^ Every remark of the learned Niebuhr ought to be received with the 
utmost respect, and none of his theories ought to be set aside, unless 
after the most severe investigation, and convincing proof to the contrary. 
When however he supposes Herodotus to mean that Scythia was a per- 
fect square, it will at once be seen, from what has gone before, that his 
theory lacks foundation, for though Herodotus describes no Scythian na- 
tion westward of the Pruth, yet we have proved that he considered the 
country as extending to the Carpathian mountains and river Aluta. He 
called Scythia a square in the same spirit that Gibbon calls Arabia a 
triangle, and we have really no more authority for considering his Scythia 
as a quadrate, than we should have for mapping out the Arabia of Gib- 
bon as an equilateral triangle. We could almost suppose, that in 
Niebuhr's eager adoption of the Ideler theory, that the Ister descended 
from the north so very exactly the same as the Nile descended from 
the south, he has been canied away somewhat by the same fondness 
for symmetry which he ascribes to our author, and proceeds on the 
same kind of arbitrary hypotheses which he attributes to Herodo- 
tus. The latter was exceedingly fond of taking the geography of one 
place as an illustration of the geography of another, but he must have 
known, as well as any man, that no two places in this world are exactly 
like. Basing a map upon his measurements, which are frequently very 
loose, and given in round numbers for the sake of the memory of his 
readers, to which indeed he paid particular attention, is at all times a 
very unsatisfactory task ; and especially it is difficult to believe that an 
honest old man like Herodotus, who is so decided in limiting geography 
to actual observation, should nevertheless proceed like an empiric to 
frame a map of the earth as fanciful as that of Hecataeus, whom he 
most especially and emphatically condemns. Cf. also Bobrik, Geo(f. 
des Herodotus, § 47. 


route. The northern boundary was formed by a Europe. 
line drawn from this lake Ivan, or else from the ford ^"^^- ^"• 
eastward to that lake, out of which the Dniester (or 
Tjrras) flows, that is, to the circle of Sambor in Gal- 
lizia, about the 49th degree of latitude.^ Lastly, the 
western boundary was a line from thence to the 
Danube.^ The modern countries included within 
these boundaries we have already described at 
page 138. 

The map of Scythia with its boundaries and rivers Scythian 
is now before us ; it only remains to fix the territo- ^^^^°^- 
ries of the different tribes. Eight of these are men- 
tioned by Herodotus, viz. Callipidae, Alazones, 
Aroteres, Georgi, Nomades, Royals, Tirytae, and 
Tauri ; ^ and it is to be noticed that our author 
commences his description at the Grreek port of 
Olbia,* at the mouth of the river Borysthenes, be- 
cause he considered it to be the most central point 
x)f the Sc5rthian sea-coast.^ 

The Scythian nations on the west of the Borys- west of the 
thenes are first noticed, and then those to the east of or'Dnieper! 
the river. 

I. The Callipidae, or Hellenic Scythians," were i. Caiupi- 
the first nation, after leaving the port. They occupied 
the lower course of the river Hypanis, (or Bog,) and 

^ Herodotus, as we have already seen, was acquainted with Lake 
Ivan at the source of the Don, though the caravan route into the interior 
crossed the river much nearer to its mouth. 

^ By a rough measurement on a modern map, we find that this entire 
tract of country was about 750 miles from east to west, and 300 or 400 
miles from north to south, in straight lines : a very different result from 
that based by our author upon the number of days occupied in the 
winding route along the coast, and the caravan route towards the Ural 
mountains. See p. 139. 

^ For a description of the nations which surrounded Scythia, see 
chap. viii. 

* Olbia stood on the right bank of the Hjrpanis, (Bog,) about six miles 
above the junction of that river with the Borysthenes, (Dnieper,) near 
the village of Ilinsky, and about 70 miles from Odessa, which has suc- 
ceeded to its commercial importance. The site of the ancient city is 
called Stomogil, or the Hundred Mounds, from the numerous sepul- 
chral tumuli scattered around. See Cooley's valuable edition of Larcher's 
Notes, vol. ii. p. 10. 

« iv. 17. 
. ^ A decree of the Olbiopolitae has been found, in which allusion is 
made to the Mi'Ci^\T)veg, or half-bred Greeks, dwelling in the vicinity. 
Koppen, Nordgestdd. d. Ponttis, pp. 92 — 95, quoted by Cooley. 


EUROPE, followed the usages of the other Scythians ; only they 
CHAP. Yii. sowed wheat, and also used it themselves for food, as 
well as onions, garlic, lentils, and millet.^ Their 
country, according to modern geography, appears to 
have been included in the government of Kherson, 
between the Bog and the Dnieper. They were ap- 
parently a mixture of Greeks and Scythians. Eich- 
wald changes their name^ to Callipidae, i. e. having 
handsome horses. 

II. Aiazones H. The Alazones lay above the CalHpidae, and led 

the same kind of life.^ In their territory the rivers 
Tyras and Hypanis (Dniester and Bog) inclined 
towards each other : '^ they must therefore be placed 
in the government of Podolia, and perhaps the south- 
ern j)art of Kieff. Eichwald supposes that their 
name was not a Scythian proper name, but a Greek 
epithet signifying '' the wanderers." 

III. Ara- III. The Aeatoees, or " tillers," dwelt above the 

Alazones. They also cultivated wheat, but not so 
much for the supply of their own wants as for the 
sake of the profits they derived from its sale.^ As 
the nation beyond them is stated to be the Neuri, 
we may fix them on the Scythian frontier to the 
north-west ; perhaps in the government of Volhy- 
nia, and the northern part of Kieff. 

Exampaeus. Bctwccn the Aratorcs and the Alazones was the 
bitter spring Exampaeus, already mentioned, which 
also appears to have given its name to the surround- 
ing district ; ^ and between the mouths of the Hypa- 
nis and Borysthenes (Bog and Dnieper) was a pro- 
jecting j)iece of land called the promontory of 

Hippoieon. Hippoleoii, upou wliicli was a temple of Demeter.' 
Crossing the Borysthenes to its eastern bank near 

Hyiaea. thc coursc of Acliillcs Hcs the woody district, called 
Hylaea, which is full of trees and watered by the 
river Panticapos.^ This tract is that part of the 
steppe between the Dnieper and the Sea of Azoff 
which the Nogai Tartars call Yambogluk.^ 

> iv. 17. 2 Eichwald, AUe Geograph. p. 299, note. ' iv. 17. 

4 iv. 52. « iv. 17. " iv. 52, 81. ^ iv. 53. ^ ,>. 54, 7Q- 
' The country is now quite destitute of wood, although the fact of its 


IV. The Geoegi, or agriculturalists, were named Europe. 
Borysthenitae, by the Olbiopolitae Greeks settled on chap, yh. 
the Hypanis, (Bog,) but called themselves Olbiopoli- ly. Geoegi. 
tae. They occupied the country above Hylaea, and 
extended three days' journey eastward as far as the 
river Panticapes, and eleven days' northward along 
the Borysthenes (or Dnieper).^ According to their 
own account, they were descended from Milesians, 
and we learn that their city had walls and gates and 
a tower, together with suburbs outside the walls. 
Here also the Scythian king Scylas built a large 
and magnificent palace, surrounded by griffins and 
sphinxes made of white marble ; but the building 
was struck by lightning and burnt dovna.^ Beyond 
the country of the Georgi was a desert.^ 

y. The NoMADES occupied a tract beyond the river ^^^^^ 
Panticapes, and both sides of the river Hypacyris ; * 
stretching fom-teen days' journey^ eastward as far as 
the river Gerrhus. They neither sowed nor plough- 
ed. All their country, excepting Hylaea, was desti- 
tute of trees. ^ 

VI. The Royal Scythians inhabited the parts J^-^^^^f 
beyond the Gerrhus. Their country extended south- 
ward to Taurica, (or Crimea,) then (through the isth- 
mus of Perekop) eastward to the slave-trench; also to 
the port on the lake Maeotis called Cremni ; and some 
of them reached to the river Tanais. They were the 
most valiant and numerous of all the Scythians, and 
regarded all the other Scythians as their slaves.^ 

The country of these Georgi, Nomades, and Royal 

having once existed is preserved in the popular traditions of the country. 
Some old maps present the name of the Black Forest near the same 
place, and this may have had a much wider extent in earlier times. The 
wood country now does not occur imtil we come to the banks of the Don. 
The forest commences near Tcherkask on the Don, and extends to the 
Dnieper near TchernigofF, in 52" 30' north lat., having the appearance of 
a long black line on the horizon ; it is here succeeded by a steppe, which 
continues to the Black Sea, and presents a considerable number of 
monumental mounds. Cf. Heeren, Asia, vol. ii. p. 8. 

1 iv. 18. 2 iv. 7S, 79. 3 iv. 18. i iv._55. 

' Here Herodotus contradicts his own statement, that Scythia only ex- 
tended for ten days' journey from the Borysthenes eastward to the lake 
Maeotis. Bobrik suggests that we should either change the 14 to 4, 
or else for iiri read dvd, " they dwelt 14 days' journey along the Gerrhus." 

« iv. 19. ^ iv. 20. 


EUROPE. Scythians may be included in the modern govern- 

CHAP. Yii. nients of Taimda, Ekaterinoslaff, and a part of the 

Don Cossacks ; but the impossibility of identifying 

the rivers renders it equally impossible to fix the 


VII. Tyri- VII. The Tyeitae ought scarcely to be reckoned 

amongst the Scythian tribes, as they were an Hel- 
lenic colony, who dwelt at the mouth of the river 

VIII. Taiiii VIII. The Tauei, whose peculiarly barbarous cus- 

toms we shall have hereafter to describe, occupied 
the Cliersonesus called after them Taurica, and ap- 
pear to have inhabited the mountains along the south- 
ern coast. ^ This Chersonesus is the modern Crimea. 
carciaitis. Hcrodotus also uoticcs the city of Carcinitis to the 
right of Hylaea, and near the mouth of the Hypa- 
cyris. In the vicinity was the district named the 
Course of CouTSc of Acliilles,^ wliich is recognised in two long 
and exceedingly narrow slips of land named Teutra, 
which extend in opposite directions into the sea, 
forming together the shape of a sword or scimetar.* 
History of Wc shall now givc a brief sketch of the history of 
AMientiy Scytliia. lu aucicnt times, according to the account 
cSI-'^ ^^ most credited by Herodotus, Scythia was occupied 
riaus. i)j the Cimmerians, whilst the Scythians^ dwelt in 

Mv. 51. 2 iv. 20, 99. 3 iy. 55. 

* Pliny, lib. iv. c. 12, quoted by Rennell, who identifies these slips 
with the Course of Achilles. 

^ That the Sc}i:hians were a Mongolian tribe is placed beyond a doubt 
by the descriptions of the two great contemporaries, Hippocrates and 
Herodotus. Hippocrates describes their gross and bloated bodies, their 
joints buried in fat, their swollen bellies, and their scanty growth of hair.* 
This is a picture of the native tribes of Northern Asia, for whom there is 
no more generally suitable name than that of Mongols, The Chinese 
Mongolian remedy of bvn'ning,t which the Scythians universally em- 
ployed, the state of their bodies, as well as their mode of life and cus- 
toms, — all point to this race of mankind. The adoration of the god of 
war under the figure of a holy scimetar, (Herod, iv. 62,) which took 
place at the time of Attila, and again at the elevation of Genghis Khan, 
is a Mongolic custom ; the milking of mares, the huts made of skins, the 
swinish filthiness, the paste with which the women plastered themselves 
(Herod, iv. 75) in order from time to time to remove the filth which close- 
ly adhered to their Ijodics, their sluggish listlessness, — all these are_ Si- 
berian features, and neither Sclavonian nor Germanic. Again, intoxica- 
tion from the vapour of hemp seeds placed on red-hot stones and confined 

<> Dc Acre, Aquis, et Locis, p. 292, cd. Foes. t Ibid. 


Asia/ The Scytliians having been driven from their Europe. 
abodes by the Massagetae, crossed the Araxes, (or chap. vn. 
Volga, ^) and entered the Cimmerian territory. The scythian 
Cimmerians then resolved on retreating, but their invasion. 
kings were desirous of fighting to the last. Accord- 
ingly they quarrelled amongst themselves, and a 
battle was fought, in which the royal party were 
defeated and slain. The Cimmerians buried their Sepulchre 
kings near the river Tyras, where the sepulchre was merian '"^' 
still to be seen in the time of Herodotus. They then ^'"^s- 
abandoned their country to the invaders,^ and en- scythian 
tered Asia pursued by a large army of Scythians, the cim-^ 
under their king Madyes. The Cimmerians entered merians. 
Asia Minor by the shore of the Euxine, and through 
the Colchian Gates, now called the Pass of Dariel, in 
the western portion of the Caucasian range ; but the 
Scythians missed their way, and after proceeding 
eastward along the north side of Caucasus, they 
passed through the defiles of Derbend, at the eastern 
extremity between Caucasus and the Caspian, and 
thus entered Media.* The Cimmerians entered Asia cimmeriaps 
Minor in the reign of Ardys, king of Lydia, ravaged ^or, ^'^ 
the country, and established themselves on the pen- 
insula where the city of Sinope ^ afterwards stood, 
but were at length driven out by Alyattes.^ Mean- 
under close coverlets (ibid.) is Siberian ; only Herodotus confounds this 
with the vapoui'-baths which the barbarians in those parts enjoyed, and 
perhaps carried to a luxurious excess. Moreover, Hypocrates remarks 
that all the Scythians resembled each other, and this universal resem- 
blance will apply neither to the Tartars nor to the Sclavonians or Ger- 
mans. That the Scythians had no connexion with the latter nations is 
proved by the Scythian words mentioned by Herodotus (iv. 6). Whether 
these, or something like them, occur in any languages of Northern Asia, 
Niebuhr cannot determine. He, however, ventures to affirm that in no 
Tschudian dialect are there even apparent resemblances, which can fa- 
vour the hypothesis, that the Scythians belonged to the Finnish race ; 
and that there is no conceivable connexion between the name of Scy- 
thians (which had perhaps belonged to an earlier people before it was 
applied by the Pontic Greeks to the Scoloti, Herod, iv. 6) and Tschud, 
a contemptuous name, arising from the hereditary hatred of the Russians 
to the Fins. See Niebuhr, Researches into the History of the Scythians, 
Getae, etc., pp. 46—48. Oxford, 1830. 

1 iv. 11. 

^ Three different rivers are mentioned by Herodotus under the same 
name of Araxes, namely, the Volga, the Aras, and the Jaxartes. See 
the account of the river Araxes in chap. viii. 

3 iv. II. * i. 103, 104. 5 iv. 12. « i. 15, 16. 


EUEOPE. time the great Scytliian army under Madyes over- 
CHAP. Tii. came the Medes, and became masters of all Upper 
" — ^~~ Asia for twenty-eight years. From thence they ad- 
nSteis'^f yanced upon Aegypt, but Psammetichus met them 
piundetthe in Palestine and persuaded them to return. In their 
ATrodi'te I'etreat some of them plundered the temple of the 
at Askaion. heaveuly Aphrodite (or Astarte) at Askalon, for 
which they and their descendants were punished by 
the goddess with a feminine disease. Several so af- 
flicted were still to be seen in the time of Herodotus : 
the Scythians called them Enarees.^ The Medes, under 
Cyaxares, at length expelled these invaders.^ Some of 
them however were still retained at court, and after- 

1 Notwithstanding the mass of commentaiy which has been written 
upon this disease, it is best explained by the following passage of Hippo- 
crates, which I shall give at full length from Larcher. " Their continual 
exercise on horseback occasions to the Scythians acute pains in the 
joints ; they then become lame ; and if the disorder augments, the hip 
falls backwards. In the commencement of the malady, they cure them- 
selves by cutting the vein which runs behind each ear. When the blood 
ceases to flow, they fall asleep from exhaustion ; and on awaking, some 
are cured, and some are not. This remedy appears to me fatal to the 
Scythian people. If certain veins behind the ears are cut, impotency is 
the result. The Scythians must experience this effect. When they 
afterwards proceed to intercourse with their wives, and find themselves 
incapable of enjoying it, they pay httle attention to the circumstance on 
its first occun-ence ; but if after repeated efforts they find the same want 
of power, they imagine that they have offended some god, and at- 
tribute their deficiency to him. They then clothe themselves in a wo- 
man's garment, acquire the habits of women, and join them in their 
employments. They are the rich and powerful classes who are most 
subject to this malady, which proceeds from excessive exercise on horse- 
back; the lower orders, not using horses, are less subject to it." _Mr. 
Cooley in his note upon this passage remarks, that " if we do not beheve 
with Herodotus that the disease in question was the infliction of Venus, 
neither need we beheve that it was hereditary in the famihes of those 
who had violated the shrine of that goddess." We may therefore infer 
that Herodotus and Hippocrates both refeiTed to the same malady. He- 
rodotus describes it in the character of an historian, and attributes it to 
the anger of Aphrodite ; whilst the prince of physicians has recourse to 
natural causes, and explains it upon scientific principles. 

Reineggs was the first, in modern times, to make known the existence 
of this disease in the regions occupied by the ancient Scythians. He 
asserts, that among the Nogais cases are frequent of males losing the 
strength and physiognomy of their sex, and assiaming the dress and 
habits of women. This account, which received httle credit, has been 
confirmed in all essential points by Count Potocki, who saw one of those 
metamorphosed individuals among the Turkmans at the Red Wells, m 
the sands of Anketeri between the rivers Couma and Terek. Persons 
so afflicted are called Kos; and the traveller adds, that the disease is^not 
xmknown in Turkey. See Larcher's Notes, Cooley's edit. vol. i. p. 121. 

2 i. 106. 


wards fled to Alyattes, king of Lydia ; ^ but the great Europe. 
body returned to Scytliia, where they found them- chap. vh. 
selves opposed by a race of youths who had sprung j^gtum to 
from a union of the Scythian women and their scythia. 
slaves. The youths threw up a broad trench from the 
Taurian mountains to the lake Maeotis, but the 
Scythians at last gained the ascendency, by attack- 
ing them with whips instead of warlike weapons, 
and thus overcoming their slave natures.^ 

That Scythia was really anciently occupied by ^"g^^J^.jfj^^ 
the Cimmerians, is proved by the many names of occixpation 
places which were still preserved in the time of He- by th?cim- 
rodotus. There was a district named Cimmeria, and gfg^^lctof 
a Cimmerian Bosphorus,^- also a Cimmerian Fort cimmeria. 
and a Cimmerian Ferry.^ The Cimmerian Ferry was FOTt^nT"^ 
probably the name of the place where the Bosphorus cfmmerian 
might be crossed, and was situated at the narrowest Bosphorus. 
part. The district called Cimmeria may therefore 
be placed where Bobrik fixes it, namely, to the 
south of the Scythian Nomades. Some have de- ^^^g^®*^® 
clared that the Massagetae, like the Sacae, belonged of Scythian 
to the Scythian race.^ The Sacae were indeed " "" 
Amyrgian Scythians, but received their other name 
of Sacae because the Persians applied it to the Scy- 
thians generally.^ 

The climate of Scythia is thus described by He- ^^^"l^te of 

.-, , -J I'jj 1 Scythia. 

rodotus. All the country was subject to such a Eight 
severe winter, that during eight months of the year wiSer^dur- 
the cold was intolerable ; and if at this period a [^| ^J'''^ 
person poured water on the ground, it would not freezes. 
make mud, but would freeze ; whereas if he lit a fire 
mud would be made. Even the sea froze, and the 
whole Cimmerian Bosphorus ; and the Scythians 
who dwelt within the slave-trench, led their armies 
and drove their waggons over the ice to attack the 
Sindians on the other side, i. e. the country south 
of the river Kuban, at the western extremity of Cir- 

1 i. 73. 2 iv. 3^ 4 3 iv, 12. 

* The Cimmerian Fort is supposed to have occupied the site of 
the modern Eski-Krim : the Ferry was near the mouth of the Maeotis. 
« i. 201. 8 vii. 64. 






months of 
cold sum- 
mer, con- 
stant rains, 
and violent 

Effects of 
cold on the 
horses and 

cassia. The remaining four months were also 
very cold. The Scythian winter however differed 
in character from the winter of all other countries. 
No rain worth mentioning fell there in the usual 
season, whilst during the summer it never ceased. 
There were no thunder-storms in the winter, but in 
the summer they were violent ; and an earthquake 
there, whether in summer or winter, was accounted 
a prodigy. 

The Scythian horses endured this cold, whilst the 
asses and mules could not hold out ; and yet else- 
where horses that were exposed became frost-bitten 
and wasted away, whilst the asses and mules were 
able to withstand the cold.^ Herodotus thought that 
it was this cold which prevented any horns from 
growing on the Scythian cattle, and he quotes the 
following line from the Odyssea of Homer in proof 
of his opinion : 

"Kat Aij3vr)v, oS^i t apvse a^ap Kspaiot reXiSfovai." 

— " And Libya, where the lambs soon shoot their 
horns." ^ And here he says Homer is quite correct 
in saying that the horns of cattle shoot out very 
quickly in hot climates ; but in these very cold 
countries the cattle either do not produce horns at 
all, or else very slowly.^ 

With respect to the feathers which the Scythians 
said filled the air and prevented their seeing the coun- 
try in the interior, or even their passing through it, 
Herodotus entertained the following opinion. He 
believed that it continually snowed there, only less 
in summer than in winter ; and he adds, that who- 
ever has seen snow fall very thick and near will 
know what is meant, for snow is like feathers ; and 
that it is the severity of the winter which prevents 
the more northern j^arts of the country from being 
Tradition of As to the Hypcrborcans, or ''people beyond the 

story of the 
air filled 
with fea- 

1 iv. 28. 

2 Homer, Odyssea, lib. iv. 85. 
^ iv. 31. 

3 iv. 29. 


north wind," neither the Scythians said anything, europe. 
nor any other people of those parts, excepting per- chap, yh. 
haps the Issedones ; though Herodotus does not the Hyper- 
thinli that even they said anything, or otherwise the Koreans. 
Scythians would have repeated such relation, as 
they did the story of the one-eyed people.^ Hesiod 
however mentions the Hyperboreans, as well as 
Homer in the Epignoni, if indeed Homer composed 
that poem.^ But if there were Hyperboreans, or 
" people beyond the north wind," Herodotus thinks 
that there must also have been Hypernotians,^ or 
''people beyond the south wind."^ Scythia itself 
possessed nothing remarkable beyond the great 
rivers, excepting the footprint of Heracles, two Footprint of 
cubits long, in a rock near the river Tyras,^ and the marsof 
pillars of Sesostris.' Sesostris. 

Concerning the natural productions of Scythia we Natural 
gather the following particulars. The grass was orsljythiT 
more productive of bile than that of any other coun- ^^'^^^• 
try ; and this might be easily proved by opening 
the stomachs of the cattle.^ The hemp was like Hemp. 
linseed, but surpassed it in thickness and height, 
and the Thracians made garments from it which 
could scarcely be distinguished from those manu- 
factured from flax.^ It grew wild and was also 
cultivated, and was used by the Scythians both for 
sweating-baths and for smearing over the body.^ 
Mention is also made of wheat, onions, garlick, J^ons' 
lentils, and millet.^'' Cranes were found during the Gariick. 
summer, but migrated to Aethiopia for winter quar- Mmet!' 
ters.^^ Swine were never used, nor suffered to be ^""^.^f- 
reared. ^^ 

The national traditions and characteristics are re- 
corded at some length. The Scythians still pre- National 
served a myth of their own, that the first man born xargitaus 
in their country was Targitaus,^^ son of Zeus by a thit^sons; 

1 iv. 27. 2 iv. 32. 

^ I do not here agree with Mr. Bobrik in supposing that Herodotus 
entirely disbelieved in the existence of Hyperboreans, Geog. § 51. 

* iv. 36. 5 iy. 82. 6 ii. 103. ^ iv. 58. ^ iv. 74 

^ iv. 75. " iv. 17. " ii. 22. '^ i^, (33^ 

^^ Identified by Von Hammer with Turk, the supposed ancestor of the 
Turkish race, and with the Togarmah of Scripture, Gen. x, 3. 


EUROPE, daughter of the river Borysthenes. Targitaus had 
CHAP. Yii. three sons, LijDoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais. In 
Lipoxais, their reign a plough, a yoke, an axe, and a bowl, all 
^^dCdix- ^^^6 of gold, fell from heaven upon the Scythian 
ais. territory. The oldest of the brothers wished to 

take them away, but as he di^ew near the gold be- 
gan to burn. The second brother approached them, 
but with the like result. The third and youngest 
then approached, upon which the fire went out, and 
he was enabled to carry away the golden gifts. The 
two eldest then made the youngest king,^ and hence- 
forth the golden gifts were watched by the kings 
with the greatest care, and annually approached 
with magnificent sacrifices.^ From Lipoxais, the 
The Aucha- oldcst, wcro desccudcd the Auchatae ; from Arpoxais, 
andTrS"' ^he sccond, were descended the Catiari and Tras- 
pi^s- pies ; and from Colaxais, the youngest, came the 

General royal racc, which were called Paralatae. But all 
scXti! the hordes were called Scoloti, from the surname of 
their king ; the Greeks however called them Scy- 
thians.^ * 

^ iv. 5. ^ iv. 7. ^ iv. 6. 

* Wesseling remarks that they were not called Scythians because the 
name was Greek, but because the Hellenic colonists on the Pontus 
Euxinus observed that they were very much distinguished for their 
archery, and therefore gave them the name Scjrthae, having learnt that 
in the language of the country this word denoted archers. Efforts have 
been made to connect the Scythians with some modern race by means of 
this derivation. The old Norse word "skyta,"the Swedish " ski uta," 
and the English " shoot," all point out, according to this etymology, the 
meaning of the name Scythian, given to the inventors of the bow and 
arrow. "But the resemblance," says Mr. Cooley in his additions to 
Larcher's Notes, " between ' skyta ' and XkvQtjq^ is more apparent than 
real. The letter k in the northern languages is generally softened be- 
fore e, i, and y : thus, in our language, the word ' skirt ' was originally 
pronounced ' shirt ;' ' skiff,' in like manner, was identical with ' shipf,' or 
' ship ; ' and ' kirke ' with ' church.' There is no reason for believing 
that the Greek k ever lost its hard sound, whatever may have been the 
case with the x- To derive ^KvQric fi'om ' skyta,' is to reason, therefore, 
on as false an analogy as we should exhibit in deriving ' Scot ' from, 
' shot.' 

" Eichwald identifies Scythian, or Scyth, with Tschude, or Chude, 
which is the name given by the Russians to the ancient possessors of 
Siberia, or to a supposed gi-eat people, the reputed authors of the barrows 
and other rude monuments found throughout that country. A people of 
Finnish race called Tscluid still exist in the north-west of Europe ; but 
the Russian epithet Ijeing of comparatively modern date, might be sus- 
pected of being derived from the ancient name of Scythia." Compare 
also note to page 1.54. 


■ The Hellenic colonists on the Pontus preserved a Europe. 
myth of a very different character. Whilst Heracles ^"^^- ^i'- 
was driving away the herds of Geryon from the ©reek my- 
island of Erytheia beyond the Pillars, he reached JJ^^^^J*^® 
Scythia and there lost his mares. The serpent of Heracles, 
maiden Echidna offered to restore them on condi- pentSaiden 
tion of becoming his mistress, and three sons were Echidna. 
the result, Agathyrsis, Glelonus, and Scythes. The 
youngest alone was subsequently able to bend the 
bow of his father, and was therefore made king of 
Scythia, and also received the belt of Heracles, upon 
which hung a golden cup at the extremity of the 
clasp. The royal dignity was afterwards held by 
the descendants of Scythes, and the Scythians wore 
cups in their belts down to the time of Herodotus.^ 
A third tradition, referring to the expulsion of the 
Cimmerians by the Scythian nomades of Asia, has 
already been noticed. 

All the nations bordering on the Euxine were ignorance 
grossly ignorant, and Herodotus is unable to men- tions on the 
tion a single nation on the European side^ that had ^^^^^• 
any pretensions to intelligence, excepting the Scy- 
thians and the unfortunate Anacharsis.^ Though 
he does not admire the customs of the Scythians wise device 
generally, yet he considered them to have contrived thians 
a most wise and important device, by which no one ^fs/^n! ''^V 
who attacked them could escape, and no one could 
overtake them unless they pleased. They were a 
people who had neither cities nor fortifications ; but Their 
were all mounted archers, carrying their houses with ried with 
them, dwelling in waggons, and living not upon the ^^^'^' 
fruits of the earth, but upon the cattle which they 
grazed : * how then was it possible for them to have 
been otherwise than invincible, and unapproachable?^ 
Tt was the fitness of the country that led them 

^ iv. 8 — 10. A small statue or figure of amber was found at Kertch a 
few years ago, representing a man in the Scythian dress, holding in 
one hand a quiver full of arrows, and in the other a drinking-cup shaped 
like a horn. M. de Blaremberg, " Notice sur quelques Objets d'Antiq.," 
quoted by Cooley. 

^ iv. 46. Herodotus merely says evrbg row ttovtov, on this side of the 
Euxine. He must therefore have written this passage at Thurium. 

3 iv. 7G. * iv. 2. 5 iv. 46. 




CHAP. Yll. 

deities : 
Zeus, Ge, 
and Ares. 


Mode of 

to practise this device, and the rivers aided them in 
it ; for the land was a steppe rich in grass and well 
watered ; and the rivers that flowed through it were 
almost as numerous as the canals of Egypt. ^ 

The Scythians worshipped only the following 
deities : Hestia, whom they propitiated most of all ; 
then Zeus, and Ge whom they deemed to be his 
wife ; and lastly, Apollo, the heavenly Aphrodite, 
Heracles, and Ares. These were acknowledged by 
all the Scythians, but the Royals also sacrificed to 
Poseidon. In the Scythian language, 

Hestia was called Tahiti, 

Zeus . . . Papaeus, 

Ge . . . Apia, 

Apollo . . . Oetosyrus, 

Aphrodite . . Artimpasa, 

Poseidon . . . Thamimasadas. 

They built no altars, images, and temples, ex- 
cepting to Ares.^ They all sacrificed in the same 
way to each deity. The victim stood with its fore- 
feet tied. The sacrificer was placed behind the 
animal, and threw it down by pulHng the rope. As 
it fell he invoked the god to whom he was sacri- 
ficing. He then twisted a halter round the neck 
and tightened it with a stick until the beast was 
strangled. He kindled no fire and performed no 
preparatory ceremonies or libations, but directly 
after the flaying he proceeded to cook the meat.^ 
This was managed by the following contrivance, 
which the people had invented because their coun- 
try was wholly destitute of wood. Having drawn 
off the skin from the sacrificed animal, they stripped 
the flesh from the bones and placed it in large 
cauldrons, which very much resembled the Lesbian 
mixing- vessels, only they were much larger ; and 
they cooked this flesh by making a fire underneath 
with the bones of the victim. If they had no caul- 
dron at hand they crammed all the flesh into the 
belly of the beast, then poured in water and burnt 

iv. 47. 

iv. r)9. 

iv. 60. 


the bones underneath/ These bones burnt exceed- Europe. 
ingly well, and the belly easily contained the flesh, chap. vn. 
After the cooking the sacrificer consecrated the first 
pieces of the flesh and entrails, and threw them be- 
fore him. Grazing cattle were generally selected 
for these sacrifices, and especially horses.^ 

The sacrifices to Ares were conducted in a differ- Enormous 
ent manner. At each of the places appointed for gotT sacref" 
the magistrates to assemble in the several districts, *° ^'■'^^• 
there was a sanctuary to Ares of the following kind. 
Bundles of faggots were heaped together to an ex- 
tent of 3 stadia in length and breadth, but less in 
height. On the top was a square platform. Three 
of the sides were perpendicular ; the fourth was suf- 
ficiently sloping to admit of persons getting up. 
Every year 150 fresh waggon loads of faggots were 
heaped upon it to compensate for the continual sink- 
ing brought about by the weather.^ Upon this heap 
each tribe placed an ancient iron scimetar, which 
was the sacred symbol of Ares.* Cattle and horses 
and the hundredth man of all the prisoners taken in 
war were sacrificed annually to these scimetars. The Human 

T • , • fc ^ ' ^' cc 1 r sacrifices. 

human victims were oiiered m a diiierent way irom 
the cattle. A libation of wine was poured on their 
heads, and their throats were cut over a bowl, which 
was carried up the heap, and the blood poured over 
the scimetar. The right arm was then cut off and 
thrown into the air, and after the performance of the 
remaining sacrifices the people departed, leaving the 
body and arm remaining at the spot where they 

^ Wesseling remarks, that before the invention of pots and kettles, 
barbarous people used skins in which to cook their food ; and that the 
Bedouin Arabs, the Greenlanders, and several tribes of Tartary, still con- 
tinue the same custom. It may be added, that in countries where wood 
is very scarce, they use the bones of animals for fuel. " Take the choice 
of the flock, and burn also the bones under it, and make it boil well," 
Ezek. xxiv. 5. 

2 iv. 61. 

3 The reader will readily agree with Wesseling, that a pile of small 
wood, 3 stadia in length and in width, and little less in height, is quite 
inconsistent with the general scarcity of wood which our author himself 

* Ammianus Marcellinus says of the Huns : " Nee templum apud eos 
visitur aut delubrum . . . sed gladius barbarico ritu humi figitm- nudus, 
eumque ut Marteno . . . colunt." 

M 2 


EUROPE, fell.^ Ill all their sacrifices this people abstained! 
CHAP. Tii. from the use of swine.^ 
Enemies' ^ Scjthian drank the blood of the first enemy he 
Std^"^^ conquered, and presented the king with the heads 
the king, of all those whom he slew in battle, for if he brought 
Mode of pre- no head he received no share of the booty. The head 
skunj and w^s flayed by maldng a cut near the ears all round, 
other tro- and sliakiuff out the skull. The operator then scraped 
off the flesh with the rib of an ox, and softened the 
skin with his hands. When he had made it supple 
he used it as a napkin, and hung it over the bridle 
of his steed as a trophy ; for he who had the greatest 
number of these skin napkins was regarded as the 
most valiant man. Many made mantles of the skins 
by sewing them together like the skin clothes worn 
by shepherds. Many also drew off the skin together 
with the nails from the right hands of their slain 
enemies, and used it as coverings for their quivers ; 
and many indeed flayed their enemies whole, and 
stretched the skin on wood and carried it about on 
horseback.^ The skulls of their bitterest enemies 
they used as drinking-bowls, first cutting away all be- 
low the eyebrows, and then cleansing them and cover- 
ing the outside with leather ; and sometimes they 
gilded the inside, if they were rich enough. They 
also treated the skulls of their relatives in the same 
way, if they had quarrelled and one had overcome 
the other in the presence of the king. When they 
received visits from honoured guests, the host placed 
these skulls before his visitors, and related how he 
had been attacked, and how he had gained the vic- 
tory.* Once, also, in the year, every monarch, each 
in his own district, mixed wine in a bowl, from 
which all the Scythians drank who had previously 
killed an enemy. Those who had not been success- 
ful in so doing were not allowed to taste the wine, 
but remained seated in dishonour at a distance off, 
and this was accounted to be the greatest disgrace. 
On the other hand, those who had killed a great 
many men, drank from two vessels at once.^ 

1 iv. 02. 2 iv_ p,3_ 3 iv. CA. " iv. 65. ^ jy, gg. 


bootlisayers were very numerous amongst the Europe. 
Scythians. They brought large bundles of willow chap. vn. 
rods, which they laid on the ground and shook to- soothsayers 
gether. They then placed each rod apart, and at ^^ '^^{^j!^'''; 
last uttered their predictions whilst they gathered up 
the rods again one at a time. This was the national 
mode, but the Enarees, or Androgyni, who have been 
already alluded to, say that Aplu-odite has given to 
them the power of divining. Accordingly, they 
split the bark of a linden tree into three pieces, twist- 
ed it round their fingers, and tlien untwisted it, 
whilst they uttered their prophecies.^ 

As often as the king of Scythia fell ill, he sent for Ceremonies 
tln-ee of the most famous soothsayers, who thereupon ness of a 
prophesied in the way described. Upon this occa- ^''^• 
sion they usually declared that some Scythian, whom 
they named, had sworn falsely by the royal hearth, 
an oath which was regarded as the most sacred of 
all. The person accused was then brought forward 
and charged by the prophets with having sworn 
falsely and caused the king's illness. The prisoner 
of course denied it, and complained bitterly. Six 
more soothsayers were then summoned, and if they 
also taxed him with perjury, his head was immedi- 
ately cut off, and the first three prophets divided his 
property between them. If, however, the six pro- 
phets acquitted him, others were called in, and others 
after them, and if the majority still acquitted him, 
the first prophets were put to death themselves,^ after 
a peculiar fashion. A waggon was filled with fag- 
gots and oxen yoked to it. The prophets were next 
gagged and tied hand and foot, and placed in the 
midst of these faggots, which were set on fire, and 
the oxen being terrified were suffered to run where 
they pleased. Many of the oxen were therefore 
burnt with the prophets, and others only escaped 
after the pole had been burnt asunder and they had 
been very much scorched. The king also executed 
the male children of all whom he put to death, but 
preserved the females.^ 

1 iv. 67. 2 iv. 68. . » iv. 69. 


EUROPE. Solemn contracts were made amongst the Scythi- 
CHAP. Tii. £^ns in tlie following manner. Wine was poured into 
Manner of ^ l^rgo cartlicn vosscl and mixed with blood, taken by 
making a bodMn or dagger from the parties contracting. The 
parties then dij)ped a scimetar, some arrows, a battle- 
axe, and a javelin into the vessel, and made many 
solemn protestations, and at last drank it, together 
with the most distinguished of their followers.* 
Repuichres Tlic sopulclires of the Scythian kings were in the 
thiln'^kinls. couutry of tlio Gcrrlii, on the Borysthenes, as far as 
Funeral that rivor was navigable. There, when the king 
ceremomes. ^q^^ q^ large squarc grave was prepared. Meantime 
the corpse was covered with wax, and the stomach 
cut open and emboweled, and filled with bruised 
cypress, incense, parsley, and anise-seed, and sewn 
up again. The body was then placed in a chariot 
and carried from one tribe to another, the people of 
each following it as it was brought them, and wound- 
ing themselves in the same way that the Royal 
Scythians did, namely, by cutting off part of their 
ear, shaving off their hair, wounding their arm, la- 
cerating their forehead and nose, and driving arrows 
tln*ough their left hand. When the corpse had been 
thus carried through the several provinces, it was at 
last taken to the burying-place amongst the Gerrhi, 
who were the most remote people under the Scythian 
rule. Here the Scythians placed the body in the 
square grave on a bed of leaves ; and fixing spears 
on each side of the corpse, they laid pieces of wood 
Favourite Qvcr it and covered it with mats. In the remaining 
servants? ' spacc of tlic cxcavatiou they buried one of the king's 
burie^d with concubines, whom they strangled ; also his cup- 
theking. bcarcr, cook, mastcr-of-horse, body-servant, mes- 
senger, and horses; together with golden goblets, 
and the firstlings of all his other property, except 
silver and Ijrass, which, indeed, they never used. 
Over the whole they heaped up a large mound, which 
Fifty at- they tried to make as big as possible.^ Wlien a 
kiUed and ycar had elapsed, tliey took fifty of those of the re- 
placed on jj^aining servants who had been the most closely 

1 iv. 70. 2 iv. 71, 


attendant upon the departed monarch, and who were Europe. 
all native Scythians ; for the king had no servants ^"^^- ^n- 
bought with money, but was served by whoever he horseback 
chose to select. These fifty they strangled, together ^'°^^^^ tiie 
with fifty of the finest horses. They then emboweled 
both men and horses, and stuffed them with chaff, 
and sewed them up again ; and a stake was run 
through each horse from the tail to the neck, and 
another through each man. The men were placed 
upon the horses, the stakes inside them fitting into 
a hole made in the horses' stakes. The figures were 
at last mounted on the insides of two half-wheels, 
and elevated on posts, so that the legs were all sus- 
pended in the air. The two half-wheels supported 
the horse's stomach, one under his shoulders, and the 
other under his hinder parts. Each of these figures 
was fastened to another post, and all were thus ar- 
ranged round the tumulus.' ^ 

The common people were buried in a somewhat Buiiai of 
different manner. The corpse was laid in a chariot thllns! ^^^' 
and carried about by the nearest relatives amongst 
their friends, who each in turn entertained the at- 
tendants, and set the same things before the dead 
body as before the others. This was done for forty 
days, after which the body was buried, and the rela- 
tives and friends purified themselves in the follow- 
ing manner. Having first washed and thoroughly Manner of 
cleansed their heads, they made a tent by stretching ti^n.^''^' 
thick woollen cloths over three sticks fixed in the 
ground, and inclining towards each other. They 
then threw red-hot stones into a vessel placed un- 
derneath this tent,^ and creeping under the woollen 
covering, which was kept very tight and close, they 
placed some hemp seed on the hot stones. A smoke 
and steam now arose, which no Greek vapour-bath 
could surpass ; and the Scythians, intoxicated with 

' iv. 77. 

2 BaiTOws or tumuli are found all over New Russia, but are most 
numerous in the neighboiu-hood of the Sea of AzofF. The Tartar name 
for them is Kurgan. The Calmucks are still in the habit of bm-ying 
horses, arms, etc. with their chiefs. 

3 iv. 73. 




CHAP. Yll. 

Hatred of 
foreign cus- 


Blinding of 

Mode of 
milking cat- 

Habit of 
taking un- 
mixed wine 
and drink- 
ing very 

the vapour, soon began to shout aloud ; and this 
served them in the place of washing, as they never 
bathed their bodies in water. The women, on the 
other hand, used to pound pieces of cypress, cedar, 
and frankincense against a rough stone, and smear 
tliis paste over their face and bodies, and this 
not only gave their sldn a pleasant odour, but 
when taken off the next day left them clean and 

The Scythians most studiously avoided all foreign 
customs, and especially those of Hellas, and both 
Anacharsis and Scylas lost their lives in endeavour- 
ing to introduce Hellenic usages.^ As to their cos- 
tume, they appear to have carried a bow and horse- 
whip,^ and to have worn a girdle with a small cup 
attached/ The Sacae, who were a Scythian nation, 
and whom Herodotus calls Scythian Amyrgians, wore 
loose trousers, and felted caps terminating in a point ; 
they also carried the bows which were peculiar to 
their country, together with daggers, and battle-axes 
called sagares/ The Scythians were accustomed 
to blind their slaves, to prevent their skimming off 
the best of the milk. This milk was their chief 
drink, and in milldng they operated in a very pecu- 
liar fashion ; for they inserted bone tubes lilce flutes 
into the vulva of the animal, and one blew up this 
tube whilst another milked. They themselves de- 
clared that they adopted this method because, by 
inflating the veins of the mare, the latter become 
filled, whilst the udder is depressed. The miUi was 
directly afterwards poured into wooden measures, 
and the blind slaves stirred it ; and the cream which 
settled on the top was afterwards skimmed off, 
and considered to be the most valuable.^ The Scy- 
thian nomadcs, Herodotus says, used to take un- 
mixed wine and drink hard. The Spartans said that 
thcii' king Cleomenes learnt this habit fr-om the Scy- 
thians, and became insane : hence it was usual in 
Lacedaemon, when they wished for stronger drink, to 

iv. 75. 

2 iv. 76—80. 
' vii. 64. 

' iv. .3. 
iv. 2. 

* iv. IQ. 


say, '' Poirr out like a Scythian.^ " The people re- Europe. 
sembled the Aegyptians, inasmuch as they held those ^«^^- "^'"• 
citizens in the least respect who carried on trade or contempt 
handicraft.-. of trade. 

The population of Scythia Herodotus could never Difficulty m 
learn with accuracy, for he heard very different the'^po^'puk? 
accounts. Some thought the Scythians were very ^^p- °f ^'^y- 
numerous, and others the contrary. Near the bitter 
spring Exampaeus, however, he saw a large brazen Cauldron 
cauldron, six digits in thickness, and capable of ™rowhe°a^s, 
holding 600 amphorae, which was said to have been furnSlby 
entirely made of arrow-heads ; for King Ariantas, every scy- 
wishing to know the number of his subjects, com- 
manded every Scythian, upon pain of death, to bring 
him one point of an arrow, and these he melted to- 
gether, and left in the shape of this vast cauldron as 
a monument behind him.^ 

Of the Scythian language only a few trifles can Meagre re- 
be gathered. The Scythian names of their deities scythial*^^ 
are already given at p. 162. Besides, Arima in the language. 
Scythian language signified '' one," and Spou, "the 
eye:" thence the Arimaspi, or ''one-eyed men."* 
Also Aior, " a man," and Pata, '' to kill: " hence 
Aiorpata, '' manslayers," which was the name by 
which the Greeks called the Amazones.^ 

The Tauei, who inhabited the acte of Taurica,^ Barbarous 
practised the following customs. They sacrificed to the Tami. 
the virgin Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, 
all who suffered shipwreck on their coasts, not ex- 
cepting the Hellenes. According to some, after per- 
forming the preparatory ceremonies,'' they struck the 
victim on the head with a club. According to others, 
they threw the body down the precipice upon which 
their temple was built, but impaled the head upon 
a stake. Others, again, agreed as to what was done 
to the head, but said that the body was not thrown 

1 vi. 84. 2 ii. 167. ^ iv. 81. * iv. 27. ' iv. 110. 

6 iv. 99.' 

■^ The preparatory ceremonies consisted in sprinkling the victim with 
the lustral water, cutting the hair from his head, which was burned, and 
scattering on his forehead the sacred barley mixed with salt. Eurip. 
Iph. in Tauris, 40. 



EUROPE, from the precipice, but buried in the earth. When 
these people had subdued any of their enemies, each 
one cut off a head and stuck it ujoon a long pole, 
and placed it above his house, usually above the 
chimney ; and these heads they said were to be the 
guardians of their whole household. The Tauric 
nation lived by war and pillage.^ This account of 
the Tauri completes Herodotus's geography of Scy- 

1 iv. 103. 



Character of Herodotus's knowledge of the remainder of Eiu-ope. — 
Divisions. — I. Western Exjrope. — Region beyond the Pillars of 
Heracles. — Tartessus. — Erytheia. — Gadeira. — Celtae. — Cynetae. — Ac- 
count of the river Ister or Danube. — Causes of its equal stream. — Ex- 
planation of Herodotus's description of the Ister, and account of the 
Cynetae and Celtae. — The Iberi, Ligyes, and Elisyci. — Italy, singular 
omission of Rome. — Northern Italy, the Ombrici and T}Tseni.— South- 
ern Italy, occupied by Greek colonies, viz. Rhegium, Taras, Agylla, 
Hyela in Oenotria, Croton, Metapontium, Sybaris, Siris, lapygia, Brun- 
dusium, Hyria, and Epizephyrian Locrians. — II. Northern Europe. — 
Region impracticable from bees or frost. — The Sigynnes, a Medic colony 
fond of chariot-driving. — Nations bordering on Scythia. — 1. Agathyi-si, 
occupying Transylvania. — 2. Nemi, occupying Poland and Lithuania. — 
3. Androphagi, occupying Smolensk. — 4. Melanchlaeni, occupying Or- 
lofF. — 5. Sauromatae, occupying the country of the Don Cossacks and 
part of Astracan. — 6. Budini and Geloni, occupying SaratofF. — III. 
Eastern Europe. — Great caravan route. — Character of the commerce. 
— Olbia, the emporium.- — Trade in corn. — Slaves. — Furs. — Gold from 
the Ural and Altai mountains. — Route northward from the Budini. — 
Desert of seven days' journey, occupying Simbirsk and Kasan. — Route 
towards the east. — Thyssagetae, occupying Perm. — Jyrcae on the Ural 
mountains.- — Scythian exiles occupying Tobolsk. — Argippaei at the foot 
of the Altai mountains.— Identification of the Argippaei with the Cal- 
mucks. — Unknown region north of the Argippaei occupied by men with 
goats' feet, and people who slept for six months at a time. — Identification 
of the Altai. — Eastern route continued. — Issedones. — Arimaspi. — Gold- 
guarding griffins. — Nations on the frontier towards Asia.— General de- 
scription of Mount Caucasus. — Herodotus's account of the mountain and 
people. — The Massagetae. — Herodotus's description of the river Araxes. 
Explanation of the apparent contradictions. — Manners and customs of 
the Massagetae. 

The countries of Europe which we have already Europe. 
noticed include all that was really known to Hero- chap. vm. 
dotus, and answer to the modern kingdom of Greece, character of 
the provinces of Em-opean Turkey, and the govern- Herodotus's 
ments oi southern Kussia. Beyond these limits his of the rest 
information loses his distinctness ; and if he himself "^^"''"p^- 
could be supposed to have ever arranged his geogra- 


-\ b / 


\ CO 


\ o H 


\ 2-- \ 


1?= s \ 



\ ? \ 



. \ 1 




\ c» , , 

r\^ N. 



1 «^ 


1— 1 

^— r^s^^ 



/ § ^ 









o a. 

tr 3 ►a o 

Oq i^ ^^ tf 
S P O^ "2 

w, a' ^ cr 

CD 3 

S 2. o 


phy upon a similar principle, and under similar Europe. 
headings to those adopted in the present volume, chap.viu. 
the words '' Traditionary Europe" would most pro- 
bably have been affixed as the title to the present 
chapter ; for his knowledge of the countries therein 
described was derived, not from personal experience 
and travel, but from hearsay and tradition. A glance 
at the modern map of Europe will be sufficient to 
show how vast a proportion of this great continent 
was thus veiled from his mental vision. On the 
other hand, a careful consideration of his statements 
will strike the reader with astonishment, not only at 
his knowledge of regions which are even now but 
imperfectly known, but also at his ignorance of 
. countries whose future inhabitants have taken such • • 

an important part in the history of the world. 

The territories thus characterized naturally se- Divisions. 
parate into three divisions, viz. 1. Western Eu- 
rope, including Spain, France, and Italy, which 
were but very little known, for the Celtae are merely 
named, and no mention whatever is made of Rome. 
2. Northern Europe, including the countries border- 
ing on Scythia, which our author knew by the light 
of such information as he could gather whilst re- 
siding at the Greek port of Olbia at the mouth of 
the Dnieper. 3. Eastern Europe, which extended 
far away over the Ural chain to the foot of the Al- 
tai mountains and banks of the Jaxartes. This last 
division is the most important, if not the most inter- 
esting ; for the description of the country is apparent- 
ly derived from Greek merchants, who had opened a 
line of communication between Olbia and the golden 
regions of the far east, and it evidently included a 
description of the nations traversed by the caravan 
route, which passed northward through the interior 
of Russia in Europe, and then eastward through the 
steppes of Russia in Asia and Independent Tartary.^ 

I. To begin with Western Europe. The Pillars of ^^^J^^^; 


^ It has already been seen that the river Phasis (or Rhion) and the 
Araxes (or Jaxartes) formed, according to our author, the Une of division 
between Europe and Asia. 




CHAP. Till. 

Region be- 
yond the 
Pillars of 



Account of 
the riyer 
Ister or 

Heracles — or the rocks of Calpe and Abyla, upon 
wliicli Gibraltar and Ceuta now stand — formed by 
no means the most extreme western point of the 
Europe of Plerodotus. Beyond lay the rich port of 
Tartessus/ which was most probably situated on the 
island of Isla Major, at the mouth of the Guadalqui- 
Also the island Erytheia near Gadeira, where 

Causes of 
its equal 


Geryon dwelt ;^ and lastly, the Celtae, and be- 
yond them the Cynetae, who were the most westerly 
people of Euro|)e. Amongst the Celtae, and near 
the city of Pyrene,'' the river Ister took its rise. 
This was the greatest of all rivers, and flowed 
equally strong in summer and winter. It was 
greater than the Nile, from the number of its tribut- 
aries ; for though the Nile surpassed the main stream 
of the Ister in quantity, yet it was enlarged by no 
additional streams. The general equality of the 
Ister waters in winter and summer is thus accounted 
for by Herodotus. During the winter its stream, 
he tells us, is very little swollen, because the coun- 
try is very little moistened by rain, but entirely 
covered with the snow. On the other hand, during 
the summer, the vast quantities of snow dissolve on 
all sides and flow into the river, whilst frequent and 
violent rains fall into it ; and these additions com- 
pensate for the increased mass of water which the 
sun draws up to him during the summer season. 
The Ister flowed through all Europe and entered 
the borders of Scythia,* and at last discharged itself 
into the Pontus through five arms,^ between Thrace 
and Scytliia, having its mouth turned towards the 
east.^ It thus fell into the Pontus near the Milesian 
colony at Istria,'' and somewhere opposite to Sinope.^ 

» iv. 152. 

2 iv. 8. Gadeira was probably the island now called I. de Leon, on 
which stood the city bearing the same name of Gadeira or Gades, and 
situated on or near the site of the modem Cadiz. Erytheia has been 
identified with the smaller island of S. Sebastian, or Trocadero, between 
the I. de Leon and the main-land. 

3 ii. 33. * iv. 47—50. « iv. 47. 

* iv. 99. We have already, in chap, vi., described the modern state of 
the mouths of the Ister. 
-> ii. 33. 8 ji. 34_ 


Here, as iBobrik properly remarks, we must not be Europe. 
too exact about the word '' opposite ;" for Herodotus, chap. vm. 
in another place, calls the Messenian Asina " oppo- 
site" to the Laconian Cardamyle,^ and yet we surely 
may presume that the true position of both places 
must have been well known to him.^ 

Herodotus's description of the Ister is partly based ^^p^^^^^ 
upon conjecture. He had but little means of know- rodotus's 
ing anything of its source, and readily adopted the JftSster, 
notion of its rising near the city of Pyrene, by 
which he doubtless referred to the neighbourhood of 
the Pyrenees, in order to place the fountain of the 
Ister somewhat over-against the spot where he con- 
sidered that the Nile took its rise.^ His knowledge 
of the Celtae and Cynetae seems to have been de- and account 
rived from some Phoenician Peripius oi tne coasts tae and 
of France and Spain.* The Celtae, or Grauls,' may ^'^*^^- 
have crossed the Alps, and Celtic tribes might have 
been found in the heart of Spain ; yet they had no 
connexion with the civilized or commercial world, 
nor did they join the Carthaginian armies, like the 
Elisyci, the Ligyes, and the Iberi. It was probably 
from the Phoenicians, who navigated the Atlantic 
and Bay of Biscay on their way to the tin mines of 
Britain, that Herodotus derived his knowledge of 
their name and situation. The Cynetae must have 
lived ill the extreme west, on the coasts of Portugal, 
Gallicia, and Asturias; whilst the Celtae occupied 
the whole northern coast eastward of the Cynetae. 

1 viii. 73. 2 Geog. des Herod, § 58. 

3 The Ister (or Danube) in reality originates in two streams, Brigen 
and Pregen, which have their sources on the eastern dechvity of the 
Black Forest in the grand duchy of Baden. These streams unite at 
Danaueschingen, and some have endeavom-ed to connect their names 
with that of Pyrene. 

* See Arnold, Hist, of Home, vol. i. p. 491. 

' The Celtae and Galatae are undoubtedly only different forms of the 
same name. The first was the form with which the Greeks were earliest 
acquainted : the second and more correct form, " Galatae," was intro- 
duced by the great Gaulish migration of the fourth century before Christ. 
Many subsequent writers however continued to use the old orthogi'aphy, 
and in fact, with the exception of the Galatians of Asia Minor, the other 
Gauls in all parts of the world are generally called by the Greeks accord- 
ing to their old form of the name, not Galatae, but Celtae. See Arnold, 
mst. of Rome, vol. i. p. 522. 


EUROPE. Iberia and tlie Iberi ^ seem to have extended 
CHAP. VIII. along tlie south-eastern coasts of Spain. The Ligyes 
rpj^g ji3~ dwelt above Massalia,^ which was situated on the 
ri; site of the modern Marseilles. Between these and 

Eifs/ci. the Iberi we ought to place the Elisyci.^ These 
three nations appear in the Carthaginian army 
against the Sicilian Grelon.* 
Italy, singu- Herodotus is more communicative respecting 
of^R^e!'""^ Italy/ though he knew but little beyond the south- 
ern portion, and, singular to say, makes not the 
slightest mention of Rome. It is difficult to account 
for this omission. We have already seen that he 
joined the colonists who migrated to Thurium about 
B. c. 444. And though Rome was at that time the 
scene of continued internal struggles between the 
patricians and plebeians, yet her arms were kept in 
constant activity by the wars with Fidenae, and 
with the Aequians and Veii.^ 
Northern Qf uorthem Italy, Herodotus mentions the Om- 

piecibythe brici and the Tyrseni. From the Ombrici flow- 
Tj^rsenT.'''"^ cd tlic rivors Carpis and Alpis,'' towards the Is- 
ter.^ The Tyrseni were colonists from Lydia, 
who embarked at Smyrna under the guidance of 
Tyrsenus," and at last settled amongst the Ombri- 
ci. Here they built many to^^ms,^" and carried on 

1 i. 163. 2 V. 9, 

3 Niebuhr places the Elisyci in the middle of Italy, but Herodotus 
only mentions them in connexion with the Iberi and Ligyes, whilst 
Hecataeus (Hecat. fragm. 20, ed. Klausen) mentions Narbo (the modern 
Narbonne) as their chief town. Cf. Bobrik, § 59. 

* vii. 165. 5 I 24. 

^ It is doubtful whether the Roman name was generally known 
amongst the Greeks prior to the expedition of Alexander, a century after 
the period of our author. Cf. An-ian, Exped. de Alex. lib. vii. c. i. 

'' These two rivers cannot be identified on the modern map. They 
may refer to the Drave and the Save, but if so the Ombrici must 
have extended beyond Lombardy and the Julian Alps, which seems 

s iv. 49. 

" Atys king of Lydia had two sons, Lydus and Tyrsenus. The former 
remained in Asia Minor, and gave his name to Lydia. The latter 
migrated to Italy and gave his name to Tyrsenia. 

'" Herodotus throws a very doubtful light upon the origin of the Etrus- 
can race. A review of the subject would be out of place here, but a 
summary of the more important ]iy[)otheses that have been advanced, 
and derivations that have been found, for this remarkable people is in- 
cluded in the article on " Etruria," in Dr. Smith's Diet, of Geog. 


a considerable trade witli the Phocaeans, and were Europe. 
dwelling liere in tlie time of Herodotus.^ ^^^^- ^'"i- 

Many Grreek colonies are mentioned as occupying southern 
the more southern coasts of Italy. There were the ^-^Jf i^"'^'^^' 
towns of Rhegium,^ and Taras, afterwards called Greek coio- 
Tarentum.^ Agylla, which joined the Carchedonians Rhegiuni. 
and Tyrsenians in devastating the Phocaean terri- ^^y^;^ 
tory in Cyrnus. Subsequently the inhabitants of 
Agylla inquired at Delphi how they should atone 
for the deed, and were told to institute gymnastic 
and equestrian contests, which they observed with 
great magnificence down to the time of Herodotus. 

In the country of Oenotria some Phocaeans from Hyeia in 
Rhegium had colonized the town of Hyela by the ^^'^''^'■'^• 
advice of a certain Poseidonian.* The town of Cro- Crotoa. 
ton was the native place of Democides,^ the cele- 
brated physician, through whom the Crotonian doc- 
tors were considered to be the best in all Hellas, 
and even to excel those of Gyrene.*' The Crotonians 
were the only Hellenic peoj^le, westward of the 
Thesprotians, who joined the allied fleet at Salamis, 
and they only sent one ship. They were Achaeans 
by extraction. 

In Metapontium a statue of Apollo was erected in Metapon- 
the market-place, and next to it was another of ^^"^ 
Aristeas, the author of the Arimaspea; and laurel 
trees were planted around the two statues. The 
Metapontines said that Aristeas himself appeared in 
their country, and commanded them to erect an 
altar to Apollo, and to place beside it a statue bear- 
ing the name of Aristeas of Proconnesus ; for he said 
that theirs was the only country of all Italy that had 
been visited by Apollo, and that he himself had 
then accompanied the god in the form of a raven. 
After this communication Aristeas was said to have 
vanished. The Metapontines sent to inquire at 
Delphi what was meant by the apparition, but were 
merely ordered to obey it, and accordingly they ex- 
ecuted the orders of the poet.^ 

1 i. 94, 163. 2 i. 166. M. 24. * i. 167. ' iii. 125. 

« iii. 131. ' viii.47. » iv. 15, 










an Locrians, 

EHN Eu- 

The town of Sybaris was in a very flourisliing 
condition in the time of Cleisthenes of Sicyon, and 
was the native place of Smindyrides, the most 
voluptuous man that ever lived. ^ It was situated on 
the river Crathis, Avhich derived its nameffom a stream 
in Achaia which flowed near Aegae.^ In the time of 
Herodotus the Sybarites were settled in Laos and 
Scydrus,^ for their town had been destroyed by the 
Crotonians. The Sybarites said that the Crotonians 
were assisted by Dorieus, the Lacedaemonian ad- 
venturer ; * and in proof of their assertion they point- 
ed to the sacred precinct, and temple near the dried- 
up course of the Crathis which was erected by 
Dorieus, and dedicated by him to the Crastian 
Minerva after he had assisted in taking the city. 
On the other hand, the Crotonians said that no 
foreigner assisted them excepting Callias the Elean 
seer, and proved their statement by pointing to the 
several pieces of public land which were given to 
Callias in return for his assistance, and which were 
in the possession of his descendants in the time of 
Herodotus, and of which a great deal more would 
have been given to Dorieus had he joined them 
in the war.^ 

From the town of Siris, Damasus went as a suitor 
to the court of Cleisthenes at Sicyon.^ It was to 
this place that Themistocles threatened the S]3artan, 
Eurybiades, he would sail with all the Athenian 
fleet, if the other left him at Salamis.^ 

Besides the foregoing we have notices of la- 
pygia ** with the joort of Brundusium;^ and of the 
city Hyria, which was founded by some Cretans 
who were shipwrecked on the coast. These Cre- 
tans changed their name to Messapian lapygians^ 
and from this point founded other cities which 
are not named.'" The Epizephyrian Locrians" are 
also mentioned, and that is all. 

II. Northern Europe, or the region north of the 

■ vi. 127. ' i. 14.5. 3 vi. 21. <■ v. 44. ^ v. 45. 

« vi. 127. ' viii. G2. « iii. 138. » iv, 99. 

"> vii. 170. " vi. 23. 


upper course of the Ister, was unknown to Herodotus. Europe. 
According to the Thracians, [tlie parts beyond the ^^ap. vm. 
Ister were so infested with bees, that no one could Region im- 
penetrate them. This however appeared impossible ^^^^^^^g^^^ 
to Herodotus, as bees were known to be very im- or frost. 
patient of frost. He was more inclined to believe 
that those regions were uninhabitable through the 
extremity of the cold,^ and therefore he described 
them as an endless desert. Of one people, how- Tiie sigyn- 
ever, beyond the river Herodotus was able to learn Medic co- 
a little. These were the Sigynnes, and their ter- chSiSariv- 
ritory extended nearly to the Eneti on the Adri- i»s- 
atic. Their horses were shaggy all over, having 
hair five digits long ; at the same time they were 
small, flat-nosed, and unable to carry men, but 
when harnessed to chariots were very fleet, and 
therefore the Sigynnes were in the constant practice 
of chariot-driving. The people wore the Medic 
costume, and said that they were a colony of the 
Modes, which Herodotus could not comprehend, 
but, as he says, anything might happen in the 
course of time.^ The Ligyes who lived above Mas- 
salia called traders Sigynnes, whilst the Cyprians 
gave the same name to spears.^ The Hyperboreans 
in the far north, and the river Eridanus from whence 
amber came, have already been noticed.^ 

We now reach the nations bordering on Scythia, Nations 
namely, the Agathyrsi, Neuri, Androphagi, Me- on^scythfa. 
lanchlaeni, Budini and Geloni, and the Sauromatae. 

1. The Agathyrsi, from whose country the river \ Agathyr- 
Maris (or Marosch) flowed into the Ister, ^ were a in'g Tran- 
most luxurious people, and wore a profusion of gold. ^^^^^''''''■ 
They had a community of wives, in order that all 
the people might regard each other as brethren, and 
being all of one family, might not entertain hatred 

1 V. 10. 

^ Some have supposed that the Sigynnes were the forefathers of the 
modern Zingani or gipsies, called by the Germans, Zigenner. The ac- 
count of their horses answers to the description of the Swedish ponies, 
which are still found wild in the woods of Gothland. Cooley, Hist, of 
Maritime and Inland Discovery, vol. i. p. 29. 

3 V. 9. * See pages 16, 22, 159. ^ iv. 49. 

N 2 




CHAP. Till, 

2. Neuri, 
Poland and 

3. Andro- 
phagi, occu- 
pying Smo- 

against each other. In other respects their customs 
resembled those of the Thracians.^ Herodotus evi- 
dently regarded them as being closely related to the 
Sc}7thians, and according to a tradition which he 
preserves, they seem to have been descended from 
Agathjn-sus, the eldest son of Heracles and Echidna .^ 
We may place this people in modern Transylvania, 
which is watered by the upper course of the Maris, 
(or Marosch,) and not very distant from the Thra- 
cians. Being separated from Scythia on the east 
by the Carpathian mountains, they were enabled to 
refuse the Scythians, who were retreating from be- 
fore Darius, an entrance into their country.^ They 
probably obtained their gold from the Carpa- 
thian mountains, but we need not suppose that they 
were at the trouble of working mines, as the metal 
was most likely found in the sand washed down by 
the rivers. 

2. The Neuri observed Scythian customs. One 
generation before the expedition of Darius their land 
produced so many serpents, and so many more came 
down fr-om the desert region above, that they were 
compelled to leave their dwelling and settle amongst 
the Budini, but appear to have subsequently re- 
turned. The men appeared to Herodotus to be 
magicians, for the Scythians and the Hellenic settlers 
in Scythia both said, and even supported their 
assertion by an oath, that once a year every Neu- 
rian became a wolf for a few days, and then re-as- 
sumed his former shape. Herodotus however re- 
fused to believe it.* North of the Neuii was a desert.^ 
Their territory may be placed in the centre of Po- 
land and Lithuania," bounding the Agathyrsi on 
the north-east, and separated from them by the 
Carpathian mountains. 

3. The Andro2')liagi followed the most savage cus- 
toms, and were without justice and without law. 
They were nomades, and wore the same costume as 

1 iv. 104. ^ iv. 7—10. 3 iv. 125. * iv. 10.5. » iv. 17. 
•■' Lithuania comprises the modern Russian governments of Grodno, 
Wihia, and Minsk. 


the Scythians, hut they spoke a peculiar language, Europe. 
and were the only people amongst these tribes who chap. vm. 
were accustomed to eat human flesh. ^ They were 
se23arated from Scythia by a desert, and beyond 
them was another desert.^ Heeren fixes them as far 
north as the Russian government of Smolensk ; and 
though Herodotus was prevented by the cataracts 
from being acquainted with the upper course' of the 
Dnieper, yet this is no reason why he should not 
refer to a people dwelling even beyond its sources. 

4. The Melanchlaeni wore black garments and fol- 4. Meiancii- 
lowed Scythian usages.^ Above them were lakes p^ngOiioff 
and an uninhabited desert as far as Herodotus' s 
knowledge extended.* They may be placed in the 
government of Orloff, between the Dnieper and the 

Don. The names of both the Androphagi and the 
Melanchlaeni were evidently not the peculiar appel- 
lations of the tribes to which they belonged, but 
were derived fr^om their customs and dress — An- 
drojDhagi, or '' men-eaters," and Melanchlaeni, or 
" black-clothed." 

5. The Sauromatae dwelt eastward of the Tanais 5. Sauro- 
(or Don). Their territory commenced three days' cupjingthe 
journey eastward from the Tanais and three days' the Don°^ 
journey northward fr-om the Maeotis,^ and occupied ^TTartof 
the country northward for fifteen days' journey, Astmcan. 
reckoning from the farthest recess of the Maeotis. 

The country was completely destitute of trees.*' The 
people were said to have been descended from the 
offspring of Amazons and Scythian youths, of which 
Herodotus relates an account evidently amplified 
from some old tradition.^ The women in his time 
still retained their ancient customs, such as hunting 
on horseback either with or without their husbands, 
and joining in the wars and wearing the same dress 
as the men.^ The Sauromatae spoke the same lan- 
guage as the Scythians, but always corruptly, because 
the Amazons never learnt it correctly. According to 
their matrimonial laws, no virgin was permitted to 

1 iv. 106. 2 iv_ is_ 3 iv, 107. * iv. 20. 

5 iv. 116. 6 iv, 21. ' iv. 110— 115. « iv. 116. 


EUROPE, marry imtil she had killed an enemy, and conse- 
CHAP. VIII. quently some lived munarried all tlieir days be- 
cause tliey could not satisfy the law.^ It is clear 
fi.'om our author that the Sauromatae occupied the 
steppe which is now inhabited by the Cossacks of 
the Don, and perhaps a part of Astracan besides ; 
and they probably extended northward to the point 
where the Don and the Volga approach the nearest 
to each other. 
6. Budini 6. The Budini dwelt above the Sauromatae, in a 
oc^K^Sg'' country very thickly covered with all sorts of trees.^ 
saratoff. Tlicy wcro a great and numerous people, with clear 
blue eyes and red hair.^ In their country was a square 
wooden town called Grelonus, surrounded by a high 
wooden wall, which was thirty stadia long on every 
side. The houses and sanctuaries were also made of 
wood ; and the town contained temples of the Helle- 
nic gods, adorned after the Hellenic manner with 
wooden images, altars, and shrines.^ The Geloni ce- 
lebrated a festival to Dionysus with Dionysiac accom- 
paniments every three years. Herodotus considered 
them to have been originally Greeks, who having been 
expelled from the Hellenic trading marts, had subse- 
quently settled amongst the Budini ; and indeed their 
language was partly Scythian and partly Hellenic.^, 
On the other hand, the Budini spoke a different lan- 
guage, and led altogether a different kind of life. 
They were aborigines of the country, and nomades, 
and were the only people in those regions who 
were accustomed to eat lice ; whereas the Ge- 
loni were tillers of the soil, fed upon bread, and 
differed from the Budini both in form and complex- 
ion. In spite however of these points of difference, 

1 iv. 117. - iv. 21. 

* Commentators hold difierent opinions upon this passage. Baehr 
and others understand that the Budini painted their bodies a vivid blue 
and red. Others, amongst whom are Mannert, Heeren, and Bobrik, 
suppose that the blue eyes and red hair, characteristic of the north, are 
referred to; and this latter opinion I have followed. 

* This establishment was no doubt founded by the Hellenic colonists 
on the Pontus as a staple for the fur trade. Cf. Heeren, Asiat. Nat. vol. 
ii. p. 28. 

s iv. 108. 



the Budini were still called Geloni by the Greeks.' europe. 
The country, as already said, was covered with trees, chap^vih. 
and in the thickest wood* was a large and spacious 
lake surrounded by moorland and reeds. Otters and 
beavers were caught here, and other animals with 
four-sided faces, ^ whose skins were sewn round the 
borders of cloaks, and whose testes were useful in 
curing diseases of the womb.^ 

The settlements of the Budini evidently began 
where the territory of the Sauromatae ended, and 
we may therefore place them in the government of 
Saratoff, and they may have extended to the river 
Don at Voronez. Herodotus calls them a great and 
numerous people, and there is no doubt but that 
their territory was very considerable.^ 

III. On entering Eastern Europe we find our- m- |ast- 
selvesin the track of the caravan route, which proba- kope. 
bly commenced at Olbia, and went over the Tanais ^^n k 
into the country of the Budini on the banks of the 
Volga ; and perhaps a preliminary sketch of the pro- 

^ Ritter refers back their Hellenic customs, and their worship of Dio- 
nysus, to their Asiatic originals ; and deriving their name from Buddha, 
boldly brings them to the support of his theory respecting the great pri- 
meval migi-ation from India and central Asia to the shores of the Maeo- 
tis, and to northern Europe. 

* Sea-dogs (phocae vitulinae) inhabit the lakes of Siberia, and Heeren 
has no doubt but that these are the animals which Herodotus had in 
view, as the surprising size of their heads justifies the expression he has 
employed in defining them. There is however no more occasion for our 
here making rtTpaydjvog to signify a quadrate than in the case of Scythia. 
Some people wear peculiarly fashioned boots, which earn for them the 
title of " square toes ; " in the same way possibly that the angular expres- 
sion of these animals induced om* author to describe them as rerpayojvo- 

3 iv. 109. 

* Heeren remarks, that if we admit it to have been equal in extent to 
the ten-itory of the Sauromatae, it will comprise the present governments 
of Penza, Simbirsk, Kasan, and a part of Perm, and terminate in the 
vicinity of the southern branch of the Ural mountains. These provinces 
now abound in forests of oak, which are the magazines of Russian naval 
architecture ; but the lake cannot be discovered, though, as he describes 
it almost as a morass, it may be observed that the place where we should 
expect to find it, is occupied by marshy grounds, which at certain periods 
tm*n the land into a vast lake. (Heeren, Asiat. Nat. vol. ii. p. 12.) This 
learned author however appears to be himself doubtful whether the 
Budini extended so far north, and would rather place their northern con- 
fines, as I have done, at 54 deg. north lat., so as to leave room for the 
seven days' journey across the desert, and then for the country of the 
Thyssagetae between the Budini and the Ural chain. See p. 185. 



Olbia the 

Ti-aclo in 


EUROPE, bable character of tlie commerce, may throw addition- 
CHAP. Yin. al interest around the geography of these regions. 
Character of '^^^^ Grreck colonics on the Black Sea had, by their 
the com- bold enterprise and commercial activity, opened a 
line of commmiications with the distant interior, and 
at length monopolized all the productions of the 
north and east. The city of Olbia, situated at the 
mouth of the Dnieper, (or Borysthenes,) near the site 
of the modern Kherson, was the most considerable 
settlement, and probably the emporium of trade. The 
Scythians of the Ukrain, of whom Herodotus especial- 
ly mentions the Alazones, cultivated corn not only 
for food, but for the purposes of commerce,^ and this 
necessary commodity would be in great demand at 
Athens, whose territory was over-j^opulated for its 
means of supply. Again, the countries on the north 
and east of the Euxine were inexhaustible maga- 
zines for the slave trade. The name of Scythian 
became synonymous with the word slave, and 
amongst the nations of Mount Caucasus prisoners of 
war were invariably sold in the Greek markets. 
Another lucrative branch of commerce was the trade 
in furs. The use of fars was nearly general amongst 
the Thracian tribes and the nations bordering on 
the Euxine,^ and a considerable trade was likewis e 
carried on amongst the people east of the Caspian, 
and inhabitants of northern Asia. Furs have indeed 
been considered in all times as articles of necessity 
in the inclement regions of the north, and as articles 
of luxury and ornament in the warmer climes of the 
voluptuous south. Cloaks of fur were worn in Ba- 
bylon, and furs are to be seen amongst the presents 
of the Persian governors to the great king, as repre- 
sented on the relief of Persepolis. The Budini, whom 
we have already noticed, and the Thyssagetae and 
Jyrcac, whom we have yet to mention, are all de- 
scribed as nations of hunters, and from them, with- 


1 iv. 17. 

^ The Thracians wore caps of fox-skin and boots of fur (iv. 17)- The 
Scythians and Melanchlaeni used cloaks of the same material. Cf. Hee- 
ren, Asia, vol. ii. p. 23. 


out doubt, the Greek merchants obtained this com- Europe. 
modity. But the traffic in corn, slaves, or fars, would chap. ym. 
never alone have induced the Greeks to take such long 
and perilous journeys into the interior as are de- 
scribed by our author. There was another article. Gold from 
which in all ages has excited the cupidity of man- aid aiL 
kind, and exercised the most potent rule. Gold was mouutains. 
procured in great quantity and with little difficulty 
from the Ural mountains and those of Altai ; and we 
find many of the barbarous nations possessing this 
metal in great abundance. 

The OTcat caravan route will be best described by Route 

& . . - , p /I 7 northward 

exactly following m the order ot our author s narra- from the 
tive, first recording his observation, that the Scy- ^^'^"^'• 
thians who performed the journey carried on their 
affau-s in seven different languages, and therefore 
required the same number of interpreters.^ 

Further north beyond the Budini was first a de- Desert of ^ 
sert of seven days' journey in extent,^ which we may Joumey^^ 
presume extended through the governments of Sim- g^Sk^ 
birsk and Kasan as far as the southern confines of andKasan. 

Beyond the desert the route turned somewhat ^°^':'^g *^'J; 
towards the east, and entered the country of the east. 
Thyssagetae, a numerous and distinct people who '^^y^^ 
lived by hunting.^ Four great rivers rose amongst Perm. 
the Thyssagetae, and flowed into the lake Maeotis, 
namely, the Lycus, Oarus, Tanais, and Syrgis.* ^ 
On the river Oarus Darius commenced building eight 
large forts,^ each sixty stadia distant from the other, 
but he left them half finished, and there the ruins 

1 iy. 24. ^ iv. 21. ^ iy. 22. * iv. 123. 

5 It is impossible, with the exception of the Tanais or Don, to identify 
these rivers in modern geography. The Oarus was perhaps the Volga, 
and perhaps one of the others was the Ural, but then both of these rivers 
discharge themselves into the Caspian, and not into the Maeotis, which 
Herodotus distinctly states, though he could not have been so well ac- 
quainted with the coast and with the lower courses of the rivers as he was 
with the upper courses. Mannert supposes the Lycus, Oarus, and Syrgis to 
be respectively the Volga, Uzen, and Ural : Rennell supposes the Oarus 
to be the Volga, and the Lycus and Syrgis to be the Medveditza and Kho- 
per, which fall into the Don. 

^ Dahlmann has pointed out the difficulty in believing that Darius 
really advanced as far as the river Oarus, and whether we identify this river 






Jyvcae on 
the Ural 

exiles occu- 
pying To- 

remained until the time of Herodotus.' The country 
of the Thyssagetae must have been included in the 
government of Perm. 

Contiguous to the Thyssagetae, and in the same 
region, which was very thickly wooded, dwelt the 
Jyrcae, a nation who lived by hunting, and practised 
it in the following manner. The huntsman climbed 
a tree, and stood there in ambush, whilst his horse 
and dog were ready beneath, the horse having been 
trained to lie on its belly so that it might not be 
seen above the ground. When the man saw any 
game he shot an arrow, threw himself upon his horse, 
and followed the game with his dog.^ Eastward of 
the Jyrcae were some Scythians who had revolted 
from the Royal Scythians, and settled here. The 
whole country is described as level, and possessing 
a deep soil ; but beyond the region becomes stony 
and rugged.'' This '' stony and rugged " country of 
the Jyrcae and Scythian colonists seems to have ex- 
tended into the interior of the Ural mountains, and 
perhaps comprehended part of the government of 
Perm on the western side, and of Tobolsk on the 
eastern. The whole territory has been always cele- 
brated for those animals which furnish the most 
valuable furs, and these are found in the greatest 
numbers on the eastern slopes.* 

After passing through a considerable extent of this 
pf the Altai mountaiiious country, the caravan would reach the 
mountains, ^rgippaei, wlio livcd at the foot of lofty mountains,^ 

with the Volga or the Uzen, it seems impossible for the Persian army in 
sixty clays to have twice marched, and by the worst possible road, from 
the mouths of the Ister to the province of Saratoff, a distance of certainly 
not much less than a thousand English miles. The fortresses may have 
been standing in the time of Herodotus, but it is a very great question 
whether Darius built them. The Scythian accounts of this expedition, 
which Herodotus probal)ly collected at Olbia, and upon which he based 
his own naiTative, must have led him into considerable exaggeration upon 
the subject. This however would only affect the history of the expedi- 
tion, and not the geogi-aphy of the country. Cf. Dahlmann, Life of 
Herod, chap. vii. sect. .5. 

' iv. 124. 2 iy_ 22. 3 iv. 23. 

■* Heeren, quoting fi-om Lchrberg, furnishes some useful and interest- 
ing jiarticulars concerning the Jyrcae. Asiat. Nat. ii. p. 2S. 

^ The caravan route now appears to have turned towards the south or 
south-east along the Ural chain as far as the Kirghis steppe. 

at the foot 


and were all, both men and women, bald from their Europe. 
birth, and had flat noses and large chins. They ^»^^- ^"^- 
spoke a peculiar language, but wore the Scythian 
costume. Their diet chiefly consisted of the fruit of 
a tree named Ponticon, which was about the same 
size as the fig tree. The fruit it produced was simi- 
lar to beans, only with a stone inside. Wlien this 
fruit was ripe the natives beat it through cloths, 
upon which a thick black liquor was strained out, 
called Aschy. This they sucked, or took mixed with 
milk; and from the mass of fruit remaining after 
this process they made a sort of cake, which formed 
their principal food. They had very little cattle, 
for their pastures were not good. Each man dwelt 
under a tree, over which, in the winter-time, he 
spread a white and thick covering of felt cloth. 
This tribe was accounted sacred, and no one would 
do them any injury, and they themselves possessed 
no implements of war. They arbitrated in the dis- 
putes of the neighboming nations, and whoever took 
refage amongst them had nothing to fear from any 

Herodotus is here so explicit that we have no dif- identmca- 

. r, -n . -FT 1 ji • • 1 j_*i!_ tion ot the 

ficulty m following Heeren and others m identity- Argippaei 
ing the Argippaei with part of the Calmucks, a prin- cawL. 
cipal branch of the Mongols. Their abodes must 
have been in the western part of Great Mongolia, 
probably in the northern part of the Khirgis steppe, 
between the Ural and Altai mountains. The descrip- 
tion — " lofty mountains," scarcely suits the Ural, but 
we can hardly expect an author, when dealing in 
loose hearsay information, to be very exact in par- 
ticulars of this kind. Indeed, the expression, "at 
the foot of lofty mountains," seems like a little poetic 
feeling, or fancy painting, thrown in to assist the 
reader in his conception of a sacred race with bald 
heads, a venerable tribe of peace-makers, whose pri- 
mitive homes beneath the trees could afford shelter 
and safety to the darkest criminal. The fruit which 
formed their diet was probably the birds' cherry, the 

1 iv. 23. 





north of the 
occupied by 
men with 
goats' feet 
and people 
■who slept 
for six 
mouths at a 

tion of the 


route con- 
The Isse- 

Prunus Padus of Linnaeus, wliicli the Calmucks still 
eat in almost tlie same manner that Herodotus de- 
scribes. They dress the berries with milk, then 
press them in a sieve, and afterwards form them into 
a thick mass, which is called "moisun chat;" a 
small piece of which, mixed with water, makes a 
nutricious and palatable soup. The people still live 
in tents, or moveable huts, called kybitkas, but make 
them in a more artificial manner ; and, indeed, it 
would almost appear that Herodotus had made some 
mistake about the trees which supported the felt cover- 
ing, as there are very few to be found in this region. 

The country and nations as far as the Argippaei 
were well known to Herodotus, and he acknowledged 
that he found it easy to obtain his information, both 
from the Scythians who went there and from the 
Greeks on the Pontus.^ But of the region north of 
the Argippaei no one, he says, can speak with cer- 
tainty ; for lofty and impassable mountains (the Al- 
tai) formed their boundary. The Argippaei, how- 
ever, said that these mountains were inhabited by 
men who had goats' feet, and that beyond them were 
2oeople who slept for six months at a time ; but all 
these stories our author rejected as incredible.^ 

The inaccessible mountains are evidently the Altai 
chain which bounds southern Siberia. The tradi- 
tion of men with goats' feet is one of those stories 
which are often told of distant countries, and espe- 
cially of Siberia;^ whilst in the other tradition, of 
the men who slept for six months in the year, we 
can perceive a glimmering of real truth, inasmuch 
as we know that the polar regions continue for six 
months without the light of the sun.* 

But to return to the caravan route. Eastward 
from the Argippaei dwelt the Issedones, who ob- 
served the following customs.^ Wlien a man lost 
his father all his relations brought small cattle, Idlled 

' iv. 24. '^ iv. 2.5. 

^ Proljahly the furs by which the Siberians secure their joints, and 
especially their knees, a^^ainst the frost, may have procured for the moun- 
taineers of the Ural the epithet " goat-footed." 

* Cf. Hceren, Asiaf. Nat. vol. ii. p. 15. ' ' iv. 25. 


them, and cut up the flesh, together with the dead Europe. 
body of the parent, and then mingled the whole to- chap, vm. 
gether and had it served up for a dinner. The head 
of the corpse, however, was stripped, cleaned, and 
gilded ; and the relatives afterwards regarded it as a 
most sacred object, and performed great sacrifices to 
it every year; for the Issedones, like the Greeks, 
celebrated the anniversary of their father's death. 
The people generally were accounted to be just in 
their dealings, and they gave to their women equal 
power and authority with the men.' The Issedones Arimaspi. 
said that above them were the jDCople with one eye, 
called the Arimaspi, which account was repeated by 
the Scythians, and from them adopted by the Greeks, 
who called these one-eyed people by the Scythian 
name of Arimaspi : arima being Scythian for " one," 
and spou for "eye." There also were the gold- 
guarding grypes, or griffins.^ Herodotus here takes Ooid- 
occasion to remark, that towards the northern part friffins?^ 
of Europe there was certainly a great quantity of 
gold, but how it was procured he was unable to 
state with certainty, though some people said that 
the Arimaspi stole it from the griffins. Herodotus, 
however, did not believe that there were men born 
with one eye and yet in other respects resembling 
the rest of mankind.^ The Hyperboreans in the far 
north we have already noticed.* ^ 

1 iv. 26. 2 iv. 27. 8 iii. 116. * See p. 159. 

^ Heeren places the Issedones in that part of Mongolia now occupied 
by the Sungarees, and extends them to the ancient Serica. On the other 
hand, the recent discoveries of gold in the Ural mountains have induced 
some commentators to follow the opinion of Reichard, that the seat of the 
Issedones must be refen-ed to the Ural and not to the Altai. A disquisi- 
tion on this subject would, however, lead to no satisfactory result. Doubt- 
less a vast quantity of gold must have been obtained both from the Ural 
and the Altai, for how otherwise are we to account for the prodigious quan- 
tities of this precious metal which have existed in central Asia both in 
ancient and modern times. The thrones of princes, the furniture of pa- 
laces, the vessels for the royal table, have all been fashioned of massive 
gold, fi-om the days of Solomon downwards ; and we might almost sup- 
pose that monarchs must have bought up the gold in every part of their 
dominions to dazzle the eyes of their subjects, did we not find satraps 
and inferior officers, together with private individuals, possessed of im- 
mense wealth (Herod, i. 192 ; vii. 27). We shall presently find that a 
pastoral nation of eastern Asia (the Massagetae) made its utensils chiefly 
of gold. (i. 215. Cf, also Heeren, Asiat. Nat. vol. i. pp. 26 — 31.) 


EUROPE. Such then is the information we can gather con- 
cHAP. Tin. cerning this ancient route. We now approach the 
Nations on Continental frontier towards Asia. Here were set- 
SwSds*'^^ tied two nations, namely, the people of Mount Cau- 
Asia. casus north of the river Phasis, or Rhion, and the 

Massagetae on the northern bank of the river Araxes, 
or Jaxartes, and over-against the Issedones. A de- 
scription of these barbarous tribes will conclude the 
geograj^hy of the Europe of Herodotus. 
General dc- Tlic Caucasus is au cxtensivc mountain range 
Mount ^° running fr^om the north-eastern shore of the Black 
Caucasus. Q^^ ^^ x|^g westcm coast of the Caspian. It is 750 
miles in length, and therefore about as long as the 
Alps, and its breadth varies from Q5 to 150 miles. 
The central portion forms some of the highest moun- 
tains in the world. The huge rocky mass of Elburz 
rises to an elevation of 16,800 feet, whilst that of 
Kasbek, which is nearer the Caspian, is about 14,400 
feet in height. The snow line varies from 10,000 
to 11,000 feet above the sea. One-third of Elburz 
is therefore always covered with ice and snow, and a 
considerable portion of the other summits and ridges. 
Glaciers are common, as in the Alps, and there is a 
strong resemblance between the scenery of both 
mountain systems, excepting that the Caucasus does 
not possess the great mountain lakes which distin- 
guish the Alpine range. Two roads traverse the 
Caucasian chain, namely, the Pass of Derbend and 
the Pass of Dariel, which were both known to Hero- 
Hcrodotus's Mouut Caucasus was the largest and loftiest of 
the°mmin- all tlic mountaius known to Herodotus. It was in- 
pS)k '^ habited by numerous tribes, who mostly lived on the 
produce of wild fr-uit trees. Other trees grew there 
whose leaves, if ruljbed and mixed with water, served 
for dyeing. The natives used the dye for painting 
figures on their garments; and the colours could never 
be washed out, but were as fast as if they had been 
woven in with the woollen material. Their man- 
ners must have been Ijrutalized in the extreme, for 

' Sec the account of the Scythian pursuit of the Cimmerians, p. 155. 


we are told that they were as insensible as cattle to Europe. 
all laws of decency or morality.^ chap. vnf. 

Eastward of the Caspian Sea was the vast plain or The Mas- 
steppe at present inhabited by the Kirghis Tartars, ^agetae. 
The greatest portion of this steppe belonged to the 
Massagetae,^ a tall and valiant people, who lived to- 
wards the east beyond the river Araxes, (or Jaxartes 
— ^the modern Sirr-deria,) and over-against the Isse- 
dones.^ Under this name of Massagetae our author 
seems to include all the nomade tribes of Independ- 
ent Tartary eastward of the lake Aral, and extend- 
ing into Mongolia southward of the Issedones. 

By some persons the Araxes was said to be larger, Herodotus*s 
but by others to be smaller, than the Ister. Persons ofthe^riTCr 
said also that it surrounded many islands, of which ^^^^^^s. 
some were nearly as large as Lesbos,* and that these 
islands were inhabited by men, who during the sum- 
mer fed upon roots which they dug out of the 
ground, and at the same time gathered the ripe fruits 
from the trees, and stored them up for winter con- 
sumption. One species of this tree fruit possessed 
wonderful qualities, which were thus exhibited. The 
people used to assemble together in parties, and 
kindle a fire, and sit in a circle round it ; they then 
threw the fruit into the flames, and became as in- 
toxicated with the fumes as the Grreeks were with 
wine, and finally begun to dance and sing.^ The 
river rose from forty springs in the mountains of 
Matiene, all of which lost themselves in fens and 
swamps, except one that flowed on to the Caspian, 
in the direction of the rising sun.*^ These swamps 
were said to be inhabited by men who lived upon 
raw fish and clothed themselves in the skins of sea- 

1 i. 203. 2 i. 204. 3 1. 201. 

* The Araxes v/as probably considered larger than the Ister, because 
it contained such large islands ; but smaller, because Herodotus appa- 
rently thought that it did not flow through so great an extent of countiy 
as the Ister. See Niebuhr, Diss, on the Geoff, of Herod, p. 26. I would 
suggest that it was the western Araxes, or the Aras, which was thought 
to be smaller than the Ister, and the eastern and northern Araxes, or the 
Jaxartes'and Volga, which were supposed to be larger than the Ister. 

5 i. 202. 6 iv. 40. ' i. 202. 





tion of the 

and customs 

The term Araxes was probably a general appella- 
tion, meaning simply any "rapid" stream. The de- 
scription seems in most cases to apply to the river 
now called Aras, which rises in the momitains of Ar- 
menia, and flows in an easterly direction into the Cas- 
pian. Two other rivers are also evidently noticed 
by Herodotus mider the same name of Araxes. The 
Massagetae, are described as living with the Araxes 
on their southern frontier, and Cyrus had to cross 
this river before he could invade their country.^ At 
the same time this people had another river called 
Araxes, to the north of their territory, for when they 
drove out the Scythians who had anciently occupied 
this region, the latter had to cross the Araxes, on 
their way round the northern shores of the Caspian, 
before they could reach Cimmeria, afterwards Scy- 
thia Proper.^ The southern Araxes is therefore ge- 
nerally identified with the Jaxartes, or modern Sirr- 
deria, whilst the northern Araxes may be suj)posed 
to be the Volga. The confasion which always at- 
tends the use of any general name, unless some dis- 
tinguishing mark is adopted, has not only perplexed 
many modern commentators, but also probably led 
to some confusion on the part of Herodotus himself, 
for his description, already given at length, although 
generally applying to the Aras, would yet seem, fr-om 
its being included in the geography of the coun- 
tries east of the Caspian, to apply to the river Jax- 
artes. E-ennell thinks that Herodotus has confounded 
the Jaxartes with the Oxus, as he applies the parti- 
culars to one river, which refer to botli.^ We are, how- 
ever, more disposed to think that the confusion lay 
between the Aras and Jaxartes, especially as Heeren 
has pointed out that Herodotus distinctly refers to 
the river Oxus under the name of the river Aces."* 

The Massagetae were said by some to be a Scy- 

' i. 201,205. - iv. 11. 

■■^ Renncll, Geoc/. of Jlcrod. vol. i. p. 270. The Jaxartes certainly did 
not discharge itself into (he Caspian, but into the Aral, whilst, at that pe- 
riod, the Oxus did perhaps cmi)ty itself into the Caspian, as described by 
Herodotus. This part of the descrijjtion may however refer to the Aras. 

^ iii. 117. Cf. ITccren, Ania, vol. ii. p. 20. 


thian nation, ^ wliom they resembled in their dress and europe. 
manner of living. They had both cavalry and in- chap. vm. 
fantry, archers and spear-men ; and also carried ^TthTn^ 
battle-axes. They employed gold and brass, of which sagetae. 
they had great abundance, for everything they used. 
Spears, arrow-heads, and battle-axes, they made of 
brass, but they decorated their helmets, belts, and 
shoulder-pieces with gold. The breastplates on 
their horses were also made of brass, but the bridle 
bit and cheek pieces were ornamented with gold. 
Silver and iron they never used, for neither of these 
metals could be found in their country.^ Each man 
married a wife, but they all totally disregarded the 
marriage tie. The custom which the Greeks incor- 
rectly attributed to the Scythians, was practised by 
this nation without shame. Whenever a Massagetan 
desired the company of a female, he merely hung up 
his quiver in front of a chariot or waggon, to prevent 
any interruption. The people fixed no prescribed 
limit to the extent of human life, but when a man 
grew to be very old, his kindred assembled and sa- 
crificed him, together with cattle of various kinds ; 
and having hashed the whole together, they boiled 
the flesh and feasted upon it.^ This death they uni- 
versally accounted to be the happiest, and those who 
died of disease were buried in the earth, lamenting 
in their dying hour that they could not live long 
enough to be sacrificed. The Massagetae sowed no 
grain, but entirely subsisted upon their own herds of 
cattle, and upon the fish which the river Araxes 
abundantly supplied. Their principal, if not their 
sole, drink was milk. Of gods they worshipped only 
the Sun, to whom they sacrificed horses, thinking it 
right to offer the swiftest of creatures to Helios, the 
swiftest of gods.* 

The Massagetae and Issedones both belonged to 
the great Mongol race, and were undoubtedly Scy- 

1 i. 201. 2 i. 215. 

3 This custom seems to have been nearly the same as that followed by 
their neighbom's the Issedones, only it is diflFerently described. The 
Issedones ate their fathers, who however died a natm-al death ; but the 
Massagetae killed and then feasted upon all their old men. * i. 216. 


EUROPE, tliians. The princi^oal points of similarity between 
CHAP. viii. the Massagetae and the Scythians, so called by 
Herodotus, were their di-ess and living ; ' their abode 
in waggons or carriages ; ^ their fighting on horse- 
back ; ^ and their sacrifices of horses to their 


1 i. 215. 2 i, 216. Comp. iv. 46, 121. 

3 i. 215. Comp. iv. 46, 136. * i. 216. Comp. iv. 61. 




Two gi-eat mountain ranges of Asia : the Altai, and the Taurus or plateau 
of Iran. — Rivers of Asia. — Separation of the continent into three divisions. 
— Extent of the Asia of Herodotus. — Discoveries of Scylax of Caryanda. 
— Herodotus's own map of Asia.^ — The fom- central nations.- — The two 
western Actae : Asia Minor ; Syria and Libya. — Ancient division of Asia 
between the Lydians, Babylonians, and Medes. — Establishment of the 
Persian empire of Cyrus. — Division into twenty satrapies by Darius Hys- 
taspes. — Extent of Herodotus's travels in Asia. — His general acquaint- 
ance with Phoenicia and Asia Minor._ — Visit to Babylon. — Travels along 
the great highway between Sardis and Susa. — Visit to Ecbatana very 
doubtful. — Examination of the list of twenty satrapies. — Reasons for in- 
cluding distant tribes in the same satrapy. — General want of geographi- 
cal order arising from Herodotus's ignorance of the more distant satrapies. 
— Catalogue of nations in the army and navy of Xerxes.— Value of a 
comparison of the catalogue with the list of satrapies. — Catalogue to be 
further digested in a future chapter. — Topography of the languages of 
Asia. — Languages of Asia Minor from the Aegean to the Halys. — Se- 
mitic dialects between the Halys and Tigris, — Persian dialects between 
the Tigris and Indus. — Conclusion. 

The continent of Asia, according to the division asia. 
of modern geographers, comprises an area five times '="^^'- ^• 
greater than that of Europe, and nearly a fourth Two great 
larger than that of Africa. It is divided into three mountain 
parts by two vast mountain ranges, which stretch Asia. 
across it from west to east, and form by their ramifi- 
cations to the north and south the skeleton of the 
whole country. The first of these ranges is called The Altai. 
the Altai chain, and begins at the sources of the 
rivers Sirr-deria and Irtish,^ and traverses southern 

^ Heeren thought that the Altai was connected with the Ural {Asia, 
vol. i. p. 4) ; but an immense mass of low country separates the western 
extremity of the former from the southern ranges of the latter. 

o 2 


ASIA. Siberia to the shores of the Pacific, becoming wider 
CHAP. 1. and sending out more considerable ramifications 
The Taurus ^^ it approachcs the east. The other range, under 
or plateau the general name of Taurus, was far better known 
to the ancients.^ It commences in Asia Minor, 
and stretches through Armenia and the countries 
south and south-east of the Caspian, until it ap- 
proaches the sources of the Indus. Here it divides 
into two princii^al branches, one running towards 
the north-east, and the other towards the south- 
east, thus enclosing the great sandy desert of Gobi or 
Shamo.^ The northern branch formed part of the 
ancient Imaus, and now goes by the name of Belur- 
tagh,^ or mountains of Kashgar, and at length unites 
itself with the Altai chain on the borders of Siberia. 
The southern branch was comprehended by the an- 
cients, as far as known, under the general name of 
Paropamisus, and was probably also considered as a 
part of the Imaus ; at present it is known as the 
Hindoo Koosh and Himalayas. It protects Hindos- 
tan on the north, and, passing through Thibet, loses 
itself in central China near the shores of the Pacific. 
Rivers of Tlic couTscs of thcsc great chains also determine 
those of the rivers. From the southern slopes of 
Taurus the Euphrates, Tigris, and Indus flow to- 
wards the Persian and Indian Oceans ; whilst from 
the northern declivities the Jihoon or Oxus, and the 

1 Strabo says that the Taui-us chain extended through the whole con- 
tinent from west to east, with a breadth in many places of 3000 stadia. 
This seems to indicate the great plateau of Iran, which we shall have 
occasion to describe in the third chapter of the present division ; the 
courses of the Tam-us Proper and the Anti-Taurus will be distinguished 
in the chapter on Asia Minor. 

2 Gobi in the Mongolic language signifies "a desert:" Shamo is the 
Chinese for " sand-sea." 

3 The name of Eolor or Belur Tagh is a corruption of the Turkish 
words Beloot Tagh, or " cloudy mountain." The writer in the Penny 
Cyclopaedia (art. liolor) says that it is called by the natives Tartash 
Tagh ; but Elphinstone, in his account of Cabul, says that he knows of 
no general name applied by the people of Turkestan to this range. The 
name of Belur-Tagh rests on the authority of Marco Polo, and the Ara- 
bian geographer Nasir Eddin, but an examination of the passages in 
which it is refeiTed to, renders it evident that the name is imperfectly 
applied, and it is uncertain whether it can be applied to any mountain 
range at all. 



Sirr-deria or Jaxartes, take a westerly direction asia. 
through Independent Tartary into the Sea of Aral, chap. i. 
though it is certain that the Oxus, and perhaps the 
Jaxartes also, formerly reached the Caspian. 

The two mountain chains separate Asia into three Separation 
grand divisions. First, the northernmost portion, tinentinto 
under the name of Siberia, extends from the back of ^^^^^ ^^'''' 
the Altai ridge to the Arctic Ocean, and was un- 
known to the ancients, except by the dim light of tra- 
ditionary legend.^ Secondly, the vast and elevated 
tract of level steppes enclosed between the Altai 
and Tauric ranges, and partly filled up by those 
mountains, extends from the Caspian to the Pacific 
under the names of Mongolia and Tartary.^ Third- 
ly, the great southern division, comprehending the 
plateau of Iran, and including Asia Minor, extends 
in the form of a vast continent as far south as the 
tropic of Cancer, and then terminates in the three 
great peninsulas of Arabia, Hindostan, and Malacca. 

The Asia of Herodotus comprised but little more Extent of 
than a fourth of the entire continent. The northern Herodotus. 
half was assigned to Europe, and the eastern half of 
the remainder was totally unknown. On the north, 
as"]we have already seen,^ it was bounded by the 
river Phasis, the Caspian Sea, and the eastern Araxes 
or Jaxartes ; * and on the east by the great desert of 
Gobi, and the sandy waste stretching from Moultan 
to Guzerat.^ On the south it was washed by the 
Erythraean. The western boundary, which separ- 
ated it from Libya, or rather from the modern con- 

1 The story of the men who lived on the Altai mountains and had 
goats' feet, (Herod, iv. 25,) and the tradition of the people who slept for 
six months in the year, (ibid.) evidently refer to this Siberian region. 
The former story possibly referred to the warm boots of fm- and extra- 
ordinary activity of the mountaineers of the Altai ; whilst in the latter 
we can perceive a ray of truth, inasmuch as we know that the polar re- 
gions continue for six months, more or less, without having the light of 
the sun. 

2 The confusion between the names of Tartars and Mongols has been 
already pointed out by Heeren. They are distinct races. The principal 
tenitory of the former lies to the north, and that of the latter to the 
south, of the Sirr-deria or Jaxartes, which thus forms the proper limit of 
the two races. 

3 See pp. 16, 17. * iv. 45. « iv. 40. 


ASIA, tinent of Africa/ requires some little explanation. 
CHAP. I. ]3y r^ reference to the geography of Arabia in tlie 
present volume, it will be seen that Herodotus con- 
sidered the Arabian Gulf to be little more than a 
river, being probably misled by supposing that the 
entire gulf was nowhere broader than at the western 
arm, or Gulf of Suez*, which was the only part with 
which he was apparently acquainted. Judging, 
therefore, fr'om the physical character of the soil, he 
considered Arabia to include a territory on both 
sides of the Arabian Gulf, and to embrace the moun- 
tainous ridge which extends from north to south 
along the eastern side of the valley of the Nile. 
The western boundary of Asia would thus be formed 
by the Aegyptian frontier, near Suez, and the Ara- 
bian fi'ontier, along the eastern edge of the Nile 
Discoveries The discovories in eastern Asia were the results 
caiyLda." of an exploring expedition sent out by Darius Hys- 
taspes. This monarch was desirous of knowing the 
sj^ot where the river Indus, the second river that 
j)roduces crocodiles,^ discharges itself into the sea. 
He accordingly fitted out some ships, and sent some 
scientific men, on whom he could rely for bringing 
back a true report. Scylax of Caryanda appears, fi'om 
the especial mention of his name, to have been at the 
head of the expedition. Scylax and his companions 
embarked at the city of Caspatyrus (or Cabul) and 
the country of Pactyica. They sailed from the river 
eastwards until they reached the open sea, at which 
point they changed their course, and proceeded in 

^ It w\\\ be seen in the introduction to the geography of Africa, that 
the name Libya appears to have two significations : 1. Libya Proper^ 
or the nations of northern Africa westward of Aegypt. 2. The Libyan 
continent, which embraced all that was known of the continent of Afiica, 
and included Aegypt and Aethiopia as well as Libya Proper. 

2 The Nile was considered to be the first river that contained croco- 
diles. It is related that when Alexander the Great saw crocodiles in the 
Indus, he conceived a notion that this river was connected with the 
Nile, and that its navigation downwards would conduct into Aegypt. 
This anecdote however is hardly credible, though frequently repeated. 
The general arrangement of his plans both in Aegypt and India bespeak 
a share of geographical infoi-mation totally irreconcilable with such a 
blunder. Cooley, Hist, nf Maritime and Inland Discovery, vol. i. p. 59. 


a westerly direction, and at length, in the thirtieth asia. 
month of their voyage, reached the port from chap. i. 
whence the Aegyptian Neco despatched the Phoe- 
nicians to circumnavigate Libya. ^ This city of 
Caspatyrus, Heeren considers to be the same as 
Cabul, which is situated on a western tributary of 
the Indus, ^ and this tributary does really flow in an 
easterly course for some distance, as Herodotus de- 
scribes. We need scarcely add that our author was 
mistaken in supposing that the Indus itself flowed 
from west to east. Perhaps Scylax reported that 
the entire river took this course for the sake of en- 
hancing the merit of his voyage by increasing its 
supposed distance. How the ships were carried to 
Caspatyrus Plerodotus does not inform us. 

Our author's notions of Asia generally may be Herodotus's 
best derived from the following survey. Between IliL™^^ 
the Erythraean on the south and the Pontus Euxinus 
of the north, he describes four great nations, which The four 
he evidently regarded as the kernel of Asia, viz. the tfons. 
Colchians on the north, then the Saspeires, next the 
Modes, and lastly the Persians.^ From this central 
territory two actae* projected toward the west. One 

1 iv. 44. 

2 Heeren, Asia, vol. i. p. 189. This author also considers that the 
name of Pactyica is preserved in that of Pokua, though he thinks that 
the limits of the ancient territory may have extended northwards as far 
as Budakshan, and southwards as far as Pakholy. The writer of the 
article on Caspat}Tus in Dr. Smith's Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Geog. follows 
the opinion that this city refers to Cashmere ; because the Sanscrit name 
of Kashmir is Kasyapa pur, which, condensed to Kaspapur, gives us the 
form Ka(nrcnrvpoQ, which is found in Hecataeus ; and in this case Scylax 
would have started on the Jelum tributary, and probably at the lake 
Ooller. If, however, we were to adopt this view we should find no por- 
tion of the river flowing from west to east; but perhaps the most fatal ob- 
jection to this theory would lie in the extreme improbability that Scylax 
should not have stopped at the Indus, but have crossed over the main 
stream, and still held on his journey over-land to the Jelum. 

3 iv. 37. 

4 An acte is a piece of land jutting out a considerable distance into 
the sea, and having only one side joining the main-land. A chersonesus 
is a peninsula properly so called. This is Niebuhr's definition, but 
Dahlmann makes some exceptions to it. The peninsula of Athos, which 
is joined to the continent only by a narrow strip of land, is commonly 
called Acte (Thucyd. iv. 109). But Herodotus calls that mountain Cher- 
sonesus (vii. 22). The Thracian peninsula on the Hellespont (in what 
respect different fi-om the other ?) is commonly called Chersonesus. 

The two 


ASIA, acte, tlie modern Asia Minor, began on the north at 
CKAP. 1. the river Phasis, and stretched along the Euxine 
and Hellespont to the Trojan Sigaemn ; on the south 
it commenced at the Mariandrian Gulf, now called 
Asia Minor, the Gulf of Scandcroon, near Phoenicia, and stretch- 
' ed into the sea, as far as the Triopian promontory. 
This tract was occupied by thirty different nations.^ 
It was almost divided from the great central terri- 
tory by the river Halys, (or Kizil-Irmak,) which 
flowed nearly across the isthmus or neck of the acte, 
between the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, oppo- 
site Cyprus, and the Pontus Euxinus. Herodotus 
calculates the isthmus to be five days' journey across 
if taken by a well-girt man,^ or about 1000 stadia, 
reckoning the day's journey at 200 stadia.^ 
Syria and Tho othor acto rcaclied to the Erythraean Sea, 
^'^^*" and comprised Persia, Syria, and Arabia, and then, 
according to one statement, it terminated at the 
Arabian Gulf; * but if it is extended farther it may 
be made to include Libya also.^ From Persia as far 
as Phoenicia this acte was wide and open, but at 
Phoenicia it began to stretch out into the Medi- 
terranean.*' ^ 

The following little ground plan will perhaps 
serve to illustrate the idea of Herodotus. 

1 iv. 38. 2 i. 72. 

3 iv. 101. Herodotus (ii. 34) repeats this assertion, and supposes a 
straight line to be drawn from Cilicia to Sinope, which is by no means 
the naiTOwest part. But the distance across Asia Minor from sea to sea 
is at least 300 English miles : a very long distance to be walked over in 
five days. Ukert, Niebuhr, and others accordingly represent the Hero-, 
dotean Asia Minor as very narrow at the part where it joins the main- 
land. Niebuhr, however, cannot but be surprised that Herodotus should 
make so great an error respecting a country which lay so near his native 
city ; and he thinks it not improbable that, in order to unite the Euxine 
with the commercial stations on the Cilician shore, a post of couriers, like 
that of the Tartars in Turkey, was established between these sea-ports 
and Sinope ; and that the regular conveyance of letters in five days was 
mistaken for the speed of a common foot messenger. Dahlmann thinks 
it probable that the journey was once achieved in five days by a trained, 
pedestrian as an experiment. It is more satisfactory to take the plain 
statement of Herodotus, and treat it as an error, 

^ iv. 39. s iv^ 41, 6 iv, 39, 

'' The Arabian Gulf was but very little regarded by Herodotus, and in 
his present description he is inchned to overlook it altogether. 



Asia Minor, 


occupied by 

30 nations. 




■/■ . 






Arabia . 

Previous to the conquests of Cyrus three great asia. 
powers existed in Asia, who had compelled the re- _chap. i. 
maining nations to pay tribute; namely, the Ly- Ancient di- 
dians of Asia Minor, and the Babylonians and Medes y^?°^,°^ 

, ^ <J -,.-,. Asia, be- 

01 central Asia. The Lydians, under their king tween the 
Croesus, had extended their conquests over all Asia BabyTo-' 
Minor westward of the river Halys, (or Kisil-Irniak,) Medes ^"'^ 
with the exception of the mountainous territory occu- 
pied by the Lycians and Cilicians. The Babylonians 
and Medes, at a much earlier period, had swept away 
the ancient Assyrian empire over central Asia, and 
divided it between themselves. The river Tigris be- 
came the boundary line between these two powers. 
The dominion of the Babylonians extended west- 
ward from the Tigris to the Mediterranean ; whilst 
that of the Medes extended eastward from the Ti- 
gris to the river Indus.^ This general territorial 

1 The Babylonians included the Chaldaeans : Herodotus calls them 
Assyrians, but the old Assyrian empire of Nineveh had been long before 
destroyed by a powerful combination of the Babylonians and Medes. 

'^ The river Tigris certainly bounded Media on the west, for it was for- 
tified by a hne of strong places, of which Mespila and Larissa are men- 
tioned by name. (Xenoph. Anah. Op. pp. 308, 309.) At the same time 


ASIA, arrangement was upset by the revolutions wliicli at- 
CHAP. I. tended tlie establishment of the Persian empire. 
Establish- The mountainous territory of Persis had originally 
meut of the belono^ed to the old Assyiian empire, but had sub- 
pireofCy- scquentlv bocu subjugated by the Modes. It was in- 
"^^' habited by nomad hordes, who, with the celebrated 

Cyrus at their head, rushed from their native fast- 
nesses, and overwhelmed all the nations of southern 
Asia, except the Arabians. The empires of the 
Modes, the Babylonians, and the Lydians were in 
their turn swept away. Cyrus was succeeded by 
Cambyses, and Aegypt was subjected to this new 
dominion. Darius Hystaspis at length ascended the 
throne. His rule extended over all the Asiatic 
nations known to Herodotus, with the exception of 
the Colchians in the north, the Indians in the east, 
Division in- and tho Arabians in the south. This immense em- 
satrapS^by pire he divided into twenty satrapies for the purposes 
Sspir^^^ of taxation; nineteen being included in Asia, and one 
in the continent of Libya. ^ A list of the satrapies, 
with the amount of tribute paid by each, has been 
]3reserved by Herodotus,^ and was probably taken 
from the Persian archives ; but before we examine 
this valuable document, it will be necessary to in- 
quire into our author's own actual knowledge of the 
countries therein noticed. 

Fii'st of all, v/e may state boldly that the regions 

it is plain from the lamentations of contemporary Jewish writers, (Isaiah 
xiii. 17, 18,) and from a passage in Herodotus, (i. 103,) that the Medes 
sometimes advanced their conquering armies beyond the Tigris, and even 
as far westward as the Halys ; and it does not seem probable that the 
Chaldee Bbaylonians ever extended their conquests so far to the north 
in this quarter. The eastern boundary of Media is uncertain; ap- 
parently it was of different extent at diflerent epochs. From the books 
of the Zcndavesta it would appear that the Medes anciently possessed 
Aria and Bactiiana, as far as the Oxus and the Indus. Cf. Heeren, Asia, 
vol. i. 

^ In the book of Esther (i. 1) it is stated that there were 127 provinces 
of the Persian empire, which extended from India to the Libyan Aethio- 
pia. There is no occasion however for su2:)posing that these provinces 
were satrapies, but tribes or nations, of which several were included in 
each sati-apy ; and by a comparison with chap. viii. verse 9, this would 
appear to be the case. 

2 iii. 90—93. 


beyond the cities of Susa and Ecbatana' were cer- asia. 
tainly unknown to Herodotus. Westward of these chap, i, 
limits he was more or less acquainted with the Extent of 
country by ocular observation. He resided some serodotus's 
tnne at the city oi Tyre m riioemcia/ and was not Asia. 
only well informed respecting the western coast of quSntanct 
Asia Minor, which he so minutely describes,^ but n'icS^ancr 
had apparently penetrated the interior. Lydia and Asia Minor. 
its city of Sardis were undoubtedly known to him.* 
He saw also the Euphrates and Tigris, and visited ^J^^*^J^ 
Babylon in its reduced splendour.^ That he reached Travelled 
Susa seems certain, for he mentions the so-called gi°eathi|h- 
Indian ants preserved in the royal palace,^ and ^^l^'^^^_ 
evidently saw the curious well at Ardericca, which disandsusa 
was only 210 stadia/ or about 26 English miles, 
distant from the city. Probably he travelled along 
the royal high-road which led from Ephesus by Sar- 
dis to Susa, for he was well acquainted with all its 
stations, and describes the distance as being exactly 
ninety days' journey.^ 

Whether he got as far as Ecbatana is doubtful, visit to ec- 
Dahlmann seems to think that he must have visited doublfui."^ 
this city, or he would not have so minutely de- 
scribed the fortifications, or have said that the outer- 
most wall was as large in circumference as the city 
of Athens.^ It must however be confessed that the 
tone of the narrative, and especially the vagueness 
of the description of the site and dimensions of the 
city, seem all to imply that Herodotus derived his 
information from others, and not from a personal 
survey. One thing seems positive, that he did not 
travel beyond these two cities ; otherwise he would 
have spoken of the Persian Gulf and river Araxes in 
a different manner, and especially would have done 
greater justice to the actual extent and size of Asia. 

^ Herodotus calls this city Agbatana. Its site has been identified by 
Col, Rawlinson with the niins of Takhti-Soleiman in northern Media, or 
Atropatene. This subject however will be further discussed in a future 

2 ii. 44, 104. -^ i. 142—149. * iii. 5. ^ j, 178— 193. 

« iii. 102. ^ vi. 119. « v. 52—54. 

^ i. 98. Comp. Dahlmann, Life of Ilerod. chap. iv. sect. 5, 





tion of the 
list of 
twenty sa- 

Reasons for 
tribes in 
tlie same 

This then is all we can learn of our author's per- 
sonal knowledge of Persian Asia ; it now remains 
for us to ascertain how far these results will illustrate 
or explain the list of satrapies. 

In the document preserved by Herodotus we see 
an attempt made, apparently for the first time, to 
provide for the regular collection of tribute through- 
out the Persian empire. In the reign of Cyrus in- 
discriminate plunder probably supjjlied the place of 
systematic taxation, and even at a later period taxes 
were arbitrarily imposed under the name of offer- 
ings or presents, which were not the less oppressive 
fi.'om being indefinite. Darius Hystaspes was the 
first to institute a regular system, and to divide the 
empire at large into provinces or satrapies, but his 
arrangement is not a geographical division of dis- 
tricts, but merely a rude classification of the differ- 
ent subject nations. Herodotus even tells us that 
remote tribes were occasionally included under the 
same satrapy,^ and this in some instances is most 
certainly the case, though it is next to impossible to 
divine the reasons for it.^ Great difficulty however 
must have been experienced in mapping out cor- 
rectly large masses of territory, which in many 
cases could have been only half explored, and we 
may wonder that Herodotus did not notice more 
serious errors.^ Particular attention was also most 
likely paid in the classification to the easiest mode 
of collecting the tribute ; and the arrangement may 
therefore to some extent have depended upon the 
situation of defiles through mountains, or roads 
along valleys or the banks of rivers. This seems 
the more likely, as it is certain that several of the 
mountain tribes often made themselves independent, 
and were enabled to defy or avoid the collectors of 
tribute, and therefore the getting at them would be 

^ iii. 89. ^ Heeren, Asia, vol. i. 

^ We need not for a moment suppose that Herodotus was himself able 
from his own geographical knowledge to detect the en'ors in the classifi- 
cation of the tribes into satrapies, hut it is most probable that he was 
made acquainted with them by the officers who had the care of the Per- 
sian archives. 

tant satra- 


considered of more importance than geographical asia. 
exactness. A more minute and correct knowledge "^"^p. i. 
of central Asia will probably explain many a dis- 

Another difficulty in the list is the order of the General 

T , • •' T . T • n • 1 wantofffeo- 

several satrapies, which is even less m accord- graphical 
ance with actual geography than the satrapical ar- °ng ftom*' 
rangement of tribes. Many unsuccessful attempts f ^'^rancrof 
have been made to explain this difficulty : it can thembrecii: 
however only be solved by a consideration of our 
author's actual knowledge of the country. In this 
case there is no reason for supposing that Herodotus 
copied his list exactly from one original document, 
but we may believe that he compiled and abridged 
it from a variety of authorities. Accordingly those 
countries with which he was acquainted he placed 
in tolerable geographical order, beginning at the 
western coast of Asia Minor ; but those of which 
he was ignorant he put down indiscriminately.^ 
The relative situations of Asia Minor, Syria, and 
Aegypthe knew perfectly well, and accordingly we 
find the first six satrapies, which embraced those 
countries, given in exact order. His journey to 
Susa however, and even his notions respecting the 
four great nations of central Asia, could but little 
assist him in forming any definite notions of the re- 
lative bearings of the other satrapies. He considered 
the city of Susa to lie to the south of Babylon, and 
therefore the 8th, 9th, and 10th satrapies come in 

^ Herodotus catalogues the twenty satrapies in the foUowdng order. 
1. lonians, Asiatic Magnesians, Aeolians, Carians, Lycians, Milyans, 
and Pamphylians. 2. Mysians, Lydians, Lasonians, Cabalians, and 
Hygennians. 3. Asiatic Hellespontines, Phrygians, Asiatic Thracians, 
Paphlagonians, Mariandynians, and Syri-Cappadocians. 4. Cilicians. 
5. Phoenicia, Palestine, and Cyprus. 6. Aegypt and Libya. 7- Satta- 
gydae, Gandarians, Dadicae, and Aparytae. 8. Susa and the rest of 
the Cissians. 9. Babylon and the rest of Assyria. 10. Ecbatana and 
the rest of Media, and Paricanians and Orthocorybantes. 11. Caspi- 
ans, Pausicae, Pantimathians, and Dareitae. 12. Bactrians as far as the 
Aeglae. 13. Pactyica and Armenians, and neighbouring people as far 
as the Euxine. 14. Sagartians, Sarangae, Thamanaeans, Utians, Myci- 
ans, and islands of the Erythraean. 15. Sacae and Caspians. 16. Par- 
thians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Arians. 17- Paricanians and Asiatic 
Aethiopians. 18. Matienians, Saspeires, and Alarodians. 19. Moschi- 
ans, Tibarenians, Macrones, Mosynoecians, and Marsians. 20. Indians. 


ASIA, sometliing like order ; though why he should place 
CHAP. I. ii^e nations wearing the same armoiu* as the Bac- 
trians in the seventh satrapy, and the Saspeires in 
the eighteenth, instead of the satrapy immediately 
after the Medes, defies all attempts at explanation. 
As to the others, they seem to have been put down 
just as they came, with the exception of the Indians, 
who being regarded as the farthest nation towards 
the east, are accordingly included in the twentieth 
satrapy. In the following chapters we shall classify 
the satrapies of Persian Asia under three separate 
heads, viz. 1. Lower Asia, or Asia Minor, including 
Sat. i. — iv. 2. Upper Asia as far as was personally 
known to Herodotus, including Sat. v., ix., andviii. 
3. Unexplored Asia, including Sat. vii., x. — xx., or 
regions north and east of the second division. 

For convenience of reference we append the fol- 
lowing table, with the diagram on the accompan3ring 
page, of the nineteen satrapies of Persian Asia in 
geographical order, but numbered according to He- 
rodotus' s OAvn arrangement; and for the sake of 
clearness we have embodied many of the results of 
the following chapters, so far as they give geogra- 
phical precision to the localities of the satrapies. 


1. Western and south-western Asia Minor, or 
Aeolis, Ionia, Doris, Caria, Lycia, and Pamphylia. 

2. Lydian Asia Minor, or Lydia and Mysia. 

3. Northern Asia Minor, or Hellespont, Phrygia, 
Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Ca^opadocia. 

4. South-eastern Asia Minor, or Cilicia. 


5. Syria Proper, or Phoenicia, Palestine, and 

9. Assyria, including Babylon. 
8. Cissia [and Persis]. 


19. Euxinc districts, answering to Trebisonde, 


ASIA, and comprising the Mosclii, Tibareni, Macrones, 
CHAP. I. Mosynoeci, and Mares. 

13. Armenia and Pactyica, answering to Erzromn. 
and Km'distan. 

18. Matieni, on the moiuitains of Kurdistan; 
Saspeires in the valley of the Aras ; and Alarodii. 

10. Media, including the Paricanii and Ortho- 

1 1 . South-Caspian districts, comprising the Caspii, 
Pausicae, Pantimathi, and Dareitae. 

16. Parthia, Chorasmia, Sogdia, and Aria. 

15. East-Caspian districts, comprising the Sacae 
and Caspii. 

12. Bactria, including the Aeglae. 

7. Grandara, or eastern Afghanistan, comprising 
the Sattagydae, Gandarii, Dadicae, and Aparytae. 

14. Carmania or Kerman, comprising the Sa- 
gartii, Sarangae, Thamanaei, Utii, Myci, and Ery- 
thraean Isles. 

17. Asiatic Aethiopia, or Gredrosia, including the 

20. Northern India, or the Punjab. 

Catalogue The gcograpliy of the twenty satrapies will re- 
^a the army ccivc still furtlicr illustration from another valuable 
xe'i "es^ ^^ docmn.ent preserved by Herodotus. This is no less 
than a catalogue of all the nations who served in the 
army and navy of Xerxes, with a description of their 
various dresses and arms, and the names of their 
leaders. Our author himself tells us, that when 
Xerxes reviewed his army he passed through the 
ranks in his chariot, and inspected the several bat- 
talions in person ; and that especially he made 
a variety of inquiries of each separate nation, and 
all the answers he received were written down by 
his secretaries. In a similar manner also he re- 
viewed the different ships in his fleet, asking ques- 
tions and having the replies committed to writing.^ 
Now, unless all historical probability bo a delusion, 
Herodotus was enabled to obtain a sight of these 

1 vii. 100. 


writings, and from tliem lie drew up his account of asia. 
the numbers and equipment of the Persian forces, chap. i. 
Heeren, who first made this suggestion, seems also 
to think that the catalogue in Herodotus is an actual 
copy of the Persian muster-roll ; but this seems 
impossible, for it includes none of the Orientalisms 
or vivid colouring which would inevitably have 
found their way into a translation from a Persian 
original, and in fact merely consists of a plain and 
straightforward statement of the equipments of each 
nation, to which Herodotus himself has added an 
account of the traditionary origin of each people as 
far as he knew it. 

A comparison of these two documents is exceed- Vaiue of 
ingly interesting, and enables us to give life and parson of 
colouring to our author's picture of Persian Asia. wuTwith 
The nations march before us in every variety of the list of 
costume, which in most cases is strikingly illustrative ^^ ^^^^^ ' 
of their different modes of life and geographical posi- 
tions. We shall therefore now endeavour to classify 
the satrapies under the three great divisions of the 
country already laid down, and incorporate under 
each head such information as can be derived from 
the catalogue of nations ; but in a subsequent chap- catalogue 
ter, when we have completed our geography of Asia, therciigest- 
we shall return to this catalogue, and endeavour to future^chap- 
arrange it in such order as may be considered best t^r. 
adapted for the requirements of the student.^ Such 
a digest before the reader is familiarized with the 
geography of the several races would only confuse ; 
when, however, the satrapies are fairly mapped out 
before his view, it will throw a renewed light upon 
the entire history and geography of the almost un- 
known nations of ancient Asia. 

In concluding the present chapter, we would take a Topography 
brief survey of the topography, as it may be termed, guages of 
of the different languages of the Asia of antiquity, ^*'''' 
in which we shall be greatly assisted by the re- 
searches of the learned Heeren.^ First of all we 

1 See chap. vi. 

2 Cf. Heeren, (Asiat. Res. vol. i.,) to whom I must refer the student 
as my authority for the following statements. 


ASIA, may remark, that small mountainous or maritime 
CHAP. I. districts frequently embraced several languages, be- 
cause the former were occupied by numerous inde- 
pendent tribes, and the latter by foreign settlers of 
various origin. On the other hand, throughout the 
vast plains of central Asia extensive regions might 
be traversed where a single language was spoken, 
with only occasional variations in its dialects. We 
may also notice that the same mountain chains, or 
mighty rivers, which formed the boundaries of differ- 
ent kingdoms, became also the boundaries of differ- 
ent languages. One speech prevailed from the 
Aegean to the Halys ; another fr^om the Halys to 
the Tigris ; and again, another from the Tigris to 
the Indus and the Oxus. 
Languages In the interior of Asia Minor, as far as the Halys, 
Minor^from tlic prevailing speech seems to have been the an- 
toth^Haiy"^ cient Plirygian, which was probably a branch of 
the Armenian. In the Greek colonies which lined 
the western coast the Grreek language was habitually 
spoken, but the original speech of the country 
was apparently the Carian and its dialects, the 
Lydians, Mysians, and Carians all speaking dialects 
of the same general language. The ncrthern half 
of the peninsula was occupied by colonies from 
Tlirace, who settled in Bithynia and spoke their na- 
tive tongue ; their territory extending as far as the 
river Parthenius, (or Chati-su,) which separated 
them fi^om the Paphlagonians, who spoke a language 
of their 0T\m, if indeed it were not a dialect of the 
Phrygian. In the southern half a still greater 
variet}^ of languages appears to have prevailed, but 
with respect to these we possess no accurate in- 
Semitic dia- Eastward of the Halys commenced the empire of 
twccnthe a mighty language, which was spoken as far to the 
i?^us ""'"^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Tigris, and from the heights of Caucasus 
to the most southern coasts of Arabia. This was 
the Semitic. Its dialects were, the Cappadocian, on 
the right bank of the Halys ; the Syrian, between 
the Mediterranean and the Euphrates ; the Assyrian, 
on the farther side of the Tigris in Kurdistan, or the 


ancient Adiabene ; ' the Chaldaean, in Babylonia ; asia. 
the Hebrew and Samaritan, in Palestine ; the Phoe- chap. i. 
nician, in the ports and colonies of Phoenicia ; and " 
lastly, the Arabic, which extended not only oyer 
the whole of the Arabian peninsula, but also over the 
steppes of Mesopotamia, which in all ages have 
been traversed by wandering hordes of Arabs. 
Thus we cannot doubt but that at some period an- 
terior to recorded history, " one mighty race pos- 
sessed these vast plains, varying in character ac- 
cording to the nature of the country they inhabited ; 
in the deserts of Arabia pursuing a nomade life ; in 
Syria applying themselves to agriculture and taking 
up settled abodes ; in Babylonia erecting the most 
magnificent cities of ancient times ; and in Phoe- 
nicia opening the earliest ports, and constructing 
fleets, which secured to them the conunerce of the 
known world." 

Lastly, between the Tigris and the Indus were Persian dia- 
spoken the Persian dialects, which differed from the tweL the 
Semitic not only in their vocabulary and phrase- Jlf^l ^^^ 
ology, but also in their elements and construction. 
Of these we may mention the Zend, or language of 
ancient Media, in which the books of Zoroaster were 
originally composed ; the Pehlvi, spoken in the 
southern districts bordering on Assjrria and Baby- 
lonia ; and the Parsi, or ancient Persian, which ap- 
pears to have swallowed up the others. 

Here then we finish our general survey of Asia, conclusion. 
and now proceed to develope in detail the geogra- 
phy of its several divisions, devoting the next three 
chapters to an examination of Persian Asia, and 
then concluding the description of the continent by 
an account of those nations who were independent 
of the Persian rule. 

^ This must not be confounded with the Assyria of Herodotus, who 
apphes the name of Assyria to Babylonia. Herodotus included Assyria 
Proper, or Kurdistan, in the satrapies of Armenia and Matiene. See 
chaps, iii. and iv. 

p 2 



ASIA. Physical geography of the peninsula. — Different political divisions. — 

CHAP. II. Natiu'al separation into an eastern and western division by the river 

Halys. — Divided into four satrapies by Darius Hystaspis. — Difficulty 

in dividing the towns. — L Aeolis, Ionia, Doris, Caria, Lycia, and 
Pamphylia. — Aeolians, their eleven cities on the continent, and seven 
on the islands. — lonians, their twelve cities. — United in the Panionian 
confederacy. — Mixture of the lonians with other races. — Worship of 
the Heliconian Poseidon in the Panionium. — Miscellaneous notices. 
— Asiatic Magnetes. — Dorians, their five cities of the Triopian con- 
federacy. — Worship of Apollo at Triopium. — Exclusion of Halicar- 
nassus. — Carians, originally expelled from the islands by the lonians 
and Dorians. — Their inventions. — Believed themselves to be autoch- 
thones. — United with the Lydians and Mysians in the worship of 
the Carian Zeus. — Topography of the interior. — Labranda, Termera, 
Cnidus, Pedasus. — Caunus, its inhabitants really autochthones. — Topo- 
graphy of the coast. — Priene, Myus, Miletus, Limene'ion, Assesus, Sanc- 
tuaiy of the Branchidae, river Maeander, Caryanda, Halicarnassus, 
Cnidus, the Isthmus, Catydna the Carian town, and Calydna the Dorian 
town. — Lycians, sprung from Crete. — Anciently named Termilae. — Their 
customs. — Heroic resistance to the Persians. — Oracle at Patara. — Phase- 
lis. — Lycian costume. — Milyans.^ — Pamphylians. — 2. Mysia and Lydia. 
— Mysians, also named Olympieni.- — Extent of the Mysia of Herodotus. 
— Topography of Mysia. — River Caicus, Mount Canae, Atarneus, Ma- 
lene. Carina, Adramyttium, Thebes, Antandrus, Lamponium, Cape 
Lectos, river Scamander, Cape Segeium. — lUum, inhabited by the Aeo- 
lians and Gergithae, Rhoetium, Ophryneium, Dardanus, Abydos, Per- 
cote, Lampsacus, Paesus, Parium, Placia, Scylace, Dascyleium, Cius, 
islands of Cyzicus and Proconnesus. — Lydians, their ancient empire. — 
Sardis, the capital. — Rivers Hyllus and Hermus. — Gold-dust brought 
from Mount Tmolus by the river Pactolus. — Tumulus of Alyattes. — 
Roads from Caria and Lydia to Phrygia. — Beautiful plane tree on the 
Lydian road. — Depraved manners of the Lydians. — Invented the art of 
coining money, retail dealing, and games of dice, knuckle bones, and 
ball. — Topography of the coast. — Phocaea, its maritime enterprise and 
heroic resistance to Cyrus. — Magnesia, Smyrna, Clazomenae, Erythrae, 
Teos, Leljedos, Colophon, Ephesus, Coressus, Mycale. — Sculptures of 
Sesostris found in Ionia. — Identification of the monument between Sar- 
dis and Smyrna by modern travellers. — Its Aegyptian origin doubted. — 
Lasonians, Caljalians, and Hygennians. — 3. Hellespont, Phrygia, 
Bitiiynia, PAPliLAfJONiA, and Cap]'Adocia. — Hcllespontines. — Phry- 
gians, more ancient than the Acgyptians. — Called Bryges when dwelling 
in Macedonia. — Topography of Phrygia. — Tract occupied by the Paeo- 
nians.— Gordium, Cclaenae, sources of the Maeander and Catarrhactes 


river Marsyas, white columns. — Course of Xerxes from Celaenae to 
Lydia. — Anana, salt lake, Colossae, river Lycus, Cydrara, boundary 
pillar between Phrygia and Lydia, Conium, Alabanda. — Thracians ' 

from the Strymon called Bithynians.— Mariandynians. — Paphlagonians. 
—Syrians or Cappadocians.— River Halys.— Extent and limits of the 
Cappadocia of Herodotus.— Canal of Thales. — Pteria. — Critalla.— 4. 
CiLiciA.— Cilicians, anciently named Hypachaeans. — Extent and limits 
of the Cihcia of Herodotus. 

The great peninsula of Asia Minor is bounded on asia. 
the north by the Euxine, west by the Aegean, and ^^ap. n. 
south by the Mediterranean, and we may extend its physical 
eastern frontier to Armenia and the river Euphrates. ^1°!^^^^. 
The interior is a high plateau, bounded on the south insula. 
by the chain of Mount Taurus,, and on the north by 
ranges of hills which, under the name of Anti- 
Taurus, extend along the southern shores of the 
Euxine ; and thus two mountain walls connect the 
plateau with that of Armenia. On its western side 
the plateau descends gradually to the shores of the 
Archipelago, forming several long and narrow val- 
leys, watered by the Maeander, Caicus, Scamander, 
Hyllus, and Hermus, and tliese are the most beauti- 
ful and fertile portions of the peninsula. The western 
coast is as jagged and irregular as the opposite shore 
of Grreece, and bold projecting promontories run out 
in the same manner far into the sea, and re-appear 
in nmnerous islands of more or less importance. On 
the other hand, the northern and southern coasts are 
characterized by few indentations, but present irre- 
gular outlines formed by huge semicircular sweeps. 
The western coasts were studded with Greek colo- 
nies, and included the territory of the luxurious 
Lydians; whilst the central highlands were occu- 
pied by a number of distinct nations, who, as con- 
trasted with the Greeks, may be regarded as abori- 
gines of the country. 

Few subjects in ancient geography are more per- Different 
plexing than the divisions of Asia Minor at different divisions. 
periods. Under the Persians it was separated first 
into four satrapies, and subsequently into ten. The 
later Greeks however divided it into fourteen pro- 
vinces. And as this arrangement has been generally 





followed by geographers, it will be necessary to use 
it for the illustration of the division into four satra- 
pies made by Darius Hj^staspes. The names and 
relative positions of the fom-teen pro^dnces will be 
best learnt from the following diagram.^ 

R. Halys. 

Paplilagoiiia. . 



^ ( 

^ ^"^"^^Pontus. 



^ ______ -""""^^ 

• "^ 



I Pisidia. 

\ I Lycaonia. 


' Pamphylia. 

) ( Cilicia. 

Natural se- 
paration in- 
to an eastern 
and western 
division by 
the river 

Divided in- 
to four sa- 
trapies by 
Darius Hys- 

Asia Minor as thus described may be separated 
into an eastern and western division by the river 
HalySj (or Kizil Irmak,^) which we have already 
seen was supposed by Herodotus to flow through 
nearly the entire breadth of the peninsula.^ Prior 
to the Persian conquest, the eastern division was 
included in the empire of the Modes, whilst the 
western division, as far as the shore of the Aegean, 
formed the Lydian empire of Croesus. The Lycians 
in the south however still remained unsubdued, toge- 
ther with the independent kingdom of Cilicia.* 

This entire country was divided by Darius Hys- 
taspcs into four satrapies, and is said by Herodotus 
to have been occupied by thirty different nations.'' 

^ This diagram has been taken, with some shght alteration, from that 
of D'Anville. 

2 The Greek name of 'AXwc is derived from the salt country through 
which the river passes. Strabo says that its waters are of a salt and 
bitter taste. The Turkish name is Kizil, (Red,) such being the colour of 
the soil throughout much of its course. See Col. Chcsney's Survey of the 
Euphrates and Tigris, to which I shall have frequent occasion to refer 
in developing the geography of Persian Asia. 

3 See page 200. * i. 28, 74. » iv. 38. 



The first satrapy embraced tlie slips of territory 
along the west and southern coasts, which were colo- 
nized by the AeoHans, lonians, and Dorians, and " 
also included the later provinces of Caria, Lycia, 
and part of Pisidia and Pamphylia. The second 
embraced all the territory afterwards known as the 
provinces of Lydia and Mysia, with the exception 
of the maritime district on the west, occupied by the 
Aeolians and lonians of the first satrapy, and that 
on the north held by the Hellespontines of the third. 
The third satrapy included the coast territory of 
these Hellespontines, and extended eastward to Ar- 
menia, thus embracing the northern provinces of 
Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus, and the central 
ones of Phrygia and Gralatia, and that part of Cap- 
j)adocia which was northward of the Halys. The 
fourth satrapy included Cilicia, and that part of 
Pisidia and Pamphylia left out of the first satrapy, 
and extended eastward to the Euphrates. The ex- 
tent of the Cappadocia and Cilicia of Herodotus, 
in comparison with the later provinces bearing the 
same names, will be pointed out in the separate geo- 
graphy of the satrapies. The following diagram 
will perhaps explain the satrapical division of 

R. Halys. 











But though we have thus pointed out the probable 
frontiers of each satrapy of Asia Minor, yet in the 


ASIA, first tliree another difficulty presents itself in the 
CHAP. II. topography. Herodotus distinctly catalogues the 
^.^ 1^. eleven cities of Aeolia, the twelve cities belonging to 
ciividing"the the Panioniau confederacy of lonia, and the ir^enta- 
polis belonging to the Triopian confederacy of Do- 
ris, yet he mentions several other towns without 
stating in which satrapy they are to be included, 
and we do not know whether to call them Lydian 
or Ionian, Mysian or Aeolian. It is however ne- 
cessary, for the sake of a clear comprehension of the 
satrapical arrangement, to draw a sharp line of di- 
vision between each satrapy, and this can be done 
as far as the races are concerned, but not if all the 
towns are to be taken into consideration. We shall 
therefore describe the three satrapies according to 
the several races mentioned in the catalogue of He- 
rodotus, but shall include the entire topography of 
these districts in the geography of Mysia, Lydia, 
and Caria, without reference to the satrapy to which 
we might fancy the towns would strictly belong. 
We shall thus be able to give due prominence, first, 
to the accounts of the several races, and secondly, to 
the topography of western Asia Minor. 
I. aeolis, I. Aeolis, Ionia, Doels, Caeia, Lycia, and Pam- 
do'ms, phylia were included in the first satrapy, which thus 
Lycia' and composcd the lonians, the Asiatic Magnesians, the 
pamphy- Aeolians, Carians, Lycians, Milyans, and Pamphyli- 
ans : ^ the Dorians also evidently belonged to it, as 
they are not mentioned anywhere else. The sa- 
trapy paid a yearly tribute of 400 talents.^ We 
shall describe the nations in geographical order as 
follows ; viz. Aeolians, lonians, Magnesians, Do- 
rians, Carians, Lycians, Milyans, and Pamphylians. 
Acoiian-s, Thc Aeolians Originally possessed twelve cities 
cities on the on thc contincut, but Smyrna having been taken by 
an?icven ^^^^ lonians, tlicrc only remained eleven, viz. Cyme, 
on the (also called Phriconis,) Larissae, Neon-teichos, Tem- 
isiands. ^^^^ Cilia, Notium, Aegiroessa,^ Pitane, Aegaeae, 

' iii. 90. 2 Ibid. 

3 This Aeolian town of Acgiroessa is not mentioned anywhere else ; 
but a small town named Aegeirousa is named by Strabo as being situated 


Myrina, and Gryneia. The country was more fer- asia. 
tile than the Ionian territory, but not equal to it in chap. u. 
climate.^ The Aeolians also possessed some settle- ~ 
ments on Mount Ida, but these were altogether dis- 
tinct. Also some cities on the islands, viz. five in 
Lesbos, where there were originally six, but the 
sixth, named Arisba, was enslaved by the Methym- 
naeans, although the latter were of kindred blood ; 
another city in Tenedos, and another in what were 
called the Hecatonnesi, or " hundred islands." ^ The 
Aeolians furnished 60 ships to Xerxes, and were equip- 
ped in the Hellenic costume. According to the Hel- 
lenic traditions they were of Pelasgian origin.^ 

The loNiANS possessed twelve cities, which were lomans, 
built under the fairest sky and in the finest climate cities. 
of all the known world. Their language included 
four varieties of dialect, and Herodotus names the 
twelve cities according to these points of difference, 
beginning from the south. One dialect was spoken 
in the cities of Miletus, Myus, and Priene, which 
were situated on the coast of Caria ; a second in the 
towns of Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazo- 
menae, and Phocaea, on the coast of Lydia ; ^ a third 
in the island town of Chios and the continental one 
of Erythrae ; and a fourth in the island town of Sa- 
mos only.^ When Cyrus was preparing to subvert 
the Lydian empire, he sent heralds to persuade the 
lonians to revolt from the Lydian rule.^ Miletus, 
however, was the only city which accepted the in- 
vitation and made an alliance with Cyrus, being, as 
Herodotus says, well aware of the weakness of the 
Ionian race, which at that time was the least power- 
ful of all the Hellenic nations,'' and possessed no city 

in Megaris. Some, therefore, have conceived that Elaea was meant, for 
Herodotus leaves that out, whilst Strabo and Steph. Byz. mention it. 
Schweighauser wished to write Arginoessa, one of the Arginusae islands, 
but Herodotus says, and the passage does not escape Schweighauser, 
that that town was a continental one. See Baehr's note to i. 149, quoted 
by Bobrik. 

1 i. 149. 2 I 151. 3 vii. 95. 

* A description of these towns will be found in the geography of Lydia 
and Caria. 

5 i. 142. « i. 76. ^ i. 143. 





United in 
the Panio- 
niau con- 

Mixture of 
the lonians 
with other 

of note excepting Athens. After the downfal of 
Croesus, all the lonians tendered their submission 
to Cyrus, but tliis was now rejected, and accordingly 
they surrounded their cities with walls and prepared 
for the desolating war which followed.^ 

The inhabitants of the twelve cities were the only 
members of the Ionian race who gloried in the name ; 
for all the others, not excepting the Athenians, shun- 
ned the title, and refused to be called lonians. They 
founded their great common sanctuary, called the 
Panionium, and after the secession of Miletus, re- 
ceived Smyrna in her place, for they appear to have 
been very exact in always having twelve cities in 
the Panionian confederacy. Herodotus thinks that 
their reason for this was, because in ancient times, 
when they lived in that part of the Peloponnesian 
territory afterwards called Achaia, they occupied 
exactly twelve towns or districts, being the same as 
those which were held by the Achaeans at a later 
period.^ No other town but Smyrna was therefore 
ever admitted into the Panionium ; and in the same 
way the Dorians of the Pentapolis, previously called 
Hexapolis, refused to admit any of the neighbouring 
Dorians into the Triopian confederacy.^ 

The inhabitants of the twelve Ionian cities were, 
however, by no means of purer blood than the other 
lonians. A great many from other tribes were 
mingled with them, such as the Abantes from Eu- 
boea, the Minyae from Orchomenus, the Cadmeians, 
the Dryopes, the Phocians, the Molossians, the Pe- 
lasgians of Arcadia, the Dorians from Epidaurus, 
and many others. Even those who set out from the 
Prytaneium of Athens, and who considered them- 
selves to be the most noble of all the lonians, car- 
ried no wives with them to Asia, but seized a num- 
ber of the native Carian women, after first killing 
their husbands and fathers ; and from this massacre 
the women took an oath never to eat with their hus- 
bands, and handed down the same custom to their 

i. 141. 

2 i. 143. See also page 44, 

•^ i. 144. 


daughters.^ The real lonians, properly so called, asia. 
were tliose who derived their origin from Athens, chap. h. 
and celebrated the Apaturian festival.^ 

The sanctuary of Panionium was a sacred spot at worship 
the northern extremity of Mycale, and consecrated nian Posei- 
by the lonians in common to the Heliconian Posei- PaniraSm. 
don ; ^ and here the lonians assembled from the 
twelve cities and celebrated the Panionian festival. 
Mycale itself is a tongue of land stretching west- 
ward towards Samos/ 

The lonians were always reproached by the Scy- Misceiiane- 

• -w t OUS UOtlCGS 

thians for not having loosened the Ister bridge and 
cut off the retreat of Darius at the close of his Scy- 
thian expedition ; indeed, the Scythians regarded 
them as either the most base and cowardly of free-men, 
or else as the meanest and most faithM of slaves/ 
The Ionian females wore a costume evidently bor- 
rowed from that of the native Carians ; for in ancient 
times all the women of Hellas wore the Dorian cos- 
tume.*' It is curious that the crocodiles, which in 
Aegypt were called champsae, should have been 
named crocodiles by the lonians, because they ap- 
peared to resemble a species of lizard of that name 
which was to be found under the hedges of Ionia.'' 
The lonians furnished 100 ships to Xerxes ; and 
were equipped in the Hellenic fashion. Whilst they 
inhabited that part of the Peloponnesus named 
Achaia, they were called Pelasgian Aegialees, or 
Pelasgian "coast-men," but subsequently lonians, 
from Ion the son of Xuthus.® 

The Asiatic Magnetes are only named by Hero- ^^^'^^'g^gg 
dotus in his catalogue of satrapies, and we find no 
farther mention of them. They appear to have 
formed part of the ancient inhabitants of the moun- 
tainous territory of Magnesia in Thessaly, between 
Ossa and Pelion, from whence they migrated to 

1 i. 146. 2 i, 147^ 

3 So called from Helice in Achaia. The lonians had originally built 
there a temple of Poseidon, and at their migi'ation had carried his wor- 
ship with them and built the sanctuary here referred to. 

* i. 148. s iv_ 142. 6 V. ,s7_ 7 ii. 69. ^ vi"i. 94. 





tlieir five 
cities of the 

"Worsliip of 
Apollo at 

of Halicar- 

fr<jm the 
islands by 
the lonians 
and Do- 

western Lydia, and founded two cities^ each bearing 
the name of Magnesia. 

The Dorians possessed a confederacy which 
originally included six cities, and was therefore 
called Hexapolis, but in Herodotus's time it only 
embraced five cities, and was therefore named Pen- 
tapolis. This confederacy was connected with the 
worship of Apollo in the sanctuary at Triopium, in 
the same way that the Ionian confederacy was con- 
nected with the worship of Poseidon at the Panio- 
nium. The Dorians woidd not admit any of tlieir 
neighbours into this temple, and excluded such of 
their own community as violated the sacred laws. 
In the games in honour of the Triopian Apollo brazen 
tripods were formerly given to the victors, not how- 
ever to be carried away, but to be dedicated in the 
temple. Agasicles, a native of Halicarnassus, having 
obtained the victory, disregarded this custom, and 
carried away the tripod to hang up in his own house ; 
and for this offence the city of Halicarnassus was ex- 
cluded from participation in the Triopian worship, 
and only five cities (the Pentapolis) remained, viz. 
Lindus, lalyssus, Cameirus, Cos, and Cnidus.^^ These 
Dorians famished 30 ships to Xerxes and wore Hel- 
lenic armour. They originally came from the Pelo- 
ponnesus.^ Their ancient kings were, according to 
the more correct genealogy of the Hellenes, of Aegyp- 
tian descent, but on the maternal side included the 
ancestors of Perseus.^ 
san in the Dorian dialect.^ 

The Carians originally came from the islands to 
the continent, being driven out by the lonians and 
Dorians. They were anciently subjects of Minos, 
(of Crete,) and called Leleges, but paid no tribute, 
as far as Herodotus could discover, but manned the 
fleet whenever they were required. In consequence 

The Ionian sigma was called 

1 i. 144. 

2 Cnidus and Halicarnassus were on the continent; Cos, on the small 
island of the same name ; and Lindus, lalyssiwi, and Cameirus were in 
the island of llhodes, 

3 vii. 9.3. * vi. 5.3. " i. 139. 


of the successful conquests of Minos, the Carians asia. 
became the most famous nation of the time. They chap. n. 
introduced three inventions, which were also adopted ^~7^ 
by the Hellenes, namely, the crests upon helmets, ventions. 
devices upon shields, and shield handles ; for pre- 
viously shields had been fixed with leathern straps 
round the neck and left arm. This however was 
the Cretan account ; the Carians themselves said JJ^^j^^^^J^^^^gg . 
that they were autochthones, or original inhabitants to be au- 
of the continent, and that they always bore the ^''iit^o^e^- 
later name of Carians.^ A part of them were settled 
in Aegypt.^ As a proof of their being autochthones United with 
they pointed to an ancient temple of the Carian and MysT-'^^ 
Zeus in Mylasa, which was also shared by the Lydi- ^^^ip^^f 
ans and Mysians, as relations to themselves, Lydus ttieCariaa 
and Mysus being the brothers of Car. Many how- 
ever, who spoke the same language, were not admit- 
ted because they belonged to a different race.^ 

The Carians furnished Xerxes with seventy ships, 
and were armed in the Hellenic fashion, only they 
carried falchions and daggers.^ 

The towns of Caria, Labranda or Alabanda, con- '^°f°f^^^ 
tained a sacred grove of plane trees, in which was a teiior. 
sanctuary to Zeus Stratius, where the Carians, who xermTr?' 
were the only people who sacrificed to this deity, ^"if^^^ 
took refuge after being defeated by the Persians on 
the river Marsyas.^ Termera*' and Cnidus^ are also 
named. Likewise Pedasus, which was situated 
above Halicarnassus, but more in the interior. The 
priestess of Athene at Pedasus had a long beard 
on two different occasions, and a third time in the 
reign of Cyrus. The Pedasians were the only 
people in Caria who offered a protracted resistance 
to the Persian general Harpagus, and they gave 
him some trouble by fortifying Mount Lyda.^ They 
subsequently occupied the mountainous parts round 
Miletus which were assigned to them by the Per- 
sians.^ The Pass of Pedasus is also mentioned as 

1 i. 171. 2 ii. 62. 3 i. 171. * vii. 93. « v. 119. 

« V. 37. ' V. 118. Cf. via. 195. M. 175; viii. 104. » vi. 20. 


ASIA, leading to the city, where the Persians were cut to 
lAP. II. pieces by an ambuscade of Carians.^ 

The city of Caunus^ and its inhabitants are 


Its inhabit- especially noticed by Herodotus. The Caunians he 
autoch-'^^ considered to be really autochthones, but they 
thones. themselves said that they came from Crete. They 
either spoke the Carian language, or else the Carians 
spoke the Caunian. Their customs were totally 
different from those of all other nations, not except- 
ing the Carians. Thus, for instance, they accounted 
it a great pleasure to assemble together, both men, 
women, and youths, in order to get drunk. In an- 
cient times they built sanctuaries to foreign deities, 
but afterwards determined upon restricting them- 
' selves to their own national gods. Accordingly 
they all, old and young, armed themselves, and 
fighting the air with their spears marched to the 
Calyndian confines, and said they were expelling 
the stranger deities.^ 
Topography We will uow traco the principal Hellenic towns 
of the coast. ^^ ^-^^^ Cariau coast, beginning at the north. 
Priene. Pricne'^ sent twelve ships to Lade^ and Myus ^ sent 

isiiietas. three. ^ Miletus in the time of Darius was at the height 
of its prosperity, and accounted the jewel of Ionia. 
Previously throughout two generations it had been 
distracted by sedition, but at length, having chosen 
the Parians as arbitrators,^ the latter surveyed the 
whole country, and then gave the government of 
the city into the hands of those who had kept their 
estates in the best order, and thus the different fac- 
tions became reconciled.^ The power and exten- 
sive commerce of the Milesians is shown in their 
furnishing eighty ships at Lade ; ^^ their colonies on 
the Pontus, at Istria," and on the Borysthenes ; ^^ 
and in their building for themselves a separate sanc- 
tuary to Apollo in the Aegyptian city of Naucratis.^^ 
They were the only people of Ionia who did not 

1 V. 121. 

-^ V. 103. 

■' i. 172. ' i. 15, 142. 

5 vi. 8. 

« i. 142. 

-> vi. 8. 

** V. 2S. '■» V. 29. 

I" vi. 8. 

>' ii. 3.3. 

12 iv. 7s. 

'3 ii. 178. 


surround their city with walls when Cyrus refused asia. 
to accept the submission of lonians ; and they even chap. h. 
contrived to conclude an alliance with him.^ At a 
later period, after the suppression of the Ionian re- 
volt, the city was taken by the Persians, and its in- 
habitants were transplanted by Darius to the city 
of Ampe on the Erythraean Sea, and near the banks 
of the Tigris.^ The Persians retained in their pos- 
session the lands in the neighbourhood of the city, 
but gave the mountain tract to the Carians of Pe- 
dasus.^ In the Milesian territory were Limeneion* LimeneVon. 
and the town of Assesus, where the temple of Assesus. 
Athene was burnt down by Alyattes, who in a sub- 
sequent illness rebuilt two new sanctuaries in its 
place ; ^ also the sanctuary of the Branchidae, or of Sanctuary 
the Didymaean Apollo, "^ an ancient oracle which all Branchidae. 
the lonians and Aeolians were in the practice of 
consulting, and which was situated above the port 
of Panormus.'^ Croesus sent to consult this oracle 
before the Persian war,^ and dedicated there offer- 
ings of similar weight to those he gave at Delphi.'' 
Neco also consecrated to Apollo the garments he 
wore at his victory over the Syrians, and sent them 
to this sanctuary.^" The temple and oracle were 
plundered and bu.rnt by the Persians at the taking 
of Miletus.^^ Near the city was the river Maeander, ^'^g^'^'"''' 
(called Buyulc Mendereh by the Turks,) together 
with the plain called the Plain of Maeander, which 
appeared to Herodotus to have been formerly a bay 
of the sea.^^ 

The other towns in Caria must now be described, caiyanda. 
Caryanda was the native place of Scylax.^^ Hali- Haiicamas- 

«/ X «/ sus 

carnassus was inhabited by Dorians from Troezen,'* 
and the native place of Herodotus, ^^ and also of that 
Phanes who assisted Cambyses in the invasion of 
Aegypt.^^ Cnidus was inhabited by Lacedaemonian Cnidus. 
colonists, who settled on the Triopian promontory, 

1 i. 141. 2 vi 20. 3 Ibid. M. 18. ^ i. 22. 

« vi. 19. ' i. 157. ® i. 46. » i. 92. i" ii. 159. 

" vi. 19. Cf. i.92, 158; v. .36. i^ jj. jq; i. 18. 

" iv. 44. » vii. 99. ^^ i_ i_ le jji. 4. 


ASIA, wliich commences at tlie peninsula of Bubassus, and 

CHAP. ir. runs out into the sea. All the Cnidian territory 

therefore, excepting the narrow isthmus which joins 

it to Bubassus, was surrounded by water, for on the 

north it was bounded by the Ceramic Grulf, and on 

the south by the sea in the direction of Syme and 

The isth- Rhodus. The narrow isthmus which united Cnidia 

""''■ with Bubassus was only five stadia broad, ^ and the 

Cnidians wished to cut it through and make their 

territory insular as a protection against Harpagus. 

During the excavation the workmen were wounded 

in greater numbers and in a stranger manner than 

usual, particularly in the eyes, by the chips of the 

rock. Accordingly the Cnidians consulted the Py- 

thia, which replied, 

" Dig not the isthmus thi'ough, nor build a tower ! 
Zeus would have made an island had he wished it ; " 

and fi'om that time they gave up the work.^ The 
caiydnathe Calyduiaus or Calyndians were Dorians from Epi- 
and'caijT' daurus, and so also were the Nisyrians.^ The 
natkeDori- Dorian Calvdnians however are not to be identified 

an town. J •tt»ii/-ni t ; 

With those people who mhabited the Calyndian ter- 
ritory which bordered on Caunus,'^ for this latter 
Caljrnda was apparently a Carian town east of 
Caunus, whilst the Calydna occupied by Dorians 
must have been the island off the Carian coast be- 
tween Leros and Cos, which formed the principal 
island of the group which Homer calls Calydnae.^ 
Lycians, Tlic Lycians Originally sprang from Crete, but 

ci™te.^^™™ the civil war between Sarpedon and Minos, which 
resulted in the ascendency of the latter, drove Sar- 
pedon and his partisans (the later Lycians) to the 
land of Milyas in Asia, whose inhabitants were 
Anciently ancicutly termed Solymi. The Lycians were pre- 
mike!^ ^°'"' viously named Termilae, and they retained that 
name in tlie new country so long as Sarpedon 
reigned over them, and were still called so by the 

^ A narrow neck of land at some'distance to] the east of the town of 
Cnidus. It has been identified by Captain Graves with a narrow isth- 
mus at the head of the gulf of Syme. Smith, Diet, of Geog. art. Bu- 

2 i. 174. ' vii. 99. ' i. 172. ' II. ii. CilT. 


neighbouring states in the time of Herodotus. But asia. 
when Lycus, son of Pandion, was driven from chap. n. 
Athens by his brother Aegeus and settled in the 
same country, these Termilae obtained the name of 
Lycians. Their customs were partly Cretan and Their cus- 
partly Carian, but they had one peculiarity : they 
took their name not from their fathers, but from their 
mothers, and always traced their ancestry through 
the female line ; ^ the children of a free-born woman 
by a slave were therefore considered to be of pure 
birth, but those of a citizen, even of high rank, by a 
foreign wife or a concubine, were regarded as ille- 
gitimate.^ The Lycians fought Harpagus with very Heroic re- 
inferior numbers and displayed the utmost valour.^ thePe^ians 
Being defeated in the plain of Xanthus and driven 
within their city, they collected their wives, chil- 
dren, property, and slaves in the acropolis, and 
burnt the whole to the ground ; and then binding 
themselves by the strongest oaths, they all sallied 
out and fought until they fell. None survived, and 
those of the later Lycians who were said to be 
citizens of Xanthus, were all strangers, with the ex- 
ception of eighty families who happened at that 
time to be absent from the city.* The priestess oracieat 
who uttered the oracles at Patara was similar to the 
priestesses in the temple of Belus at Babylon, and 
the temple of Zeus in Thebes ; she was obliged to 
lead a life of celibacy, but was shut up in the sanc- 
tuary all night ^ whenever the god was there.'' The 
town of Phaselis in Lycia was inhabited by Dorians, Phaseiis. 
and possessed a share in the Naucratian Hellenium.'^ 
The Lycians supplied fifty ships to Xerxes. They 
wore breastplates and greaves, and used bows of Lycian cos- 


^ Probably, like the Nairs on the Malabar coast, they considered that 
though a man might be sometimes doubtful as to who was his father, 
yet he could generally be certain as to who was his mother. 

2 i. 173. 

^ The Lycians had been sufficiently powerful to defy the power of 
Croesus, who was unable to reduce them to submission, i. 23. 

^ i. 176. 

5 During the night she was supposed to receive the prophecy which 
she was to utter next day. 

6 i. 182. ' ii. 178. 








IT. Mysia 
and Lydia. 

also named 

Extent of 
the Mysia 
of Herodo- 

dog-wood, (the cornelian cherry,) and cane arrows 
without feathers, and javelins. They also had 
goat-skins hanging over their shoulders, caps encir- 
cled with feathers on their heads, and daggers and 

The MiLYANS were the ancient inhabitants of 
Lycia, but were driven into the interior by the Ter- 
milae, afterwards called Lycians, from Crete.^ In 
the army of Xerxes they carried short spears, and 
their garments were fastened by clasps ; some also 
carried Lycian bows, and wore helmets of tanned 
hides on their heads. ^ 

The Pamphylians are but little mentioned : they 
furnished Xerxes with thirty ships, and were equip- 
ped in Hellenic armour. They were descendants of 
the mixed multitude* who returned from Troy un- 
der Amphilochus and Calchas.^ Artemisia said that 
as allies to Xerxes they were good for nothing — bad 
slaves to a good master." 

II. Mysia and Lydia were comprised in the second 
satrapy, which thus included the Mysians, Lydians, 
Lasonians, Cabalians, and Hygennians. It paid a 
tribute of five hundred talents.^ 

The Mysians were colonists from the Lydians, and 
were also named Olympieni from the mountain of 
Olympus, called the Mysian Olympus.^ Their origin 
was doubtless the same as both that of the Lydians 
and the Carians, as they observed the same religious 
rites. ^ Their principal pursuit appears to have been 
agriculture.^" Their equipment consisted of helmets 
peculiar to their country, small shields, and javelins 
hardened by fixe." 

It is difficult to define the limits of the territory 
held by the Mysians of this second satrapy. The 
maritime districts of the province subsequently call- 
ed Mysia were not included, for the western coast 
was occupied by the Aeolians of the first satrapy. 

' vii. 92. 2 See p, 224. » ^11. 77. 

* Hence they derived their name Ua/x^vXat, "people of all tribes." 

s vii. 91. « viii. 68. ' iii. 90. « i. 36. '■' i. 171. 

I" i. .36. " vii. 74. 


and that on the north and north-west, by the Helles- asia. 
pontines of the third. The Mysia of Herodotus how- chap. n. 
ever evidently extended much farther to the north- 
east than the later Mysia, for we find the city of 
Cius of Bithynia called a Mysian town.^ 

In describing the country we shall proceed from Topography 
south to north. Not far from Lydia, the river Cai- RivScai- 
cus ^ (now called the Akson or Bakir) flowed through *=^^- 
the plain, called the plain of Caicus, which belonged 
to the Mysians.' On the left or western side was Mount 
Mount Canae,^ now called Cape Coloni. Next came 
Atarneus, which was situated opposite Lesbos, and Atameus. 
was given to the Chians in return for their delivering 
up Pactyes ; andfor a longtime afterwards, the Chians 
would not offer to the gods any barley-meal from 
this town, nor would they bake any sacrificial cakes 
from the fruit which came from thence, nor admit 
any of the productions of that country into their 
temples.^ In the district of Atarneus was the town 
of Malene, where Histiaeus was taken prisoner by Maiene. 
the Persians.*^ Next followed the cities of Carina ; Carina. 
Adramyttium ; Thebes, with the Theban plain ; Adramyt- 
Antandrus, which was a Pelasgian city,'' and belonged Sdbes. 
to the territory of Troas ; and Lamponium.* Then Lam^nTim 
came Cape Lectos,^ and the river Scamander, (now Cape 
called Bunarbashi,) and Cape Segeium. It was to nher^sca- 
Segeium that the Peisistratidae retired after being ca^ segei- 
driven out of Athens by Cleomenes ; ^^ and here ^m. 
there was a temple of Athene, in which were hung 
up the arms of Alcaeus the poet." In the neigh- 
bourhood was the city of Achillei'um.^^ Xerxes on 
leaving Antandrus had entered the territory of Ilium, 
keeping Mount Ida on the left.^^ On reaching the 
river Scamander, which was the only stream after 
leaving Sardis whose waters were exhausted by the 
Persian army, Xerxes went to see the Pergamus of 


V. 122. 

2 vii. 42. 

3 vi. 28. 

* vii. 42. 

5 i. 160. 


vi. 29. 

' vii, 42. 

8 V. 26. 9 

ix. 114. 

10 V. 65. 


V. 95. 

'2 V. 94. 


Herodotus here seems 

to make a mistake. 

Moimt Ida must have 


1 on the 

right of the route taken by Xerxes. 

Q 2 


ASIA. Priam, ^ and there sacrificed a thousand oxen to the 

CHAP. II. Athene of Ilium, whilst the Magi pom-ed out liba- 

iiium inha- ^ious iu hoiiouT of tlio licroes.^ The Ilia nterri- 

bitedbytke tory was inhabited by the Aeolians, among whom 

au'dGeTgi- were the Gergithes, who were regarded as a remnant 

^^^^- of the ancient Teucrians.^ The districts around 

Ilium and Teuthrania were considered by Herodotus 

to have been formerly a bay of the sea/ Further on 

were the Grergithes on the right, and on the left were 

Rboctium. the cities of Rhoetium ; Opluyneium ; Dardanus, 

^^ rynei- ^^j-^^^]^ bordcred on Abydos ; ^ the city of Abydos, 

Ab t"^' from whence, on a lofty throne of white marble at 

the summit of a hill, Xerxes reviewed his entire 

army and fleet on the neighbouring plains and 

Percote. sliorcs ; - Pcrcotc ; Lampsacus ; Paesus ; Parium ; [ 

Pa^u^"''' Placia and Scylace, both of which were built by the 

pS^' Pelasgians, who subsequently preserved their dia- 

scyiace. jg^t i^ aiid Dascvleium,^ which had a district bear- 

ing the same name, and which passed for a Bithy- 

Cius. nian city, only Herodotus calls Cius a Mysian town, 

and the latter lay still more to the eastward/^ Two 

Islands of islands are also mentioned : Cyzicus, which contained 

Proconne^*^ tlic citv of Artaco, and where was celebrated a great 

^^®- festival to the mother of the gods, which Anacharsis 

vowed he would introduce into Scythia ; " and Pro- 

connesus, which was the native place of Aristeas, the 

author of the Arimaspea/^ The towns of Artace and 

Proconnesus were both destroyed by the Persians. ^^ 

Lydians, "YVq Lydians apparently occupied all the later pro- 

ent empire, viucc of Lydia, cxccpting the maritime district held 

by the lonians of the first satraj^y. In the time of 

Croesus, they were the most valiant and warlike 

people in Asia. They were armed with long jave- 

' This was the name of the citadel of Troy. Herodotus adds " of 
Priam" to distinguish it from Pergamus on the Caicus, with which how- 
ever, singularly enough, BoLrik confuses it. 

2 vii. 43. ■■* V. 122. " ii. 10. « vii. 43. « vii. 44. 

7 V. 117; iv. 138. '^ i. 57. 

^ iii. 120. We also learn from the testimony of Xenophon, that the 
western portion of Bithynia was attached to that of Mysia, whose satraps 
took up thefr habitual residence in the Bithynian town of Dascyleium. 
Xenoph. Anah. quoted by Heeren. 

J" V. 122. '• iv. 70. '^ iv. 13, 14. " vi. 33. 


lins, and fought on horseback, managing their horses asia. 
with admirable skilL' They thus became the rul- chap. h. 
ing power in western Asia, and subdued all the 
nations westward of the river Halys, except the Ly- 
cians and Cilicians. The empire of Croesus there- 
fore included the Lydians, Phrygians, Mysians, 
Mariandynians, Chalybes, Paphlagonians, Thynian 
and Bithynian Thracians, Carians, lonians, Dorians, 
Aeolians, and Pamphylians,^ Sardis the capital was Saniis the 
situated in a large but naked plain, watered by seve- ^^"^^ '^ ' 
ral rivers. Amongst others, the Hyllus (or modern River Hyi- 
Demirgi-chai) flowed through it into the Hermus, (or iiemius. 
modern Ghiediz-chai,) which was the largest river of 
this country, and flowed from a mountain, (the mo- 
dern Morad Tagh,) sacred to the mother Dindymene, 
and discharged itself into the sea near Phocae.^ 
The acropolis of Sardis was very steep and inacces- 
sible on the side which faced Mount Tmolus, (or 
Musa Tagh,) but was nevertheless scaled at this part 
by Hyroeades, a Mardian in the army of Cyrus, when 
the walls at every other point were impregnable.* 
Most of the houses were built entirely of reeds or 
canes ; others with brick walls were also thatched 
over with reeds. At the time of the Ionian revolt, a 
soldier set fire to one of these houses, and the flames 
quickly spread from house to house, and consumed 
the entire city.^ Even the temple of the national 
goddess Cybele fell in the general conflagration, 
and the Persians subsequently burnt the sanctuaries 
of Grreece in revenge for this destruction.*^ Through 
the centre of the agora or market-place flowed the 
river Pactolus, (or Sarabat,) bringing grains of gold 
from Mount Tmolus, and subsequently discharging 
itself into the Hermus.^ Sardis and Ephesus appear 
to have been the principal markets of the country, 
especially for the sale of eunuchs, who were more 
valued than other slaves on account of their extreme 

1 i. 79. ' i. 6, 28. 3 I 80. i i 84. ^ y. joi. 

6 V. 102. 7 V. 101. 

* viii. 105. With the exception of a few black tents of Yuruks, or 
wandering Turkomans, the only habitation described by travellers as ex- 





Gold dust 
from Mount 
Tmolus by 
the river 

Tumulus of 

Roads from 
Caria and 
Lydia to 

The Lyclian territory presented few wonders, ex- 
cepting perhaps the grains of gold which were washed 
down from Mount Tmolns, by the river Pactolus.^ The 
gold was apparently obtained in considerable quanti- 
ties, and we find that the treasury of the Lydian kings, 
like that of the Persians, was filled with heaps of the 
precious dust.^ Lydia however exhibited one work 
which was greater than those of any other nation 
excepting Aegypt and Babylon. This was a monu- 
ment to Alyattes the father of Croesus, and consist- 
ed of an immense mound or tumulus of earth erected 
on a basis of large stones. It was 6 stadia and 2 
plethra in circumference, and 13 plethra in breadth, 
and was situated near a large lake called the Gy- 
gaean lake, which the Lydians said was fed by per- 
petual springs.^ The tumulus was raised by trades- 
men, mechanics, and prostitutes ; and on the summit, 
there still remained in the time of Herodotus five 
columns bearing inscriptions, showing how much of 
the work was executed by each class, and proving 
that the females had done the most.^ 

Herodotus also mentions a beautiful tree, which 
existed in Lydia, and prefaces his notice with a some- 
what minute topographical description. The road 
which led from Phrygia into Lydia divided at the 
frontier into two ways, that on the left led to Caria, 

isting at Sardis, now called Sart, is that of a Greek miller, who has taken 
advantage of one of the streams which flow past the acropohs to tm-n 
the wheel of his mill. Ainsworth, Travels in the Track of the Ten Thou- 

1 V. 101. 2 vi. 125. 

3 The Necropolis of the ancient kings of Lydia was situated, according 
to Strabo, about 40 stadia north of Sardis. It is described by Mr. Ha- 
milton as standing upon a low ridge of limestone hills that rise above 
the reed-environed lake of Gygaeus. It is a collection of gigantic mounds 
or tumuli, three of which are distinguished by their superior size, but the 
largest of which is generally designated as the tomb of Alyattes. It took 
Mr. Hamilton ten minutes to ride round its base, which accordingly he 
computes to be nearly half a mile in circumference. We have seen in 
the text, that Herodotus describes the mound as made up of earth upon 
a stone foundation, and Mr. Hamilton found it to be composed towards 
the north of natural rock, a white horizontally stratified earthy limestone, 
cut away so as to appear part of the structure, and in the upper portion 
of sand and gravel, apparently brought from the bed of the Hermus. Cf. 
Ainsworth, Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand. 

^ i. 93. 


and that on the right to Sardis. Travellers who went asia. 
by this latter road, were compelled to cross the river chap. n. 
Maeander, (now called the Buynk Mendereh,) and 
pass by the city of Callatebus, in which resided con- 
fectioners who made honey (or sugar) from tamarisk 
and wheat. Xerxes followed this road in his ex- 
pedition against Greece, and when about a day's Beautiful 
march from Sardis, he met with a plane tree so o?tiie*Ly- 
exceedingly beautiful, that he presented it with "^^^"^ ''°-''^- 
golden ornaments, and committed it to the care of 
one of the Immortals.^ 

The amusements and vices of the Lydians, as de- Depraved 
scribed by Herodotus, are strongly illustrative of the thX/dLns. 
state of civilization and morals in the rich commercial 
cities of antiquity. Most of their customs resembled 
those of the Hellenes, but it is remarked that they 
prostituted their females ; ^ and their city seems to 
have been the resort of a great number of wealthy 
strangers, for we are told that the daughters of all the 
common people were enabled to provide themselves 
with dowries by the sacrifice of their modesty, and 
were subsequently permitted to choose their own 
husbands.^ The Lydians were also the first nation invented 
known to Herodotus that introduced the art of coin- coFning mo- 
ing gold and silver ; and they were the first retailers,^ deaiin ^'"'^ 
that is, they were the first who purchased articles and games 
fr-om the manufacturer, or importer, and sold them Luckie- 
separately or in small quantities to the public. Ac- J°^^'' ''''^ 
cording also to the Lydians themselves, they were the 
inventors of games of dice, knuckle-bones, ball, and 
all the other games which were common in Lydia 
and Hellas, draughts only excepted. These inven- 
tions were made during that prolonged famine in 
the reign of Atys, which led to the Tyrrhenian mi- 
gration.^ The Lydians, like the Aegyptians, held 
tradesmen and their descendants in less respect than 
other citizens.^ Their earlier name was Meiones. 
In the army of Xerxes they carried weapons very 
similar to those used by the Greeks.^ 

1 vii. 31. 2 i, 94. 3 i. 93_ 4 i. 94 5 ibid. 

6 ii. 167. ' vii. 74. 




ASIA. The towns on the coast of Lydia were very im- 
CHA.V. II. portant, and may all be regarded as belonging to 

Topoo-raphy loula, tliough, for tlio sako of clearness, it has been 

of the coast, considered most advisable to include the description 
of them under the geography of the Lydian territory. 
We shall describe them in regular order, proceeding 
from north to south. The first of these was the 

Phoeaea, its commcrcial city of Phocaea, which was situated near 
the mouth of the river Hermus.^ The Phocaeans 
were the first of all the Hellenes who undertook long 
voyages. These were made not in merchant vessels, 
(broad boats,) but in penteconters, or fifty-oared gal- 
leys,^ (long boats,) which, in the time of Herodotus, 
were used chiefly for war. Arganthonius, the king 
of Tartessus, received them with great kindness, and 
endeavoured to persuade them to abandon their own 
country and settle in his territory ; and when they 
declined the offer, he gave them sufficient money to 
build a good city wall of large and well-fitting stone, 
and not a few stadia in circumference.^ When at- 
tacked by the Persian general, they took all their 
families, goods, and temple-images on board their 
penteconters and sailed to Chios, and there tried to 
buy the Oenyssae islands of the Chians. Being re- 
fused, they sailed to Cyrnus, but on their way landed 
at Phocaea, and slew the garrison which the Per- 
sians had left to guard the city. They then sunk a 
mass of red-hot iron into the sea, and swore not to 
return until the iron should re-appear ; but soon after- 
wards more than half of the citizens were seized with 
a regret and longing for their native town, and vio- 
lated their oaths and sailed back to Phocaea, whilst 
the remainder proceeded to Cyrnus.'* Phocaea took 
a part in the erection of the Hellenium, a sacred 
building, or temple, in the trading city of Naucra- 
tis in Aegypt.^ The Phocaeans had three ships at 
the sea-fight near Lade." 

Magnesia. Ncxt to Phocaca worc the following : Magnesia,' 
the residence of Oroctes, the Persian satrap who 

Heroic re- 
sistance to 

i. 80. 


« vi. ft. 


' i. 165. 
-> i. 161. 

ii. 178. 


crucified Polycrates ; ' Sni;)^ma ; ^ Clazomenae ; ^ Ery- asia. 
tlirae/ which sent eight ships to Lade ; ^ Teos, which ^haf. n. 
was held ^to be the centre of Ionia," and sent seven- smyma. 
teen ships to Lade ;^ Lebedos;' and Colophon," which g™^^^^ 
was not properly a genuine Ionian town, as its in- Teos.^^^ ' 
habitants did not celebrate the Apaturian festival. ^° coiophou. 

Next came Ephesus ^^ on the river Cayster,^^ con- Ephesus. 
taining the celebrated temple, which, with the tem- 
ple at Samos, are declared by Herodotus to be the 
principal structures in Greece. ^'^ This town was also 
not genuinely Ionian for the same reason that Colo- 
phon was not.^* On the other hand, the Ephesians 
celebrated the Thesmophoria ; and once at this fes- 
tival some Chians were unhappily killed as they 
were escaping after the battle of Lade, being mis- 
taken by the Ephesians for banditti. ^^ Ephesus and 
Sardis were probably the great marts of western 
Asia, especially for eunuchs.^" The whole country 
around appeared to have been formerly a sea.'^ In 
the Ephesian territory was a place called Coressus,^^ Coressus. 
and lower down was .the headland Mycale, (or Sam- Mycaie. 
sun,) projecting towards Samos, and on which the 
natural sanctuary called the Panionium was built. ^" 
Herodotus also relates that the Persians in going to 
Mycale passed the temple of the Eumenides, (Deme- 
ter and Cora,) and came to Graeson and Scolopoeis, 
where the temple of the Eleusinian Demeter stood ; 
and that they there drew their ships on shore, and 
threw up a rampart of stone and wood, and fortified 
it with a palisade.^" The mountains of Mycale are 
also mentioned, with the passes leading to them.^^ 

In Ionia there were two figures of Sesostris sculp- sculptures 

o -■- Q+ Spsostris 

tured in the rocks, one on the road fi:om Ephesus to found in 
Phocaea, and the other on the road from Sardis to ^°'''''- 
Smyrna. In each place a man was carved four cubits 

I iii. 125. '^ i. 14, 149. ^ i. iq. i i ig, ^ vi. 8. 

6 i. 170. ^ vi. 8. 8 i, 142. 9 i. 14, 142. ^^ i. 147- 

II i. 26. ^^ V. 100. The river Cayster now bears the name 
of Kuchuk Mendereh, or Little Mendereh, in contradistinction to the 
Maeander, or Great Mendereh. 

13 ii. 148. '* i. 147. 15 vi. ig. 16 viii. 105. 1' n. 10. 

18 V. 100. 19 i. 148. »° ix. 97. ^^ ix. 99. 





tion of the 
Sardis and 
Smyrna by 

Its Aegyp- 
tian origin 

and a half liigli, and holding a spear in his right hand 
and a bow in his left. The rest of the costume was 
partly Aegyptian and partly Aethiopian ; and across 
the breast between the shoulders was engraved an 
inscription in sacred Aegyptian characters, signify- 
ing ' ' I have conquered this country by my own 
shoulders." These monuments were incorrectly sup- 
posed by some people to be images of Memnon.^ 

The monument on the road from Sardis to Smyrna 
is still to be seen.^ It consists of a figure of a war- 
rior carved within a large square cavity, on the side 
of a smooth and nearly perpendicular rock. The 
figure wears a tiara and holds a spear in its left 
hand, not in the right, as Herodotus says ; but the 
right hand holds the string of a bow which hangs on 
the warrior's back. Near the head is the represent- 
ation of a bird in a sort of ornamented frame. The 
detail parts of the figure are seen very indistinctly, 
and the more prominent parts, including the inscrip- 
tion, have been carried away by time and air. The 
identity is, however, unquestionable, though some 
modern critics have doubted the Aeg3rptian origin 
of the monument. The inscription recorded in He- 
rodotus does not contain the Idng's name, which, ac- 
cording to Aegyptian custom, would not have been 
omitted. The whole costume, especially the tiara, 
which is very different from the Aegjptian pshent, 
the form of the shoes, and the clumsiness and rude- 
ness in the proportions of the body, do not agree 
with other well-known monuments of Sesostris and 
his time, nor with Aegyj)tian art in general. The 
monument has therefore been ascribed to some one 
of the native nations of Asia Minor, or to some con- 
quering invader of Scythian origin ; and the latter 
theory seems the nearest to truth, inasmuch as He- 
rodotus' s description of the costume and armour of 
the Scythians, whom the Persians call Sacae, agrees 

1 ii. 106. 

2 This monument was discoveretl about thirty years ago by the Rev. 
G. C. Renouard, and has been described by Prof. Welcker, and comment- 
ed on by Kiepert and others. For the present account I am indebted to 
two papers by Dr. Schmitz in the Chissical Museum, vol. i. 


exactly with the figure in the relief, with the excep- asia. 
tion of the sagaris or axe,^ But it is difficult, as Dr. chap, h. 
Schmitz observes, to understand how Herodotus, 
who had seen more Aegyptian monuments and in- 
scriptions than any modern traveller, could have 
pronounced the present one to be Aegyptian, unless 
it had borne strong marks of its origin. The lonians 
themselves evidently believed it was Aegyptian; 
hieroglyphics were on its breast, and the bird in 
the frame has only hitherto been found on Aegyp- 
tian monuments. The costume certainly presents a 
difficulty, but it must be remembered that it is to 
our author himself that we are indebted for our in- 
formation respecting the Scythian equipment. The 
question however must still remain a subject for 
archaeological critics. 

Beside the Mysians and Lydians already describ- J^?°^f^'^^^' 
ed, the second satrapy comprised the Lasonians, anduygen- 
Cabalians, and Hygennians.^ Of these people we '''^'^'• 
can gain no information. It is probable that the two 
first formed one and the same nation, as Herodotus 
says in another place — "the Cabalian Meionians, 
who are also called Lasonians;" — and that they 
were settled in Lydia on the confines of Lycia, as 
the Lasonians and Milyans were both under the 
same commander.^ It must however be remarked, 
that the Cabalians were equipped like the Cilicians.* 

III. The Asiatic coast of the Hellespont, with hl hel- 
Phrygia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Cappadocia, ph^rygia, 
composed the third satrapy, which thus embraced pIphUg^o. 
the Hellespontines to the right of the entrance to ^^^'/^"^ 
the straits, the Phrygians, the Asiatic Thracians, docia. 
the Paphlagonians, the Mariandynians, and the 
Syro-Cappadocians. It paid 360 talents yearly.*'^ 

The Hellespontines were descendants of the ^ggl^^^"'^*" 

1 vii. 64. 2 i_9o. 

3 This is Valcknaer's conjecture. The objection to it is, that if Badres 
was commander of only two nations, viz. the Cabahan Meionians or 
Lasonians and the Milyans, why should Herodotus say " Badres com- 
manded ALL these nations," — for two would scarcely justify the expres- 
sion. Larcher, note on vii. 77- 

* vii. 77. ' iii. 90. 





more an- 
cient than 
the Aegyp- 

3vhen dwell- 
ing in Ma- 

lonians and Dorians. They contributed one hun- 
dred ships to Xerxes, and were equipped in the 
Hellenic fashion.^ It is evident from this that they 
included the Hellenic colonies on the Propontis, 
whose names we have already mentioned under 
Mysia.^ Besides these, the town of Calchedonia^ 
on the Bosphorus, where the bridge of Darius was 
laid across/ Megabyzus, when he heard that the 
Calchedonians had settled seventeen years before 
the Byzantines, remarked that the former must have 
been blind for choosing the worst site for their city, 
when they might have had Byzantium, which was 
the best.^ 

The Phrygians were the only nation which the 
Aegyptians acknowledged to be more ancient than 
themselves. Psammetichus proved them to be an- 
terior, by ordering a shepherd to bring up two new- 
born children in a solitary room, where they were 
suckled by goats, and could not hear the sound of 
any human language. After two years it was found 
that the children could only cry Bekos," which, on 
inquiry, was discovered to be the Phrygian word 
for bread. This experiment satisfied the Aegyptians 
that the Phrygians were more ancient than them- 
selves.'' In the army of Xerxes the Phrygians ap- 
peared in almost the same costume as the Paphla- 
gonians, who wore peculiar boots,'reaching half way 
up their legs, and carried small shields and small 
spears, together with javelins and daggers.^ Ac- 
cording to a tradition of the Macedonians, they were 
called Bryges, as long as they were Europeans and 
dwelt witli them in Macedonia, but after they were 
settled in Asia they changed their name with their 
country, and were called Phrygians. The Armeni- 
ans were a Phrygian colony.^ 

1 vii. 95. 2 pjige 226. 

3 Generally spelt Chalcedonia. All the coins of the place have, how- 
ever, the name written KaXxh^ov, and this is also the way in which the 
name is written in the best MSS. of Herodotus, Xenophon, and other 
writers. * iv. S5. ^ iv. 144. 

*■' This is explained hy the Scholiast on Apoll. Rhod. iv. 262, to be 
merely an imitation of the bleating of goats, 

' ii. 2. ^ vii. 72. " vii. 7'S. 


The topography of Phrygia is somewhat obsciire, asia, 
A particidar tract of land in Phrygia was occupied chap. n. 
by the Paeonians, who had been transplanted by ~ ^~~ 
Megabazus from the river Strymon, but who during of Phrygia. 
the Ionian revolt escaped back to their own coun- p/ed^byXe 
try, leaving behind them only a few who were Paeouians. 
afraid to venture.^ Gordium^ was the ancient Gordium. 
capital.^ Celaenae was a town in Phryffia where ceiaenae. 

• t/ o Sources of 

the sources of the river Maeander ^ streamed forth ; the Mae- 
and where another river not much smaller, named c^tar-^*^'^^ 
the Catarrhactes, rose in the agora and discharged ihactes. 
itself into the Maeander. In this city the skin of 
Silenus Marsyas was suspended, which, as the Phry- 
gians say, was stripped off and hung up by Apollo.^ 
Celaenae was also the residence of Pythius the 
Lydian, who gave Darius a golden plane tree and 
vine, and was said to be the richest man in the 
world next to Xerxes.^ He possessed 2000 silver 
talents and four millions of gold Daric staters,^ or 
nearly four millions sterling. The river Marsyas River Mar- 
flowed from the territory of Idrias and fell into the ^^ 
Maeander : on one of its banks was the place called 
White Columns, where the Carians were defeated by white 
the Persians in the Ionian revolt.^ From Celaenae course of 
Xerxes in his course towards Greece went to the cei^nllTo 
city called Anana, and passing by a lake from ^^^-^ 
whence salt was obtained, reached Colossae, where saitiake. 
the river Lycus disappeared under the earth for five EivTr Ly- 
stadia, and subsequently discharged itself into the *^"^- 
Maeander. Farther on, at the town of Cydrara, a Cydrara. 
pillar had been erected by Croesus to mark the piiiarbe- 
boundaries between Phrygia and Lydia.^ The pITi^'giaand 
road here divided ; that on the left leading to Caria, ^J'^'^- 

1 V. 98. 

^ Nearly all the ancient kings of Phrygia were called either Midas or 

3 Cf. i. 14. 

* The Maeander is now called by the Turks Buyuk Mendereh, or the 
Great Mendereh, in contradistinction to the Little Mendereh, or ancient 
Cayster. It is joined by the Catan-hactes, and after flowing for some 
time in a westerly direction, is joined on the south side by the Lycus. 
There is some slight confusion about the Marsyas, as it is evident that 
the river so called by Xenophon is the Catarrhactes of Herodotus. 

5 vii. 28. « vii. 27. ' vii. 2S. » v. 118, 119. » vii. 30. 




CHAP. n. 


from the 
called Bi- 



White Syri- 
ans, or 

and that on the right across the Maeander to Sardis.^ 
Conium is also mentioned, of which town Cineas 
the king of Thessaly, who assisted the Peisistratidae, 
was a native ;^ together with Alabanda, a large 
Phrygian city.^ It is however doubtful whether 
this should not be written '' a Carian city."* 

The Theacians, after their settlement in Asia, 
were called Bithynians. Previously, whilst dwell- 
ing on the river Strymon, they had been called 
Strymonians, but according to their own statement 
they were driven from the Strymon by the Teucri 
and Mysians. They marched in the army of Xerxes 
having fox-skins on their heads and tunics on their 
bodies, over which were coverings of various colours. 
On their legs and feet they wore buskins of deer- 
skin. Their arms were javelins, light bucklers, 
and small daggers.^ The Thynian Thracians are 
also mentioned as forming part of the empire of 

The Martandynians accompanied Xerxes, and 
were equipped the same as the Paphlagonians.' 

The Paphlagonians also marched in the Persian 
army, wearing plaited helmets on their heads, and 
peculiar boots on their feet reaching half way up 
their legs. They carried small shields and small 
spears ; also javelins and daggers.^ They dwelt on 
the left bank of the river Halys.^ Wlien the Cim- 
merians were diiven into Asia by the Scythians, 
they settled on the peninsula, (in the Paphlagonian 
territory,) where the Hellenic city of Sinope stood 
in the time of Herodotus.^" The Paphlagonians 
seem also to include the people whom Herodotus 
describes as^Hlie S3rrians about Thermodon and 
the river Parthenius." ^' Here also may be placed 
Themiscyra, which lay on the river Thermodon, 
and from which city across the Pontus to Sindica 
was 3300 stadia.'' 

The Cappadocians, so called by the Persians,'^ 

1 vii. 31. 2 V. f)3. ^ viii. 1.3G. < vii. 19.5. See also page 221. 
•' vii. 7.5. " i. 28. ' vii. 72. « j^jid. o i 72. 

'" iv 12. " ii. 104. '- iv. 86. " vii. 72. 

ASIA MINOE. • 239 

were named Syrians by the Greeks/ Before the asia. 
establishment of the Persian power they belonged chap. h. 
to the Median empire, but afterwards they were in- ~ ~r 
eluded in the empire of Cyrus. The river Halys ans. 
formed the boundary between the Median empire ^ ^^" 

and the Lydian. This river rises in the mountains 
of Armenia, and flows through Cilicia ; then be- 
tween the Matienians on its right bank and the 
Phrygians on its left ; and afterwards runs north- 
ward with the Syrian Cappadocians on its right and 
the Paphlagonians on its leffc.^ 

From the foregoing description, it is evident that Extent and 
the territory occupied by the Cappadocians was in- cappldocir 
eluded in very different limits to the Cappadocia of tus^'"'°'^° 
later times. As the Halys is said to flow through 
Cilicia, we cannot suppose the Cappadocians to 
have stretched southward beyond it, but may indeed 
consider them to be enclosed between the Halys 
and the Euxine. 

When Croesus reached the Halys he crossed the canaiof 
river, as Herodotus believes, by the bridges still 
there ; but the Greeks say that Thales the Milesian 
made the stream fordable by carrying off the waters 
through a semicircular canal behind the camp.^ 

River Halys. 

^^"^J of TVv»^^* 

The Cappadocians wore the same accoutrements 

1 The Cappadocians are always styled by writers contemporaneous 
with the Persians, Leuco-Syri, or White Syrians, to distinguish them 
from the Syrians properly so called. " Their complexion," says Strabo, 
" was fairer than that of then- countrymen to the south." It is probable, 
however, that the Cappadocians had themselves assumed this appella- 
tion fi'om motives of vanity. Most of the eastern nations take a pride 
in bearing a name significant of fairness of complexion. Hence the 
White Huns, the golden-horde, (among the Calmucks,) etc. Even the 
empress of Russia was habitually styled by her oriental subjects, the 
White Czarina. Heeren, Asiat. Res. vol. i. 

2 i. 72. 3 i. 75. 



ASIA, in the army of Xerxes as their western neighbours 
!HAP. II. the Paphlagonians.^ Croesus took the Cappadocian 
town of Pteria, which was the strongest position in 
the whole of this country, and situated over against 
Sinope ; and he enslaved the Pterians and ravaged 
the lands of the surrounding Syrians, taking all 
the adjacent places and expelling the inhabitants.^ 
Ciitaiia. The town of Critalla is also mentioned, as being the 
place where all the land forces of Xerxes assembled.^ 
iv.ciLiciA ly. CiLiciA composed the fourth satrapy, which 
therefore comprised the Cilicians, who gave 360 
white horses and 500 talents, of which latter only 
360 went to Darius, as the remaining 140 were re- 
quired for the cavalry guarding Cilicia.* 
Cilicians, Tho Cilicians furnished Xerxes with one hundred 

named Hy- ships. Thoy dwclt in a mountainous country,^ and 
pachaeans. ^q^q formerly called Hypachaeans, but afterwards 
were named Cilicians, from Cilix, son of Agenor the 
Phoenician. On their heads they wore helmets 
peculiar to their country, and instead of shields 
they carried bucklers made of raw hides, and were 
attired in woollen tunics. Each man had two jave- 
lins and a sword shaped lil^e the Aegyptian scimetar.^ 
Artemisia considered them to be as useless allies of 
Xerxes as the Pamphylians.^ In the Aleian plain in 
Cilicia, Datis and Artaphernes with the Persian land 
forces were joined by the navy and horse trans- 
Extent and Tho Cilicia of Hcrodotus was evidently much 
the'ciiicia larger than the country which went by that name 
ti^^^°^°' ^^ ^ later period. In the north and north-east it 
extended beyond the Halys and as far as Armenia, 
for Herodotus says that the Halys flowed from the 
Armenian mountains through Cilicia.^ Towards 
the cast it reached as far as the river Euphrates,'" 
and probably towards the south it extended to 
Posidcium in Syria, as Herodotus expressly says 
that this city was built on the frontiers of the Cili- 
cians and Syrians. His statement that the Marian- 

1 vii. 72. 2 i. 7(5, 3 vii_ 26. * iii. 90. « ii. 34. 

G vii. 91. ' viii. 68. « vi. 95. ^ i. 72. '" v. 52. 


die Grulf lies adjacent to Phoenicia,' does not in the asia. 
least interfere with this boundary line ; as the town ^hap. n. 
of Mariandrus, which gave its name to the bay, might 
be Phoenician, whilst the land farther in the interior 
might be Cilician. Xenophon even expressly calls 
it a Phoenician place. ^ 

Such then was the extent of our author's know- conciusioa. 
ledge of Asia Minor. The geography of the western 
coast is more full than that of all the remaining 
territory; but it would have been impossible to 
curtail the topographical description of the Greek 
colonies without omitting information of consider- 
able importance, whilst the interior and eastern dis- 
tricts are almost as little known now as they were 
in the days of Herodotus, and we gladly leave them 
to enter upon the more important geography of 
Upper Asia. 

1 iv. 38. 2 Bobrik, Geog. des Herod. § 70. 



ASIA. Plateau of Iran.— Traversed east and south by two great ranges. — 

}HAP. HI. Zagros, or mountains of Kurdistan. — Elburz and Ghur mountains. — 

\ Country watered by the Euphrates and Tigris. — Assyria. — Babylonia. — 

Mesopotamia. — Syria. — Media. — Cissia and Persis.^ — Three satrapies 
known to Herodotus. — 5. Syria Proper, or Phoenicia and Palaestine. 
— Distinction between the Syrians of Palaestine and the White Syrians 
of Cappadocia and Assyrians of Babylonia and Mesopotamia. — Face of 
the country.— Libanus and Anti-Libanus. ^ — Valley of the Jordan. — Desert 
of Syria. — Phoenicians, their migi-ations fi-om the Erythraean. — Com- 
mercial enterprise. — Naval superiority. — Equipment. — Practice of cir- 
cumcision. — Figure-heads on their ships. — Palm wine. — Tyrian camp 
settlement in Aegypt. — Tyre : ancient temple of Heracles. — Sidon. — 
Aradus. — Syrians of Palaestine, or Hebrews, scarcely known to Herodo- 
tus. — Importance of Palaestine as a key to Aegypt. — Ascalon : temple of 
Aphrodite or Astarte. — Magdolus, or Megiddo. — Cadytis. — Identified by 
Prideaux -with Jerusalem — by Mr. Ewing with Kadesh in Galilee — ^by 
Col. Rawhnson with Gaza. — Correctness of the latter view. — Sea-ports of 
Palaestine. — Arid tract between Jenysus and Lake Serbonis. — Practice 
of circumcision. — Pillars of Sesostris. — Cyprus. — 9. Assyria, or Baby- 
lonia and Mesopotamia, answering to Irak Arabi, and Algezirah. — In- 
habitants called Syrians by the Greeks, and Assyrians by the Barbari- 
ans.- — Great importance of this satrapy. — Want of rain supplied by the 
Euphrates. — Numerous canals. — Extraordinary growth of corn. — Palm 
trees. — Babylon, the only city described. — Site of the ruins of Babylon 
near Hillah. — Three mounds on the eastern bank of the Euphrates. — 
Mujelibe, or " the overturned." — Erroneously supposed by Rennell to be 
the temple of Belus. — El Kasr, or "the palace." — Amram' hill.- — Re- 
mains of ancient ramparts. — River embankment. — Western bank of the 
Euphrates. — Small scattered mounds. — Birs Nimroud, or tower of Babel 
and temple of Belus. — Its extreme antiquity. — ^Herodotus's description 
of Babylon : a vast square protected by a moat and wall. — Towers on 
the wall. — One hundred brass gates. — The city cut in two by the Eu- 
phrates. — Walls along the river-banks with brazen gates. — Inner wall. 
— The royal palace. — Temple of Belus : its eight towers and spiral 
ascent. — Statements of the Chaldacan priests. — Bridge over the Eu- 
phrates. — Sepulchre of Nitocris. — Names of the city gates. — Destruction 
of the fortifications by Darius. — Town of Is. — Account of the Euphrates. 
— Anciently overflowed the country. — Dams raised by Semiramis and 
Nitocris. — Course of the river rendered winding by Nitocris. — Numerous 
artificial canals. — Towns of Opis and Ampe. — Dress of the Babylonians. 
— Manners and customs. — Annual sale of maidens. — No physicians : 
sick persons carried into the market for advice. — Embalming. — Funeral 


lamentations like those of the Aegyptians. — Burning of incense after 
sexual intercourse. — Disgraceful practice connected with the worship of 
Aphrodite. — Three tribes of Babylonian Icthyophagi. — Chaldaeans. — 
Babylonian sun-dial. — Gnomon. — Talent. — 8. CissiA and Persis, an- 
swering to Khuzistan and Farsistan. — General description of the country. 
— Sandy plains along the coast. — Rising of the land in terraces. — Moun- 
tains on the north the fatherland of the Persians. — Great city of Susaon 
the Choaspes. — The Memnoniam. — Stone figure of Darius on horseback. 
■ — Identification of Susa with Shus on the river Kerkhah. — Ardericca, seat 
of the transplanted Erythraeans. — Well producing asphalt, salt, and oil. 
— Persians divided into ten tribes, viz. the Pasargadae, Maraphii, Maspii, 
Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, Dahae, Mardi, Dropici, and Sagartii. — 
Religion of the Persians. — No statues, temples, or altars. — Name of 
Zeus applied to the vault of heaven. — Sacrifices on high places. — Ancient 
worship of the sun, moon, earth, fire, water, and winds. — Later worship 
of Aphrodite or Mitra. — Mode of sacrifice. — Prayer of the sacrificer. — 
Ode sung by the Magi. — Social customs. — Celebration of birthdays. — 
Moderation at meals, but profusion afterwards. — Addiction to wine. 
— Debates when drunk and again when sober. — Modes of salutation ac- 
cording to rank. — Respect for neighbouring nations according to their 
proximity to Persia. — Attachment to foreign .customs. — Polygamy, con- 
cubinage, and pederasty. — Respect for fathers of large families. — Educa- 
tion of sons. — Trial of criminals. — Parricide considered impossible. — 
Lying and getting into debt especially abhorred. — Lepers and white 
pigeons expelled from cities. — Veneration for rivers. — Ceremonies prac- 
tised on dead bodies. — Weakness of the Persian skull. — Magi a pecuhar 
race : imlike the Persian priests. — Persian ignorance of navigation. — 
Contempt for markets and traders. — Equipment. — Especial honours paid 
to valour. — Honible custom of burying alive in honour of Ahriman. — 
Persian system of post. — Matters pertaining to the king. — Celebration of 
his birthday. — Those who obliged him called Orosangae, or benefactors. 
— Drank only of the water of the river Choaspes. — Regarded as the 
master of Asia. — General veneration for him. — Conduct of the harem. — 
Persian language. 

In tlie preceding chapter we traversed Asia Minor asia. 
to its eastern frontiers, and we therefore now find ^hap. m. 
ourselves standing on the mountains of Armenia, pj^teau of 
near the sources of the river Frat, or Euphrates. Iran. 
Before us is the gigantic plateau of Iran, spreading 
out from the base of Ararat southward towards the 
Persian Gulf, eastward nearly to the Indus, and 
sloping westward, as we have already seen, through 
the peninsula of Asia Minor to the shore of the 
Aegean. The whole of this elevated region is con- 
nected with the vast conical summits of Ararat by 
numerous mountain ranges. Westward the huge 
arms of Taurus and Anti-Taurus spread tln-ough 
Asia Minor. East and southward two other great Traversed 
ranges proceed in distinct lines to the limits of an- south V 
cient Persia. First the brown bleak mountains of *'''° '""'s^'- 

R 2 




Zagros, or 
of Kurdis- 

Elburz and 
Ghur moun- 

watered by 
the Eu- 
phrates and 




Kurdistan, anciently called the Zagros, run towards 
the south, and separate Assyria from Media ; and 
then, after approaching the coast, take a bend 
towards the east, and gradually decrease in height 
until they lose themselves near the banks of the 
Indus. The second chain runs almost due east, and 
skirts the northern side of Iran. It proceeds from 
the plateau of Ararat along the southern shore 
of the Caspian under the name of Elburz, and from 
thence stretches through Khorassan, and entering 
Cabul is interrupted by the valley of Herat. Be- 
yond this break it bears the name of the Ghur 
mountains or ancient Paropamisus, but afterwards 
joins the Hindoo Koosh, and at length reaches the 
Himalayas, first sending off a branch towards the 
north, which skirts the great desert of Gobi, or Sha- 
me, and was known to the ancients as the Imaus, but 
is now called Belur-tagh, or the mountains of Bolor.' 
From the elevated region of Armenia rise two 
great rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris, and these, 
after a long and devious com*se towards the south, 
at last unite and fall together into the Persian Gulf. 
The country on the northern course of the Tigris 
was called Assyria ; that on the southern course of 
the Euphrates was called Babylonia. The large in- 
tervening space between the Euphrates and Tigris, 
and to the south of Babylonia, was called Mesopota- 
mia, or '' country between the rivers." The region 
westward of the Euphrates, and stretching to the 
Mediterranean, is generally known by the name of 

^ The plateau of Iran, with its various ridges, is evidently described by 
both Straho and Arrian, who copy from Eratosthenes, under the general 
name of Mount Taurus. " India," they say, " is bounded on the north by 
Mount Taurus, which mountain retains the same name even in that 
country. It rises on the sea-coast near Pamphylia, Lycia, and Cilicia, 
and extends itself in one continued ridge as far as the Oriental Ocean, 
running quite through all Asia. In some parts, nevertheless, it is called 
by other names ; for in one country it is named Paropamisus ; in another, 
Emodus ; in a third, Imaus ; and it is very probable it has many more, 
in the various territories through which it passes. The Macedonian 
soldiers who accompanied Alexander in his expedition, called it Caucasus ; 
whereas Caucasus is a mountain of Scythia, widely distant from this ; but 
their reason was, that they might boast that Alexander had passed over 
Mount Caucasus." Strabo, lib. xv. Arrian, Indica. Op. c. ii. 


Cissia and 


Syria/ Eastward of Assyria was Media, and east- asia. 

ward of Babylonia was Cissia and Persis. Assyria 

Proper answers to the modern country of Kurdistan, Media' 
Babylonia to Irak-Arabi, Mesopotamia to Algezirah, 
Media to Irak-Ajemi, Cissia to Khuzistan, and Persis 
to.Farsistan. Syria Proper is still best known by its 
ancient name. It is necessary for the reader to bear 
these names and particulars continually in mind 
whilst investigating Herodotus' s geography of cen- 
tral Asia. 

The countries thus named and mapped out em- Three^satra- 
braced certainly all, and probably a great deal more to Herodo- 
than was known to our author. In the present §f;ia Pro- 
chapter we shall confine ourselves to the region be- per ; Assy- 
tween the Mediterranean and the I igris, answermg and Persis. 
to the provinces of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Baby- 
lonia ; and to these we shall add Cissia and Persia 
Proper, which lie eastward of the imited streams of 
the Tigris and Euphrates. This region is bounded 
on the north by the mountains of Armenia and Me- 
dia, and on the south by the Arabian desert and 
Persian Gulf, and was divided by Darius Hystaspis 
into three satrapies, which we shall name as follows : 

1 . Syria Proper, including Phoenicia and Palaestine. 

2. Assyria, so called by Herodotus, although it 
only comprised Babylonia and Mesopotamia, as 
Assyria Proper, or Kurdistan, was included in the 
Armenian satrapy. 3. Cissia, to which we shall also 
add Persis. These in the arrangement of Darius 
form the fifth, ninth, and eighth satrapies. 

y. Syeia Proper, or the fifth satrapy, extended v. Syria 
from the town of Poseideium which was built by Phoenicia 
Amphilochus on the borders of Syria and Cilicia, as 
far as Aegypt, and thus comprised all Phoenicia, 
Syria which is called Palaestine, and Cyprus.^ It 
paid a tribute of 350 talents.^ 

This territory may be called Syria Proper,* in con- 

1 We shall presently see that the terms Syria and Assyria were some- 
times used as general names for the entire region described in the pre- 
sent paragi'aph. 

2 This satrapy could scarcely include any part of Arabia, which paid 
separately a yearly tribute of frankincense. '^ iii- 91. 

^ Herodotus seems to have applied the name of Palaestine to the en- 

and Palaes- 


ASIA, tradistinction both to the White Syrians, or Cappa- 
^^^^- "^- docians, north of the Taurus, and the Syrians, or 
Distinction Assyrians, of Mesopotamia and Babylonia. From the 
?iIanTo?° former it was separated by the chain of Taurus Pro- 
Pidaestine per ; from the latter by an uncertain and irregular 
whitJ Syii- liiiG? which may be drawn from the southern point of 
padoJia^''^' "^1^^ Dead Sea to^.the upper course of the Euphrates.^ 
and the' Tlio couutry may be described as consisting of 

Bab/ionia two sots of highlands, formed by the ramifications of 
potimia!°" Mount Taurus, and running from north to south under 
Face of the ^]^g namos of Libanus and Anti-Libanus, until they 
Libanusand finally conncct themselves with the rocky masses of 
Anti-Liba- jj^j.^]^ ^^^^ Sinai in Arabia Petraea. Between them is 
Sj Jidan ^^^® long and remarkable valley containing the Dead 
Sea, the river Jordan, and a chain of lakes running 
northward from thence to the foot of the Taurus. 
Between this mountain region and the western bank 
Desert of of tlic Euphrates is the dry and gravelly desert of 
■^"'^' Syria, which however is covered with grass and wild 
flowers during the brief rains of winter and spring. 
It extends southwards into the desert of Arabia. 
Phoenicia was a territory along the coast of the north- 
ern half of the mountain region. Palaestine formed 
the southern part. The S3aians of Damascus, to the 
north of Palaestine and east of Phoenicia, are no- 
where mentioned by Herodotus, but were doubtless 
included in the same satrapy. 
Phoenicians Tlic PHOENICIANS Originally wandered from the 
t?ons from^' Erythraean to the Mediterranean, and having settled 
thra?an" ^n the soa-coast of that part of Syria ^ which is called 
Palaestine, began to undertake long voyages, and to 
export Assyrian and Aegyptian merchandise. From 

tire region, for, he evidently (vii. 89) considered Palaestine to include 

» Syria, or Aram, in its widest signification, denoted all the countries 
inhabited by the Aramaeans or Syrians, and embraced not only the re- 
gion between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates, but frequently also 
Mesopotamia and Babylonia, or the region between the Euphrates and 
Tigris, and even sometimes Assyria Proper, or Kurdistan, to the east of 
the latter river. On the other hand, Assyria was frequently made in its 
turn to include the same territories, and we find the terms Syria and 
Assyria often interchanged by Greek and Roman authors. Herodotus 
says (vii. (j;J) that the peoi)le who were called Syrians by the Greeks were 
termed Assyrians by the Barbarians. 

2 vii. 89. 


the city of Argos they carried off lo, an outrage asia. 
which is said to have been the original cause of the chap. m. 
Persian wars ; ^ and they are also especially men- commercial 
tioned as having taken to Greece the frankincense, enterprise. 
which they imported from Arabia.^ Their maritime 
power was very considerable, and without them 
the Persians could never have achieved any con- 
quests at sea.^ In conjunction with the Syrians of Navai supe- 
Palaestine,they furnished Xerxes with three hundred ^'°^' ^' 
ships,* and were considered to be the best sailors in 
all the Persian fleet, more especially the Sidonians.^ 
Their equipment consisted of helmets made very Equipment. 
much after the Hellenic fashion ; linen breastplates ; ^ 
shields without rims; and javelins/ They learnt Practice of 
the custom of circumcision from the Aegyptians, sion'^™^'" 
but those who carried on commercial intercourse 
with Grreece discontinued the practice.^ On the Figure- 
prows of their vessels they fixed the Pataici or their ships. 
images representing pigmies, which were not unlike 
the image of Hephaestus in the temple at Memphis.^ 

The palm wine of Phoenicia seems to have been Paim wine. 
much celebrated, and when Cambyses sent a cask 
with his other presents to the Aethiopians,^" it proved 
to be the only one of the gifts that pleased their 
taste." The Phoenicians themselves carried their xyrian 
wine in earthen vessels into Aegjrpt twice every ^^^t in" ^" 
year, and they seem to have had a large settlement ^^syv^- 
in the Aegyptian capital, for we are told that the 
Tyrian Phoenicians dwelt round the sanctuary of 
Proteus at Memphis, whence the whole district was 
called the Tyrian camp.^^ 

Of the country of Phoenicia we can obtain very Tyre. Anci- 

, . . Gilt tGnTDiG 

little information from Herodotus. At Tyre there was of Heracles. 

1 i. 1. 2 HI 107. ' i. 143. _ * vii. 89._ ^ vii. 96. 

^ The linen, says Larcher, was steeped in sour wine mixed with a 
certain quantity of salt. Eighteen thicknesses were laid on each other 
and worked together, as they make felt, and was then proof against steel, 
and could resist an arrow. Mr. Cooley adds, that this armour of wadded 
linen was probably an Aegyptian invention, and is still used in Upper 
Nubia, by those tribes which are removed a little fi'om the ordinary 
course of change and innovation. 

' vii. 89. ^ ii. 104. » iii. 37. '" iii. 20. 

" iii. 22. '2 ii. 112. 





Syrians of 
or Hebrews, 
known to 

of Palaes- 
tine as a key 
to Aegypt. 

temple of 
or Astarte. 

a temple of Heracles, (Melicartlia,] richly adorned 
witli a great variety of consecrated gifts, and contain- 
ing two pillars, one of gold and the other of emerald, 
both of which shone exceedingly in the darkness of 
night. Herodotus inquired of the priests how long 
the temple had been built, and was told that it had 
been erected 2300 years previously, at the same time 
that the city itself was founded.^ There was also 
another temple dedicated to the Thasian Heracles.^ 
Beside the foregoing, we also find mention of Si- 
don,^ and the town of Aradus, the native place of 

The Hebrew Nation, or Syrians of Palaestine, as 
Herodotus calls them, though so important in the 
history of the world, are but little mentioned by our 
author. In his mind they merely formed, with the 
Phoenicians and the island of Cyprus, a satrapy of 
the Persian empire. Phoenicia was the maritime 
nation extending along the coast. Palaestine was the 
agricultural nation,^ occupying the interior, and in- 
cluding the caravan route between Aegypt and the 
east. In a political point of view its possession was 
the more important to Persia, as it tended to secure 
that of Aeg3rpt. From the book of Ezra we learn 
that the head of this satrapy bore the title of go- 
vernor of the country " beyond the river ; " and that 
the Jews of Palaestine were sometimes governed 
by a subordinate ruler of their own race.*' In the 
time of Nehemiah we find allusion made to more 
satraps than one.^ The following is all we can ga- 
ther from Herodotus. At Ascalon (the old city of 
the Pliilistines) was the celebrated temple of the 

' Josephus, quoting from Menander, says that Hiram, the contempo- 
rary of the Jewish Solomon, pulled down the old temples of Melieartha 
and Astarte, and built new ones. Herodotus therefore only saw the 
new temple, which however must in his time have been 550 years old. 
Joseph. Cont. Apion, lib. i. c. 18. 

2 ii. 44. 2 ii. 116. ^ vii. 98. 

' The mountainous territory of Phoenicia was but little adapted for 
agriculture, and we consequently find that the corn country of Palaes- 
tine became her granary. Solomon furnished Hiram with an immense 
(juantity of wheat and oil in return for the Phoenician king's assistance 
in building the great temple at Jerusalem. 

"■' lOzra vi. 65 vii. 25. '' Nehemiah ii. 7, *J. 


celestial Aphrodite,^ which was plundered by the asia. 
Scythians in their excursions towards Aegypt. This chap. m. 
temple was the most ancient of all that were dedi- ' 
cated to the Syrian Aphrodite, for the one in Cyprus 
was built some time afterwards, and that in Cythera 
was founded by some Phoenicians who came from 
this part of Syria ? At Magdolus (or Megiddo ^) the Magdoius or 
Aegyptian king Neco defeated the Syrians.* The *^^' '°' 
city of Cadytis however is especially mentioned as Cadytis. 
being a large city, and in the opinion of Herodotus 
not much less than Sardis.^ Prideaux ^ identifies it identified 
with Jerusalem, not only from our author's notice of deaux with 
its importance, but also because Jerusalem was anci- Je^us^^iem. 
ently called Kedushah, or " the holy ; " ^ changed in 
the Syriac dialect, which was the vernacular tongue 
of the period, into Kedutha ; and again changed by 
Herodotus, who gave it a Grreek termination, into 
KaguT-ic, or Cadytis. Jerusalem is also still called by 
the Arabs El-kuds, or '' the holy." Herodotus how- ByMr.Ew- 
ever farther describes Cadytis as a city on the coast, K^dTsh in 
for he says that from Phoenicia to Cadytis, and from ^^aiiiee. 
Cadytis to Jenysus, (in the south,) the ports belong 
to the Arabs. ^ He also mentions that the Aegyptian 
king Neco took Cadytis, after the battle of Megid- 
do, and therefore could not have alluded to Jerusa- 
lem, as the latter city would have been quite out of 
his line of march.'' Mr. Ewing therefore shows that 
Jerusalem could not have been meant, and he justly 
observes, that to speak of the maritime towns be- 
tween Jerusalem and Jenysus, would be as absurd 
as to speak of those between Oxford and London.^" 

^ Called Astarte, Ashtaroth, Queen of heaven, etc., and is identified 
with the moon, as Baal was with the sun. 

2 i. 105. 

3 Herodotus has here confused Megiddo, the plain or valley at the foot 
of Mount Carmel, where Josiah was defeated and slain by Necho, with 
Magdolus or Migdol, in Lower Aegypt, 12 miles east of Pelusium. 

* ii. 159. ^ 5 iii, 5, 

* Prideaux's Connexion, an. 610 B. c. 

'' The inscription on the shekels was " Jerusalem Kedushah," or Jeru- 
salem the Holy, and this coin carried the name among the neighbour- 
ing nations ; hence the city was soon called simply Kedushah for short- 
ness' sake. 

8 iii. 5. " ii. 159. '" Classical Museum, No. iv. 


ASIA. He points out Kedesli in Galilee as the Cadytis of 
CHAP. III. Herodotus, because Kedesh is a maritime town, and 
would lie in Neco's line of march from Megiddo 
towards the Euphrates ; and he also derives the name 
Cadytis from Kadatha, a Chaldee corruption of Ke- 
desh. Mr. Ewing is evidently mistaken in his iden- 
tification, for Phoenicia stretched southwards some 
distance beyond Kedesh, and mention has already 
been made of the sea-ports between Phoenicia and 
By Colonel Cadytis. Coloncl Pawlinson has cleared up the difS.- 
■witiiGaza. culty. The forty-seventh chapter of Jeremiah 
j^rophetically describes the desolation by Pharaoh of 
the land of the Philistines ; and further, expressly 
alludes to the capture and destruction of Gaza, by 
the same king. The name of the Philistine city 
Correctness of Gaza, as discovcred by Dr. Layard and inter- 
view, preted by Colonel Rawlinson, is Khazita,' and as the 
description given by Herodotus is in every way ap- 
plicable to Gaza, we may presume that this was the 
name that the Greeks changed into Cadytis. 
Sea-ports of The sca-Dorts on the coast of the Mediterranean 

Falaestine. „ _^- K , r^ i • o i c r^ i ' i 

irom Phoenicia to Cadytis, and irom Cadytis to the 
city of Jenysus, belonged to the Arabians ; ^ but from 

^ Outline of AssjTian History collected from the cuneiform inscriptions, 
by Lieut. Col. Rawlinson. Printed from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 

* It must not however be forgotten that Cadytis, though in the midst 
of an Arab population, belonged to the Syrians of Palaestine. 

•■' It has been thought that the Arabs here described by our author 
were no other than the Hebrew tribes. This superficial theory, whilst it 
would explain the apparent difficulties in the geogi-aphy, is contradicted 
by history, and indeed by Herodotus himself, as the manners and cus- 
toms which he ascribes to the Arabians (see chap, on Independent Asia) 
can by no means be identified with those of the Jews. It seems certain, 
that after the return from the Babylonian captivity, and for a long time 
subsequently, the Hebrews only occupied the city of Jerusalem and its 
immediate neighbourhood, and gradually enlarged their territory as they 
increased in population. I cannot therefore but presume that the Arabs 
here alluded to were descendants of the old Philistine nation, which was 
evidently a powerful people in the reign of Judas Maccabaeus. Those 
commentators who suppose that Herodotus never could have penetrated 
Palaestine, merely on the ground that if he had done so he would have 
left some account of such a peculiar nation as the Jews, are, I think, 
labouring under a misconception of the period in which our author 
flourished. He was contemporary with Nehemiah, at a time when the 
Jewish nation was almost crushed by the Samaritans, and when Jerusa- 
lem possessed neither walls, towers, nor gates. The picture of utter pros- 


Jenysus to Lake Serbonis, on the confines of Aegypt, asia. 
they belonged to the Syrians. The latter tract chap. m. 
was three days' jonrney in extent, and utterly de- ^"JJ!^ 
stitute of water. ^ From every part of Hellas, and between Je- 
also from Phoenicia, earthen vessels filled with wine ili^e'ser- 
were twice every year imported into Aegypt, and ^°^^'- 
yet not a single jar was to be seen there ; for every 
demarch was obliged to collect all the vessels in his 
own town, and forward them to Memphis, where the 
people filled them with water, and conveyed them 
to the arid tract of three days' journey already de- 
scribed.^ This plan was first adopted by the Per- 
sians after they had become masters of Aegypt, in 
order to render the country easier of access.^ 

The Syrians in Palaestine, like the Phoenicians, Practice of 
learnt the practice of circumcision fi:"om the Aegypt- sion!'^'''' 
ians.* Herodotus saw in their country some of the piiiars of 
pillars of Sesostris, on which were engraved the ^^''^^*"^- 
usual inscription,^ together with the al^oia, an hiero- 
glyphic signifying that they had been conquered 
with very little trouble.^ 

Cyprus has already been described amongst the cypms. 
islands.^ The sixth satrapy, which included Aegypt 
and Libya, is described in another place. 

IX. Babylon and the rest of Assyria were included JJ^.^^'^^'jJ^ 
in the ninth satrapy, and paid yearly one thousand andMeso- 
talents of silver and five hundred young eunuchs.^ swei-ing'tr' 

This Assyria of Herodotus lay due east of the pre- 
vious satrapy, and appears to have included the coun- rah. 
try on the Euphrates and Tigris, and to have com- 
prised Mesopotamia and Babylonia, thus answering to 
the modern provinces of Algezirah and Irak-Arabi.^ 

tration and desolation described by Nehemiah in the two first chapters 
of this history ,|cannot bi;t impress us ■vidth the conviction, that even sup- 
posing that anything could have attracted Herodotus to Jerusalem, there 
was nothing for the traveller to record, but a ruined city and a broken- 
down people. 

1 iii. 5. 2 iii. 6. 3 iii. 7. i ii. 104. ^ ii. 106. 

^ Ibid. ■'' See page 96. ^ iii. 92. 

^ When Herodotus speaks of Assyria, and the gi'eat cities which it 
contained, (i. 177; 178,) it is clear from the context that he means Baby- 
lonia, and when (vii. 63) he is describing the equipment of the Assyrians, 
he evidently means the inhabitants of Mesopotamia. 

and Algezi- 


ASIA. Assyria Proper, or Kurdistan, was included in the 
CHAP. III. Armenian satrapy. 

Inhabitants ^^^® Assyriaiis were so named by the Barbarians, 
eauedsy- but by the Helleiios were called Syrians. They 
Greeks^, aud occupicd a part of uppcr Asia,^ and after the destruc- 
i^y tiiTBar- '^i^n of tlicir chief city of Nineveh on the river 
barians. TigHs,^ ^ tlio Celebrated Babylon became their capi- 
tal, and the chief seat of government ; * and every- 
thing that Herodotus says further of this country and 
its inhabitants has reference only to Babylon and 
the Babylonians. 
Great im- Tlio Babyloniau territory was sufficient to pro- 
tiiis satrapy, vido subsistonco for the king of Persia and all his 
army during four months of the year, whilst the 
rest of Asia was only able to meet the requirements 
of the remaining eight. The power and wealth of 
the Babylonians were therefore, in the opinion of 
Herodotus, equal to one-third of all Asia. It was 
indeed the most important of all the satrapies. It 
brought daily to Tritantaechmes, the governor of the 
satrapy, a full artaba of silver — a Persian measure 
equal to one Attic medimnus and three choenices. 
Beside this the satrap had eight hundred stallions 
and sixteen thousand mares, in addition to the horses 
used in war ; and he kept such a number of Indian 
dogs, that four large villages were exempted from 
all taxes and appointed to provide them with food.^ 
Very little rain fell in Assyria, but the want of 

1 i. 95. 2 i 193, 

3 The silence of Herodotus respecting Nineveh would render any ac- 
count of the recent extraordinary discoveries by Layard and others out 
of place in the present volume. It will therefore be sufficient to say, that 
till a recent pciiod, a few shapeless mounds opposite Mosul on the Upper 
Tigris were all that tradition could point out as remaining of Nineveh ; 
Ijut that within the last ten years the excavations conducted by Dr. 
Layard and M. Botta have brought to light the sculptured remains of 
immense palaces, not oidy at the traditional site of Nineveh, namely, 
Kouyunjik and Ncbbi-Yuniis, opposite to Mosul, and at Khorsabad, 
abcjut ten miles to the N. N. E. ; but also in a mound eighteen miles 
lower down the river, in the tongue of land between the Tigris and the 
Cireat Zalj, which still Ijears the name of Nimroud, all of which extensive 
ruins are considered by Dr. Layard to represent the site of ancient Nineveh. 
We hope to be able to enter at gi-eater length on this subject in a future 
companion volume, on the geogra})hy of the Bible. 

^ i. 178. ^ i. 192. 


water was supplied by the Euphrates, which in an- asta. 
cient times inundated the country like the Aegyp- c"^^- "^- 
tian Nile, but Queen Semiramis having prevented 
the overflow by the erection of stupendous mounds, 
or dams, along its banks, ^ the land was henceforth 
irrigated by the hand and by engines. The entire ^^^^^^i-ous 
territory, like Aegypt, was intersected by canals, the 
largest of which could be navigated by ships, and 
stretched from the Euphrates to the Tigris.^ As re- f^^*j;?j;J['^- 
gards the productiveness of the soil, it was better of com. 
adapted for the growth of corn than any other land 
with which Herodotus was acquainted ; for though 
the country was comparatively destitute of trees, 
and possessed neither the fig, the vine, nor the 
olive, yet the grain flourished so gloriously, that 
the harvest generally produced from two to three 
hundred-fold. The blades of wheat and barley also 
grew to fall four digits in breadth, and Herodotus is 
afraid to mention the height of millet and sesame, 
as he is certain that those who had never been to 
Babylonia would disbelieve his statements. The 
Babylonians used no other oil but that which they 
extracted from this sesame. Palm trees grew all Paim trees. 
over the plain, and most of them produced fruit 
from which bread, wine, and honey (or sugar) were 
made. The fruit of what the Greeks call male palms 
was tied upon the female palms, in order that the 
gall-fly (-^wtc) in the former might ripen the latter, 
and prevent the fruit from falling before reaching 
maturity ; ^ for these palms had flies in the fruit just 
like wild fig trees.* 

Assyria, or rather Babylonia, contained many 

1 i. 184. 

2 Babylonia is no longer able to sustain a large population, for as the 
canals have ceased to carry off the superfluous waters of the Tigris and 
Euphrates, these rivers annually overflow all the tracts adjacent to their 
lower courses, and convert them into immense swamps and marshes. 

3 The fly in question is a cynips, or one of the genus which by pene- 
trating and breeding within plants, produces on them what are called 
gall-apples. Hasselquist observed it in the Levant, and has described it 
under the name of Cynips Ficus. He seems to think that it does the 
fruit more harm than good. Linnaeus has also described this fly, en- 
titling it from its ancient appellative Cynips Psen. Larcher's Notes to 
Herod., Mr. Cooley's Additions, vol. i. p. 184. * i- 193. 





Babylon the 
only city 

Site of the 
ruins of 

mounds on 
the eastern 
bank of t!ie 

or " the 

large cities, but Herodotus only describes the most 
celebrated and the best fortified, namely, Babylon, 
which after the destruction of Nineveh on the Tigris 
became the seat of government.^ 

Before entering upon Herodotus's description of 
this magnificent city, it will be necessary to glance 
at the modern state of the ruins. ^ On the river 
Euphrates, and about 50 miles south of Bagdad, 
stands the town of Hillah. The road between Bag- 
dad and Hillah lies through a level but uncultivated 
plain, though the dry beds of numerous canals and 
the fragments of bricks and tiles strewed everywhere 
around are proofs of its former different state. Nine 
miles north of Hillah, at the village of Mohawill, the 
ruins may be said to commence ; and about five 
miles north of Hillah, and on the eastern bank of 
the Euphrates, the traveller approaches the great 
mounds of ancient Babylon. The latter at first 
sight appear to be natm'al hills, but a closer ex- 
amination soon clearly shows that they are com- 
posed of bricks, and are evidently the remains of 
large buildings. Three of these immense mounds 
are found in succession from north to south. The 
first is called Mujelibe, or ''the overturned;" the 
second, El Kasr, or "the palace ;" and the third, 
Amram, from its supporting a small tomb of some 
Mahommedan saint of that name. 

Mujelibe is the loftiest of these gigantic mounds, 
and the Haroot and Maroot of Arabian tradition.^ 

1 i. 178. 

2 My authority for the following statements are Mr. Rich's First and 
Second Memoirs on the Ruins of I3abylon ; Major Rennell's Remarks on 
the Topography of Ancient Babylon ; and Sir Robert Ker Porter's 
Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Babylonia, etc. Comp. also Heeren's 
account of the Babylonians in his Asiatic Researches. 

•^ According to this tradition, the angels in heaven, having expressed 
their surprise that the sons of Adam should continue in wickedness after 
the repeated warnings from the prophets, were directed by God to select 
two of their number to be sent on earth as judges. Haroot and Maroot 
were accordingly chosen, but subsefjuently fell in love with a beautiful 
woman and solicited her favours, and as a punishment for their crime 
M'ere condemned by God to be hung up by the heels until the day of 
judgment in a well invisible; to mankind, but which the Arabs believe 
still exists at the foot of Mujelibe. See Sale's Koran, and Kinneir's 
GeofjraphicaL 3femoir of Persia. 


It is an oblong square composed of sun-dried bricks, asia. 
consolidated into huge sustaining masses by the in- chap. m. 
tervention of reeds and slime. It is 140 feet high, 
and its sides face the four cardinal points. The side 
to the north and that to the west each measure about 
550 feet along their bases ; whilst those to the south 
and east are each 230 feet. The summit presents 
an uneven surface, and the entire mass seems to 
have been a platform upon which some great build- 
ings were formerly erected. The interior is full of 
ravines and holes, which are literally garrisoned by 
the wild beasts of the desert, and the loathsome 
smell which issues from their dens is sufficient to 
deter the traveller from attempting to enter. Ren- Erroneous- 
nell erroneously supposed that this pile was the an- by Renndi 
cient temple of Belus, but no such pyramidal succes- tempie^of 
sion of towers as Herodotus describes could ever ^^lus. 
have surmounted it, or otherwise a slight elevation at 
least would have been found towards the middle of 
the summit, whereas it there sinks in a deep hollow. 
It seems to have been the citadel of the great palace, 
which we shall next describe. 

At 2250 feet south of Mujelibe is the second hill, ^\-^''^l' """ 
named El Kasr, or ''the palace." This is a grand lace." 
heap of ruins, forming nearly a square of about 700 
yards in length and breadth,^ and rising about 70 
feet above the general level. The bricks of which 
it is constructed are of the very finest description, 
and not sun-dried like those of Mujelibe, but baked 
in the furnace and ornamented with inscriptions. 
Each brick is placed with its written face down- 
wards on a layer of cement, which scarcely exceeds 
the twentieth part of an inch in thickness ; but at 
the same time the whole mass is so firm, that Porter 
experienced considerable difficulty in chipping off a 

^ This was its condition when visited by Rich in 1811, but even in the 
seven years which intervened between this visit and that of Porter, the 
everlasting digging in its apparently exhaustless quarries for bricks of 
the strongest and finest material had been sufficient to change its shape. 
Indeed these incessant depredations, which must have been going on for 
ages, have not only altered the minor features of the place, but have kept 
the whole surface in so decomposed a state, that at every step the feet of 
the traveller sink into dust and rubbish. Porter. 


ASIA, few pieces. Fragments of alabaster vessels are also 
CHAP. III. found here, together with fine earthenware, marble, 
' and great quantities of polished tiles, the glazing 

and colouring of which present all the freshness of a 
modern material. Along the western and northern 
face of the mound are detached portions of a wall, 
which probably composed the piers or buttresses of 
the terraces, attached to the celebrated hanging gar- 
dens described by Diodorus, and which, according 
to Curtius, had the appearance of a forest.^ 
Amiamhiu. About 2400 foct from Kasr is the Amram hill. 
This is a triangular mass, of which the south-western 
side is 4200 feet, the eastern 3300 feet, and the 
northern 2500 feet. The entire heap is broken, like 
that of the Kasr, into deep caverned ravines and 
long winding furrows, from the number of bricks 
that have been taken away. Its former state or 
designation it is impossible to determine. At pre- 
sent it is a shapeless assemblage of bricks, mortar, 
and cement, where the foot of the traveller plunges 
at every step into dust and rubbish. 
Remains of Sovcral Smaller mounds are scattered around these 
ramparts, three onormous masses, and the whole space is sur- 
rounded by several lofty corresponding ridges or 
ramparts, which form two sides of a great triangle, 
of which the river Euphrates is the base. The 
length of this base is three miles and three quarters ; 
that of the northern rampart is two miles and 
three quarters, and that of the southern two miles 
and a half. Within the triangle, and between the 
great mounds and the angle formed by the northern 
and southern ramparts, run two wall lines of de- 
fence, parallel with each other, and also parallel 
River em- with the baso formed by the river. On the other 
side of the great mounds that part of the Euphrates 
which forms the base of the triangle is defended by 
a wall enclosure, composed of sun-dried bricks, and 
rising in some places 60 feet above the bed of the 
river. Here most probably were fixed the splendid 

^ It is to these ruins that the name of Kasr is properly appHed, though 
Rich and Porter have appUed the name to the entire mound. 


river-gates of brass which are described by He- asia. 
rodotus. CHAP. III. 

Thus far we have noticed the ruins on the eastern 

bank of the Euphrates. Herodotus however, as bank of the 
we shall presently see, describes Babylon as a ""^ ^^^^^' 
square of fifteen miles every way, and cut in two 
by the river, the tower of Belus being on one side 
and the royal palace on the other. Rennell accord- 
ingly identifies the tower of Belus with Mujelibe, 
and the royal palace with Kasr, and supposes that 
the Euphrates anciently flowed in another channel 
between these mounds. This theory has been now 
completely refuted. Not the slightest trace of any 
such change in the course of the Euphrates could be 
discovered by either Rich or Porter. Taking it 
therefore for granted that the mound Kasr rej)re- 
sents the royal palace, we must cross the river be- 
fore we can find the temple of Belus, and here it 
will be necessary to take a preliminary survey of 
the present face of the country. 

The reader must imagine himself on the west- smaiiscat- 
ern bank . of the Euphrates, and opposite the Kasr mounds. 
and Amram hills. Here the ground is level, low, 
and marshy, and contains no such mounds as those 
we have described. A few hillocks are to be seen 
in the neighbourhood of a village named Anana. 
There is also a ridge of earth about fourteen feet 
high, which runs due north for about 300 yards, 
and then forming a right angle due east, takes that 
direction till it reaches the river. At its termination 
the courses of sun-dried bricks are distinctly visible, „ 
but this is the only trace of an embankment corre- 
sponding to that on the opposite shore. How this 
western embankment came to be destroyed whilst 
the opposite one was preserved we cannot conjec- 
ture. The fact however is certain, and this circum- 
stance may have contributed to the preservation of 
the eastern mounds, whilst those on the western 
bank, unprotected by a corresponding dyke, have 
been mostly swept away by inundations of the 





Birs Nim- 
roud, the 
tower of 
Babel and 
temple of 

Its extreme 

The reader must now be carried a considerable 
distance.^ Nine miles south-west of Mujelibe, and 
six miles in a straight line from Anana, is a huge 
oblong mass, 200 feet high, and more than 2000 feet 
in circumference at its base.^ The Arabs call it 
Birs Nimroud, or Nimrod's tower. It is composed 
of fine bricks baked in the furnace, and on the western 
side rises from the plain in one stupendous, though 
irregular, pyramidal hill. Eennell, who considers 
that Herodotus has exaggerated the dimensions of 
Babylon, will not include this extraordinary ruin 
within the limits of the city. Modern travellers, 
however, have been able to trace three out of the 
eight stories described by Herodotus as belonging 
to the great temple or tower of Belus, and thus to 
clear his statements respecting the extraordinary 
extent of the city from the charge of hyperbole. 
The first story is about 60 feet high, cloven in 
the middle by a deep ravine, and intersected in all 
directions by farrows channelled by the successive 
rains of ages. The second stage springs out of the 
first in a steep and abrupt conical form. On the 
summit is a solid mass of tower-lilie ruin, 28 feet 
wide and 35 feet high, forming to all appearance 
the angle of some square building. The ground 
about the foot of the hill is now clear, but is again 
surrounded by walls which form an oblong square, 
and enclose numerous heaps of rubbish, probably 
once the dwellings of inferior deities, or of the priests 
and officers of the temple. 

Such then are the remains of the great tower of 
Belus, or Babel, in the land of Shinar. Its founda- 

^ Along the road between Anana and Birs Nimroud Porter found, at 
intervals of a mile or two, clear indications of the country having been 
formerly covered with buildings. About a mile and a half from Anana 
he reached a numerous and very conspicuous assemblage of mounds, of 
which the most considerable was 35 feet high. These he regarded as 
probably occupying the site of the second or older palace, which is not 
mentioned by Herodotus. We may here remind the reader that two 
palaces are described by Diodorus as having been built by Semiramis, 
one on the eastern and the otlier on the western bank. Herodotus only 
notices one, and seems to allude to the later palace built by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, and which we identify with Kasr or the western palace. 

2 Porter reckons it at 2082 feet : Rich at 2286 feet. 


tion must be carried back to the time of Nimrod, in asia. 
the second century after the flood, when the nations chap. m. 
said, '' Let us build a city and tower, and make us ^ 
a name." ^ Probably it was even then consecrated 
to the worship of Baal or the sun, and thus brought 
down the vengeance of Jehovah upon the builders ; 
and whilst the descendants of Noah spread over the 
whole earth, it remained through successive ages a 
lasting monument of the guilty presumption of 
their idolatrous ancestors. This supposition in no 
way militates against the gradual additions and 
embellishments which it afterwards received, as the 
primeval temple of a national deity ; neither can 
anything be argued against its high antiquity from 
bricks with inscriptions having been found amongst 
its ruins. It stands not only as a testimony to the 
veracity of Herodotus, but above all, as an awful 
confirmation of the truth of a far more ancient re- 
cord of a divinely inspired author ; a solemn relic 
of the first and mightiest fabric erected by the hand 
of man, fulfilling in the present day the sacred words 
of the prophet, ''wild beasts of the desert shall lie 
there, and their houses shall be full of doleful crea- 
tures." ^ 

We must now turn to the description of Herodotus. Herodotus's 
Babylon stood in an extensive plain, and formed a of Babylon: 
square, of which each side measured 120 stadia, gj^are, pro- 
or about 1 5 English miles. It therefore occupied tected by a 
an area of about 225 square miles. On every waii. 
side was a wide and deep ditch full of water, and 
within that was a wall 50 royal cubits in breadth or 
thickness, and 200 royal cubits in height. The 
royal cubit was longer than the common one by the 
breadth of 3 digits.^ The wall was built in the fol- 
lowing manner. The earth which was thrown up in 
digging the moat was at once converted into bricks, 
which were baked in kilns.* Hot asphalt from the 

1 Gen. xi. 4. ^ iga. xiii. 21. s i. 178. 

* Porter says that the embankments are made of sun-dried bricks. 
These were generally used in the formation of the interior of the masses 
of large foundations, whilst the exterior was faced with the more beauti- 

s 2 




Towers oa 
the Avail. 

One huii- 
dred brass 

The city cut 
Walls along 
the river- 
banks with 

Inner wall. 

The royal 

Temple of 
Belus, — 
its eight 
towers and 

river Is (or Hit) was used for cement, and wattled 
reeds were placed between the thirty bottom layers 
of bricks. The sides of the moat were built up first, 
and then the wall. On the top of the wall and along 
its whole extent were built houses or towers one 
story high ; and between each of these towers suf- 
ficient space was left to turn a chariot witli four 
horses. There were also one hundred gates in the 
wall made entirely of brass, posts and lintels not 

The whole city was divided into two parts by the 
river Euphrates, which flowed through its centre; 
and walls of baked brick ran along the curvatures of 
each bank, and thus united the two elbows of the 
outer wall. The city itself was full of houses three 
or four stories high, and arranged in straight streets 
intersecting one another. Where the streets de- 
scended towards the river there were brazen gates 
opening through the river-wall, and leading down 
to the water's edge.^ Beside the great city-wall 
already described, and which was the chief defence, 
there was another wall within it not much lower in 
height, but not so thick. 

In the middle of each division of the city a forti- 
fied building was erected. In the one was the royal 
palace, with a spacious and strong enclosure and 
brazen gates. In the other was the precinct of Be- 
lus, which still existed in the time of Herodotus. 
This was a square building two stadia in length and 
breadth. In the midst of it rose a solid tower, one 
stadia in breadth and length, ujoon which were built 
seven towers, one upon the top of the other, so that 
there were eight in all. An ascent was on the out- 
side and ran spirally round all the towers. Half 
way up there was a landing-place and seats for rest- 
ing on. In tlie topmost tower was a spacious tem- 
ple splendidly furnished, with a large couch and 
golden taljlc, ]jut containing no statues. 

ful bricks which were baked iu the furnace, and which are described by 
> i. 179. ■' i. 180. 


The Chaldaeans, who were the priests of this asia. 
deity, ^ said that no mortal was allowed to pass the <^hap. m. 
night there excepting a native female, whom the god statements 
selected for himself, and who was kept from all in- ofthechai- 
tercourse with men.^ They also stated what Hero- priests. 
dotus does not credit, namely, that the deity him- 
self visited the temple and reclined upon the couch, ^ * 
Beneath this sanctuary there was another temple, 
and in it a large golden statue of Zeus in a sitting 
posture, and also a large table of gold near the sta- 
tue. The throne and step were also of gold, and 
the Chaldaeans said that the whole weighed 800 
talents, or 22 English tons of metal. Outside the 
temple stood a golden altar, to which sucklings only 
were allowed to be brought, whilst upon another 
large altar fall-grown sheep were sacrificed, and a 
thousand talents of frankincense were also consumed 
upon it every year at the festival of the god. In 
this sacred locality there was formerly a massive 
golden statue 12 cubits high. Herodotus did not 

^ Herodotus here expressly asserts that the Chaldaeans were a priestly 
caste, and Mr. Grote, resting upon this positive statement, which indeed 
is confirmed by Strabo, can only regard them as priests. In another 
place, however, (vii. 63,) the Chaldaeans are mentioned as fighting in 
the army of Xerxes, which seems more in keeping with the Scripture 
accounts of the Chaldees as a warlike race from the north. 

2 i. 181. 

^ This circumstance, which puzzled Herodotus, is at once explained by 
the following extract from the travels of Bernier. Speaking of the 
Brahmins, Bernier says, " These impostors take a maid to be the bride 
(as they speak and bear the besotted people in hand) of Juggernaut, and 
they leave her all night in the temple (whither they have carried her) 
with the idol, making her believe that Juggernaut will visit her, and ap- 
pointing her to ask him, whether it will be a fruitful year, what kind of 
processions, feasts, prayers, and alms he demands to be made for it. In 
the mean time one of these priests enters at night by a little back door 
into the temple and personates the god, and makes her believe anything 
he pleases ; and the next day, being transported from this temple into 
another with the same magnificence, she is carried before upon the cha- 
riot of triumph, by the side of Juggernaut her bridegroom : these Brahmins 
make her say aloud, before all the people, whatsoever she has been 
taught of these cheats, as if she had learnt it from the very mouth of 
Juggernaut." Similar delusions seem to have been carried on in the temple 
of Isis at Rome, and Josephus relates a deceit which was practised on a 
virtuous matron named Paulina, in favour of Decius Mundus, a Roman 
knight. A full disclosure of this outrage was laid before the emperor 
Tiberius, who thereupon ordered the priests to be crucified and the tem- 
ple to be demolished. 

- *a. 182. 





of JMitocris. 

see it, but relates what was told him by the Chal- 

daeans. Darius formed the design of taking it 

away, but was afraid ; his son Xerxes, however, took 
it, and killed the priest who forbade him to remove 
it. Many other consecrated gifts were also exhibited 
in this temple.' 
Bridge over ^hc Only communication in ancient times be- 
phrates. tweeii tlio two divisious of the city was by means of 
a ferry across the Euphrates. At length Nitocris had 
the river turned into a reservoir,^ and built a bridge 
(or rather piers) in the centre of the city, composed of 
large blocks of stone clamped together with iron 
and lead. During the day square planks of timber 
were laid upon these stone piers, in order that the 
people might pass over ; but at night these planks 
were removed, to prevent thieves from gliding about 
to different parts of the city. Nitocris caused the 
banks of the river to be lined throughout the city 
with burnt brick like the city walls.'' She also 
jDrepared a sepulchre for herself above the most 
frequented gate of the city, and bearing the follow- 
ing inscription : 

''If anyone of my successors, kings of Babylon, 
shall happen to want money, let him open this se- 
pulclu-e, and take what he requires ; but if he wants 
it not, let him not open it." 

This sepulchre remained undisturbed until the time 
of Darius, who considered it to be hard that money 
should be lying there unused, and that the gate also 
should be unused, because a dead body was lying 
over the heads of all who passed through it. He 
therefore opened the tomb, but found no money, and 
only the body and these words : 

' ' Were tliou not insatiably covetous and greedy 
of the most sordid gain, thou wouldst not have 
opened the resting-place of the dead." * 

Five of tlie city gates are mentioned to us by 
name, namely, the gates of Semiramis, the Nineveh 
gate, the Chaldaean gate, the Belidae gate, and the 
Cissian gate.® It was the last two that Zopyrus 

' i. 183. 2 See page 263. '-^ i. 186. « i. 187. " m. 155. 

Names of 

the citj- 


opened to the Persians.^ Darius demolished the asia. 
walls and carried away all the gates, and as the Ba- chap. m. 
bylonians had strangled their wives during the siege Destruction 
to prevent the consumption of their provisions, he oftheforti- 
taxed the neighbouring provinces to send a certain milul ^ 
number of women to Babylon, so that a total of fifty 
thousand women were assembled, from whom the 
Babylonians of the time of Herodotus were de- 

Eight days' journey from Babylon lay the town of Town of is. 
Is, upon a small stream of the same name, which dis- 
charged itself into the Euphrates, and brought with 
it a great many lumps of asphalt, which were used 
as mortar in building the Babylonian walls. ^ 

The Euphrates, which divided the city, took its Account of 
rise in Armenia, and flowed with a broad, deep, and phrates. 
rapid cm-rent until at length it discharged itself into 
the Erythraean.* In former times it used to over- Anciently 
flow the whole plain like a sea, but Semiramis, and thecouXy. 
afterwards Nitocris, kept it within its banks by raising fy semT^-'^ 
mounds or dams along the plain. ^ Nitocris also used mis and m- 
every means to protect Babylon against the newly 
risen Median power, which was growing formidable 
and restless, and had already captured Nineveh. 
She dug channels above the Euphrates, and render- Course of 
ed its stream, which formerly ran in a straight line, rendered 
so winding that in its course it touched three times ^^^eSf ^^ 
at the single village of Ardericca ; and in the time 
of Herodotus, those who went to Babylon by the 
Euphrates came to this village three times on three 
successive days.^ ^ Nitocris also excavated at some immense 
distance from the river a large basin or reservoir for Ste.*^'^ 
a lake, 420 stadia (or at least 50 English miles) in 
circumference, and dug down to the water, and this 
reservoir she cased all round with stones. The 
excavated earth was afterwards heaped up on the 

1 iii. 158. 2 iii. 159^ 3 i 179^ 4 i igQ. 

5 i. 184. 6 i. 185. 

'' The royal station named Ardericca, (vi. 119,) which was 210 stadia 
from Susa, was evidently a different site. 




CHAP. iir. 

To'wns of 
Opis and 

Dress of the 

banks of the river, and formed the mounds or dams 
ah^eady mentioned.^ 

In this satrapy must probably also be included the 
two places Opis ^ and Ampe, which last was situated 
on the Tigris near the coast of the Erythraean, and 
was afterwards a settlement for the Milesians trans- 
jjlanted by Darius.^ 

The dress of the Babylonians consisted of a linen 
gown, which fell down to the feet ; next, a woollen 
garment ; and lastly, over all a short white mantle. 
Their sandals were peculiar to the country, but very 
like the Boeotian clogs. They wore long hair, and 
kept it together by their head-bands or turbans, and 
the whole of the body they anointed with perfumes. 
Every man had a signet ring and a curiously 
wrought staff; and on every staff was carved either 
an apple, a rose, a lily, an eagle, or something else of 
the same kind, for it was not allowable to carry a 
stick without a device.^ In the army of Xerxes they 
wore linen cuirasses, and helmets of brass plaited in 
a peculiar fashion, which Herodotus tells us is not 
easy to be described ; and they carried shields, and 
spears, and swords similar to those of the Aegypt- 
ians, together with wooden clubs knotted with 

Amongst the Babylonian customs was one which 
was also practised by the Eneti of Illyria, and which 
in the opinion of our author was the wisest with 
Annual sale whicli lio was acquaiutcd. Once a year in every 
of maidens. yiHage all tlio marriageable girls were collected to- 
gether, and put up to auction. A crier directed them 
to stand up one after the other, beginning with the 
handsomest, and each one was then knocked down 
to the highest bidder, who however was not allowed 
to carry off a maiden without giving security that he 
would marry her. The more beautiful giils were of 
course purcliased by the rich Babylonians, who 
strove eagerly to outbid each other. When these 
were all disposed of, the crier directed the plainer 

' i. 1>S5, 2 i. 189. 3 vi. 20. * i. 195. * vii. 63, 

and cus- 


damsels to stand up in a similar manner, but offered asia. 
to give a sum of money with each. Accordingly the chap. m. 
poorer Babylonians began to bid against each other 
to see who would marry an ill-favoured wife for the 
smallest sum, the money having been already ob- 
tained by the sale of the more beautiful. Thus the 
handsome girls helped the plainer ones to husbands, 
and fathers were not allowed to give away their 
daughters in marriage to whom they pleased. If a 
purchaser and his newly bought partner could not 
agree, the money was repaid. Men were permitted 
to come from one village to another to this matrimo- 
nial auction ; but in the time of Herodotus the custom 
was discontinued, for after the Persians had taken 
the city, the people had been harshly treated and 
ruined in fortune, and the lower classes were driven 
to prostitute their daughters for a livelihood.^ 

The Babylonians also had another custom, which No physi- 
Herodotus considered to be only inferior in wisdom persons ear- 
to the foregoing. They had no physicians, but used market'for'' 
to bring their sick people into the market-place, and ^'^^i'^'''- 
every passer-by was obliged to ask the nature of the 
disease ; and then, if the latter had ever had it him- 
self or seen it in others, he advised the patient to follow 
the treatment which he knew to have effected a cure.^ 
The Babylonians embalmed their dead in honey, and Embalming 

f, T ii • c 11 J ;• ' • •^ Funeral la- 

periormed their luneral lamentations m a similar mentations 
manner to the Aegyptians. Husbands and wives lhe^l^gyp°t- 
after intercoiu^se sat over burning incense in differ- '^1^^.;^^^^ ^^ 
ent places, and at break of day washed themselves incenseafter 
before they touched any vessel. The same practice tercourse" 
was also observed by the Arabians.^ 

The most disgraceful of all the Babylonian cus- Disgraceful 
toms was connected with the worship of Aphrodite, connected 
■whom they called Mylitta. Every native woman ^oi^^li^of 
was obliged once in her life to repair to the precinct Aphrodite. 
of this goddess, and submit to the embraces of a 
stranger. Some of the richer sort went in covered 
and took up their station in the temenus, 

196. - Ibid. 3 i_ 198. Comp. Leviticus xv. 16—18. 



CHAP. 111. 

Three tribes 
of Baby- 
lonian Ich- 



attended by a numerous train of servants ; but the 
majority sat down in the temenus with a crown of 
cord about their heads, and in straight rows, so that 
they might be easily seen. When a stranger selected 
a female, he threw a piece of silver into her lap, say- 
ing, " I beseech the goddess Mylitta to favour thee." 
The silver, however small, was accounted sacred, and 
might not be refused, and the woman was obliged 
to follow the man out of the sacred precinct and ful- 
fil the law, and then, after absolving herself to the 
goddess, she might return home. Many of the de- 
formed women were obliged to stop three or four 
3^ears fi:-om inability to satisfy the law, biit after the 
goddess had been once propitiated no money could 
purchase fresh favours.^ 

Amongst the Babylonians were three tribes who 
lived solely upon fish, which they dried in the sun 
and pounded in a mortar, and then, after sifting 
them through a fine cloth, either kneaded them into 
a cake or baked them like bread.^ The Chaldaeans 
are mentioned both as being the priests of Belus,^ 
and as serving in the army of Xerxes.^ It was from 
the Babylonians that the Greeks learnt the sun-dial 

^ i. 199. The prevalence of this custom is confirmed by Jeremiah, 
who evidently alludes to it in the letter which he writes to the Jews 
who were about to be led captive to Babylon. — " The women also with 
cords about them, sitting in the ways, burn bran for perfume : but if any 
of them, drawn by some that passeth by, lie with him, she reproacheth 
her fellow, that she was not thought as worthy as herself, nor her cord 
broken." Baruch vi. 42, 43. Idolatry is always revolting, but in Baby- 
lon it was of the vilest and foulest character. The riches and luxmy of 
the people, consequent upon their extended commerce, brought on a total 
degeneracy of manners, which was above all conspicuous in the other 
sex, amongst whom were no traces of that reserve which usually prevails 
in an eastern harem. Babylon has thus become a by-word for harlotry. 
Her moral and social state is but too vividly described by Curtius. 
"Nihil urbis ejus coiTuptius moribus; nee ad imtandas inliciendasque 
immodicas vokiptates instructius. Liberos conjugesque cum hospitibus 
stupro coire, modo prctium flagitii detur, parentes maritique patiuntur. 
Convivales hidi tota Perside regibus purpuratisque cordi sunt ; Babylo- 
nii maxime in vinum et quae ebrietatem sequuntur, perfusi sunt. Femi- 
narum convivia ineuntium principio modestus est habitus; dein summa 
quaeque amicula exuunt ; paulatimque pudorem profanant ; ad ultimun 
(horror auribis sit) ima corporum velamenta projiciunt. Nee meretri- 
cum hoc dedecus est, sed matronarum virginumque, apud quas comitas 
habetur vulgati corporis vilitas." Cf. Heeren, Asiat. Res. vol, i. ; Quint. 
Curtius, hb. v. c. i. 

2 i. 200. " i. 181. ^ vii, 63. 


and the division of the day into twelve parts.' The asia. 
Babylonian talent was equal to seventy Euboic chap, m 

mmaS. ^ ^ Gnomon. 

VIII. CissiA, or the eighth satrapy, comprised Susa yj\°"*-(.j 
and the rest of the Cissians. It paid 300 talents.^ si a and 
Bordering it on the east was Persis, or the territory ^erhig to"' 
of Persia Proper ; and thou2:h the Persians belonged Khuzistan 

1 ' ,^.^. if» •! and f arsis- 

to no satrapy, and brought gilts instead oi tribute, tan. 
yet for the sake of geographical order and clearness 
we shall include Herodotus' s description of them in 
the present section. 

The Cissia of Herodotus answers to the Susiana of General de- 
Strabo and the modern territory of Khuzistan. Persia the country. 
Proper, or Persis, is represented by the modern Pars, 
Fars, or Farsistan.* '' The Persians," says Herodotus, 
" occupy the country between Media and the Ery- 
thraean Sea." ^ The southern frontier bordering on Sandy 
the Erythraean or Persian Gulf is a sandy plain, which, the^coasi."^ 
during the summer, is rendered almost uninhabitable 
by the heat, and by the pestilential winds from the 
deserts of Carmania. Hence we find no mention 
of the maritime districts in Herodotus, and indeed 
the flat shore, unindented by any inlet, is generally 
inaccessible from the sea, and only offers in one or 
two places the shelter of a harbour. At a short dis- Rising of 
tance from the coast the land rises in terraces, and tenaces.^'^ 
here the excessive heat becomes mitigated, and rich 
pastures are watered by a number of rivulets, and 
covered with villages and numerous herds. Further Moimtains 
towards the north these agreeable districts are IL father-^ 
changed for lofty and sterile mountains, a continua- per'^ia^s,^'' 
tion of the great chain of Zagros ; and the climate here 
becomes so inclement that even in the summer season 
the elevated summits are not unfrequently covered 
with snow. This ungenial region was however the 
cradle of the conquerors of Asia. Inured from their 
childhood to a rough clime and unproductive soil, 

1 ii. 109. 2 iii, 89. 3 iii. 9i_ 

* Pars is the Persian, Fars the Arabic pronunciation of the word : the 
Persian termination stan denoting country. Thus Farsistan the country 
of the Persians : Hindtistan, of the Hindus : Kurdistan, of the Kurds. 
Cf. Heeren. * vii. 61. 


ASIA, these hardy mountaineers conquered without diffi- 
CHAP. in. culty the effeminate inhabitants of the low-lands ; 
but although it was the policy of their rulers to at- 
tach them as much as possible to their barren coun- 
try/ they but too quickly adopted the luxurious 
habits of the vanquished nations, and themselves 
prepared the way for the destruction of their empire. 
Great city Hcrodotus says but very little concerning" the to- 
the^cho-"'' pography of either Cissia or Persis. The great city 
aspes. q£ Sussi was situatcd in Cissia on the river Choaspes, 
which could only be crossed in boats, and the Per- 
sian king drank no other water but what was taken 
The Mem- fi'om its strcam.^ Susa contained the royal palace 
uoumm. gg^iig(j Memnonia,^ which was surrounded by walls, 
and had a tower from whence Prexas23es harangued 
the people and cast himself headlong.* It was here 
that the king of Persia resided, and his treasures 
were deposited.^ The suburbs of the city are also 
mentioned.^ We may take it for granted that it was 
stone figure in Susa that Darius erected a stone figure represent- 
horseback!'^ ing a man on horseback, and bearing the following 
inscription : 

'^ Darius, son of Hystaspes, by the sagacity of his 
horse, (giving his name,) and by the address of 
Oebares his groom, became king of the Persians." ^ 
idcntifica- The site of Susa has been a disputed point. Cis- 
with "sus^on sia is watered in the west by the Kerkhah, in the 
Kerkhah. ^ast by tlic Karoou. On the Kerkhah is the city of 
Sus, and on the Karoon, about 56 miles due east of 
Sus, is the city of Shuster. Each of these cities have 
been supposed to represent the ancient Susa. Shus- 
ter, however, is of comparatively modern date, 
and contains no ruins which can be referred to a 
period anterior to the Sassanian dynasty. On the 
other hand, recent travellers have discovered re- 
mains at Sus which unquestionably belong to the 
Persico-Babylonian period.^ We have therefore no 

1 ix. 122. Cf. also Heeren, Asiat. Res. ^ i. 188; v. 49, 52. 

3 V. 53. * iii. 75. "> v. 49. « iii. 86. ^ iii. 88. 

*• The great mound cjf Sus forms the north-western extremity of a large 
irregular platform or tumuli. It appears to represent the site of the in- 
ner citadel, whilst the platform constituted the fort of the city. The plat- 


liesitation in identifying the site of ancient Susa with asia. 
that of Sus, and the river Choaspes with the Kerk- chap. m. 
hah, which discharges itself into the united streams ' 

of the Tigris and Euphrates. How far Susa may 
be identified with the Shushan of Daniel seems to 
be questioned by Major Rawlinson ;, but the adjacent 
district is still celebrated for a sanctuary reported to 
be the tomb of that prophet.^ 

At a distance of 210 stadia from Susa was situ- Ardericca, 
ated the royal station of Ardericca in the Cissian transplant- 
territory. To this spot Darius transplanted the aris"^""^*^'' 
captured Eretrians, and they continued to occupy 
this country and retain their ancient language down 
to the time of Herodotus.^ Forty stadia from Ar- weiipro- 
dericca was a well which produced three different phaitfsait, 
substances, namely, asphalt, salt, and oil. These ^"^^ °'^' 
were drawn uj) by a kind of crane, having half a 
wine-skin attached to it instead of a bucket. The 
contents were thrown into a receiver, Avhich was 
again emptied into another, upon which the asphalt 
and salt immediately became solid, and the oil was 
collected. The Persians called this oil rhadinace. 
It was black, and emitted a strong smell. ^ Persia 
was a bleak and barren country,'^ and a tract is men- 
tioned, though in a somewhat traditionary narrative, 
as being overgrown with briers ; but as this tract 

form is square, and is estimated by Col. Eawlinson to be about two miles 
and a half in extent, and between 80 and 90 feet high. The great mound 
is 165 feet high, and about 1100 yards round the base, and 850 round 
the summit. The slope is very steep, and can only be ascended by two 
pathways. Col. Rawlinson saw on the mound a slab with a cuneiform 
inscription of thirty-three lines, three Babylonian sepulchral urns im- 
bedded in the soil, and in another place there was exposed to view, a few 
feet below the surface, a flooring of brickwork. The summit of the 
mound was thickly strewn with broken pottery, glazed tiles, and kiln- 
di-ied bricks. Beyond the platform extend the ruins of the city, proba- 
bly six or seven miles in circumference, presenting the same appearance 
of ii-regular mounds, covered with bricks and broken pottery, and here 
and there a fragment of a shaft is seen projecting from the soil. Raw- 
linson, Notes on a March from Zohab to Khuzistan. 

1 It is worthy of remark that Herodotus makes no mention of Perse- 
polis. Neither mdeed do Ctesias, Xenophon, or the Hebrew writers. 
To attempt to account for this circumstance would only be to write a dis- 
quisition upon Persepolis, which would in no way illustrate the geogra- 
phy of Herodotus. 

2 vi. 119. ^ Ibid. * i. 71. 


ASIA, was only 18 or 20 stadia square,^ it is not likely to 
CHAP. III. })Q ever identified. 
Z '. ~ The Persians were formerly called Cephenes by 

jr6rsi3,iis di- *^ jl j 

Tided into tlio Grccks, but by themselves and neighbours were 

STh.?^' named Artaeans.^ They were divided into ten tribes, 

Pasargadae, -^Jiicli soom to havo boon includod in three different 

Maspii, castes or classes, r irst, the nobles or warriors, con- 

Derusiaef^' taiiiing thrco tribes ; viz. the Pasargadae, which em- 

Da™^"^' braced the family of the Acliaemenidae, from whom 

Mardi, the Persian kings were descended ; the Maraphii ; 

and^sa- and the Maspii. Second, the three agricultural and 

gartu. other settled tribes, viz. the Panthialaei, the Deru- 

siaei, and the Germanii. Third, the four nomad 

tribes, viz. the Dahi, the Mardi, the Dropici, and 

the Sagartii.'^ The names of the four last tribes are 

however common to many parts of west and central 

Asia, especially amongst the nomad nations on the 

shores of the Caspian. Nor is there any necessity 

for supposing that Herodotus meant to say that all 

these ten tribes were confined to the territory of 

Persia Proper. Even Persian history is not so much 

the history of the whole nation as of certain tribes, 

or possibly even of the single tribe of the Pasargadae. 

These composed the court, and it appears that all 

the most distinguished Persians, with scarcely an 

exception, proceeded from them.* 

Religion of Tho rcUffion of the Persians is described by Herodo- 

the Per- . i 

sians. tus as follows. They erected neither statues, temples, 

tlmpielror ^^^ altars, but regarded them with contempt, for they 

Name of ^^^ ^^*' ^^ Hcrodotus conjccturcs, believe, like the 

zeusappii- Hellcnes, that the gods had human forms. The 

Ten? '^^' name of Zeus they applied to the entire vault of 
heaven, and were accustomed to worship from the 

'^^ hi^r* highest tops of the mountains.^ They sacrificed to 

places. the sun and moon, to the earth, fire, water, and 

wOTshil^of the winds ; and this was their only religious service 

the .sun, 

1 i. 126. - vii. 61. 3 i. 125. 

* See a full discussion of this subject in Heeren, Asiat. Nat. vol. i. 

® The prophet Isaiah seems to refer to this custom in the following 
passage : " I will recompense your iniquities and the iniquities of your 
fathers together, saith the Lord, which have burned incense upon the 
mountains, and blasphemed me upon the hills." Isa. Ixv. 6, 7- 


in ancient times. At a later period they learnt from asia. 
the Aegyptians and Arabians to sacrifice to the ce- chap. m. 
lestial Aphrodite, whom they called Mitra.' At their ~ ~ 

•1^1 • 1 11 1-ni "loo'i' earth 

sacriiices they neither erected altars nor kindled fire.Avater, 
fires, nor did they use libations, flutes, fillets, or ilterTor- 
sacrificial cakes. The sacrificer wreathed his turban Jph °odite 
with myrtle, and leading his victim to a consecrated ^ ^itra. 
spot, he invoked the god, and prayed not only for sacrifice. 
blessings on himself, but also for the prosperity of Se^Iacr? 
all the Persians and their king. The victim was ^'^^''• 
next cut into small pieces, and the flesh boiled, and 
laid upon a bed of tender grass, generally trefoil ; 
and one of the Magi standing by sang an ode con- ode sung 
corning the origin of the gods. This ode was ^y^^^^^^s^- 
said to be an incantation, and unless a Magi an 
was present it was unlawful to sacrifice. After a 
short time the sacrificer took away the flesh and 
disposed of it as he thought proper.^ 

Birthdays were celebrated by the Persians above social cus- 
every other day, and on these occasions the peojole cdebration 
were accustomed to furnish their tables in a more ^lys!^*^" 
plentiful manner than at any other time. The 
wealthier classes would serve up an ox, a horse, a 
camel, and an ass roasted whole ; but the poorer sort 
produced smaller cattle. At their meals they were Moderation 
not immoderate in their eating, but they partook of prSon of 
many after-dishes, which were served up at intervals : ^fter-dishes. 
hence the Persians said " that the Greeks rose 
hungry from table because they had nothing worth 
mentioning brought in after dinner, and that if 
other things were served up they would never leave 
off eating." The Persians were much addicted to Addiction 
wine, but their manners were refined in the presence 
of each other. They debated upon the most im- Debate 
portant affairs whilst they were drunk, and again and^aglkT 
the next day when they were sober ; and if they '''^"' '°^^''- 
approved of the measure when sober which they 
had resolved on when drunk, they adopted it, but 

1 The Assyrians called her Mylitta, and the Arabians named her 
Alitta. i. 131. 

2 i. 132. 


CHAP. iir. 

Modes of 
according to 

ing nations 
according to 
their prox- 
imity to 

to foreign 

age, and 

Respect for 
fathers of 
large fami- 

of sons. 

Trial of 




otherwise they rejected it. Also whatever they re- 
solved on when sober they reconsidered when in- 

In their salutations it was easy to discover their re- 
lative rank. Equals kissed each other on the mouth. 
If one was a little inferior they kissed the cheek. 
If one was of very much lower degree he prostrated 
himself at the feet of the other. The Persians 
esteemed themselves to be the most excellent of man- 
kind, and considered those to be the worst who lived 
the farthest from them. Thus they honoured their 
neighbours according to their distance off.^ It was 
however very remarkable that they were the readiest 
of all nations to adopt foreign customs. Thus they 
wore the Median costume because they considered 
it handsomer than their own, and in war they used 
the Aegyptian cuirass. Unfortunately they learnt 
and practised all kinds of volu2:>tuousness, such as 
pederasty, which they adopted from the Greeks. 
They also married many wives, whom they visited 
in turns, ^ and kept a still greater number of concu- 
bines.^ Next to valour they considered _ that the 
exhibition of a number of children was tl: '^ greatest 
proof of manliness, and the kings sent presents 
every year to those who had the largest families. 
Sons from the fifth to the twentieth year were only 
taught three things, namely, to ride, to shoot with 
a bow, and to speak the truth. Before the fifth 
year they lived entirely with the women, and were 
not admitted into their father's presence, so that 
they might not in case of early death occasion him 
any affliction.^ Herodotus very much approves of 
this custom, as he docs also of the following, namely, 
that no one could be put to death for a single crime, 
not even by the king ; but if on examination it were 
found that liis misdeeds were greater and more 
numerous than his services, the criminal might be 
executed. Parricide or matricide were considered 
to be impossible crimes, and the murderers in these 
apparent cases were always declared to be of ille- 

1 i. 133. 2 i. 134. ?. iii. 69. 4 i. 135. .0 j. 136. 


gitimate or of supposititious birth. ^ Conversation asia. 
upon unlawful things was strictly prohibited. Tell- chap. m. 
ing a lie they considered to be the most disgraceful i~"^ 
action, and next to that getting into debt, for they getting into 
considered that debtors must of necessity be liars. cidiy^X' 
Citizens afflicted with leprosy or scrofula were not LepSand 
allowed to reside in towns, or mix with others ; and white pi- 
the Persians generally maintained that a leper must peUed from 
have been so afflicted as a punishment for some ^^*^^^" 
offence against the Sun. Strangers attacked with 
leprosy were obliged to leave the country, and white 
pigeons were also expelled for a similar reason. 
Rivers were held in srreat veneration, and no Per- Jeneration 

o • • • tor rivGrs- 

sian would either wash his hands in one, spit m it, 
or otherwise defile it, nor would he suffer any one 
else to do so.^ Other thina^s which related to the ceremonies 

T -,. I -,~ -, J 1 practised on 

dead were not publicly known, but only men- dead bodies. 
tioned in private : namely, that the dead body of a 
Persian was never buried until it had been torn 
by some bird or dog. The Magi however practised 
this custom openly. The body was subsequently 
covered with wax and concealed in the ground.^ 
The Persians never burned their dead, because they 
considered fire to be a god.* Their skulls were so JJ^tSTer- 
remarkably weak that a hole might be made in one sian skuii. 
hy casting a single pebble at it : this, Herodotus 
supposed, was occasioned by their wearing turbans.^ 
The longest period of human life amongst them was 
estimated by themselves at eighty years. ^ 

The Maffi differed very much from all other men, ^^?pi ^ p^- 

.o lA • • n culuir race : 

and particularly from the Aegyptian priests ; lor unlike the 
whilst the latter would not kill anything which had piSs.^^"^ 
life excepting the sacrificial victims, the Magi would 
kill anything with their own hands except a dog or 
a man, and they even thought that killing ants, 
serpents, and other reptiles, and bfrds, was a meri- 
torious action.'' 

The Persians knew nothing of navigation, and ^n^anceof 
they were unable to achieve anything on the sea navigation. 

1 i. 137. 2 i. 138. 3 i. 140, i m, iQ, s m 12. 

« iii. 22. ' i. 140. 





for markets 
and traders. 


honoiir paid 
to valour. 

custom of 
alive in 
honour of 

until tliey had subdued the Phoenicians/ Just as 
little did they understand markets, and Cyrus con- 
sidered them to be places set apart in the midst of a 
city for people to collect together and cheat each 
other.^ Like the Aegyptians and others, they held 
those citizens who followed a trade in the least re- 
spect.'' Their equipment was similar to that of the 
Modes, who wore turbans and loose trousers, and 
were protected by variously coloured breastplates 
with sleeves or armlets, and with iron scales like 
those of a fish. In war they used the Aegyptian 
cuirass.* In ancient times the trousers and other 
garments were made of leather.^ The cavalry were 
armed like the infantry, excepting that some wore 
on their heads embossed brass and steel ornaments.® 
The people generally paid great honour to valour, 
even when it had been exercised by their enemies ; '^ 
and though Xerxes ordered the head of Leonidas to 
be fixed upon a pole, yet that must be regarded as 
an exception to the general rule, and merely an in- 
stance of the extent to which the Persian kings 
indulged in their inveterate hatred against the 
Spartans.** On the other hand, to be called more 
cowardly than a woman was the greatest affront a 
Persian could receive, and the general Artayntes 
drew his scimetar against Masistes, the brother of 
Xerxes, in return for such opprobrium.^ Burying 
23eople alive was one of their most horrible customs. 
At the place called Nine Ways they buried alive 
nine sons and nine daughters of the inhabitants; 
and when Amestris, the wife of Xerxes, grew old, 
she caused fourteen children of the best families in 
Persia to suffer the same fate, as an offering of thanks 
to the deity below the earth.^**" 

1 i. 143. ^ i. 1.53. 3 ii. 167. * i. 135; v. 49; vii. 61, 62. 

« i. 71. «vi).S4. ■'vii. 181. « vii. 238. » ix. 107. i" vii. 114. 

" By this deity Ahriman is probably intended, the angel of darkness, 
the author and director of all evil. No trace however of any permission 
to offer human victims is to he found in the Zendavestas ; vk^e must 
therefore suppose that the sacrifice here mentioned was in accordance 
with those hon-ihle magical and superstitious practices which, though 
severely forbidden Ijy the reformer of the Magian philosophy, Avere 
nevertheless on certain occasions resorted to as part of the more ancient 


The Persian system of post, called Angareion, asia. 
was the most rapid in the world, and was planned ^hap. m. 
as follows. The same number of horses and men ~ : 

■ t 1 f T • • syS" 

were provided as there were days journey to per- temofpost. 
form, and one mounted courier was placed at the 
station which terminated each day's journey. The 
first comer gave his message to the second, the 
second to the third, and so on to the end, similar to 
the torch race of Hephaestus among the Hellenes ; 
and neither snow nor rain, nor heat nor night, pre- 
vented them from performing their appointed stage 
with the utmost rapidity.' 

The kins: on his birthday every year ffave a feast, Matters per- 

^^ -t ^^ *^ tSrimii^ to 

which was named in the Persian language "tycta, the king. 
but in the Hellenic " TiXewr,'' or " perfect ; " and on ^flt'bS- 
that occasion he washed his head with soap, and ^^J- 
gave presents to the Persians,^ which sometimes in- 
cluded the command of an army.^ Those who had ^^?^®,^^^.° 
obliged the king in any way were called benefactors, called oro- 
and were named in the Persian language Orosan- Sectors. 
gae.* The king himself drank no other water than Drank only 
what was procured from the river Choaspes at Susa ; t^e 7ive7 ° 
and this water was boiled in silver vessels, and carried ciioaspes. 
after him in four-wheeled carriages drawn by mules 
wherever he marched.^ He always was regarded as Regarded 
the master of all Asia, and the barbarous nations who ter of iSra.' 
inhabited it;" and he stood especially high in the love ^g^j.'^eration 
and veneration of the Persians. When the latter heard for him. 
of the defeat at Salamis, they were thrown into the 
utmost consternation, and rent their garments and 
lamented entirely on his account ; ^ and Herodotus 
relates, though disbelieving the story, that when the 
ship in which Xerxes escaped to Asia was threat- 
ened by a storm, many of the Persians on board 
voluntarily plunged into the sea, and sacrificed their 
lives, in order to lighten the vessel and save their 
king.^ Of the royal harem Herodotus says but 

form of worship previous to Zoroaster. Kleuker, Appendix to the Zen- 
davestas, quoted by Baehr. 

1 viii. 98. 2 jx, 110. 3 j^. 109. * viii. 85. 

° i. 188. 6 i. 4; ix. 116. ^ viii. 99. « viii. 118. 

T 2 



CHAP. Ill, 

Conduct of 
the hai-em. 

Persian lan- 

little. The king received his wives in turns, ^ and the 
latter appear to have enjoyed free communication 
Avith each other, excepting dming the reign of 
Smerdis Magus, when they were kept in separate 
apartments.^ The height to which the passions of 
hatred and jealousy sometimes attained in the con- 
fined sphere of the seraglio, is strikingly brought for- 
ward in the dreadfal story of Xerxes' s amour with 
Artaynte, and the horrible revenge taken by his wife 

In concluding the present chapter we must remark, 
that in connexion with the Persian language, Hero- 
dotus mentions a circumstance which was only dis- 
covered by the Greeks, after having escaped the no- 
tice of the Persians themselves. The names of 
the Persians corresponded with their rank and per- 
sons, and all terminated in the same letter, viz. the 
letter which the Dorians called san, and the lonians 
sigmaJ^ A translation is also given of the names of 
three of the Persian kings, viz. Darius, '' one who 
restrains ; " Xerxes, '' a warrior ; " and Artaxerxes, 
'' a mighty warrior." ^ 

1 iii. 69. 2 iii. 68. 

ix. 108—113. 

i. 139, 

5 vi. 98, 








Region bounded on the west by the frontiers of Asia Minor ; north by ASIA, 
the Phasis, the Caspian, and the Jaxartes ; east by the Indus ; south by cjj^p j 

Syria, Assyria, Cissia, Persis, and the Erythraean. — Divided into twelve '__ 

sati-apies. — 19. Eastern Pontus, comprising the Moschi, Tibareni, Ma- 
Crones, Mosynoeci, and Mares, answering to Trebisonde. ■ — Herodotus's 
account very meagre. — Extent of the satrapy : probably included the 
Chalybes and Ligyes.^Order of the nations according to Xenophon. — 
Described by Xenophon as being half barbarous and almost independ- 
ent of Persia. — 13. Armenia and Pactyica, answering to Erzroum and 
part of Kurdistan. — Difficulty respecting Pactyica. — Armenians, de- 
scended from the Phrygians. — Their country the highway between Sar- 
dis and Susa. — Watered by four rivers, viz. the Tigris, Zabatus Major, 
Zabatus Minor, and the Gyndes. — Stream of the Gyndes weakened by 
the 180 canals of Cyrus. — Commerce with Babylon. — Peculiar merchant 
boats chiefly fi'eighted with palm wine. — Extent of the Armenia of He- 
rodotus. — 18. Matiene with the Saspeires and Alarodii. — Eastern and 
western Matiene mentioned by Herodotus. — Eastern Matiene identified 
with the mountains of Zagros or Kurdistan. — Matieni represented by 
the modern Kurds. — Western Matiene in Asia Minor. — Costume. — 
Country of the Saspeires and Alarodii in the valley of the Aras. — 10. 
Media, Avith the Paricanii and the Orthocorybantii. — Difficulty respect- 
ing the Paricanii. — Orthocorybantii unknown. — ^General description. — 
Northern Media, or Atropatene, answering to Azerbijan. — Southern 
Media, or Media Magna, answering to Irak Ajemi. — Two capitals each 
named Ecbatana. — Media of Herodotus. — Identified by Rennell with 
Irak Ajemi, and the Ecbatana with Hamadan. — Identified by Col. Raw- 
linson with Azerbijan, and the Ecbatana with Takhti-Soleiman. — Pro- 
bably included a large portion of both provinces. — Nisaean plain and 
horses. — Ecbatana as described by Herodotus.- — -Story of its walls con- 
sidered to be a fable of Sabaean origin. — Medes divided into six tribes, 
viz. Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, and Magi. — Anciently 
called Arians. — Costume. — Language. — 11. South Caspian Provinces, 
comprising Caspii, Pausicae, Pantimathi, and Dareitae. — Costume of the 
Caspii. — Identification of this satrapy with Ghilan, Mazanderan, and 
Astrabad. — 16. Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Arians, all 
wearing Bactrian costume. — Vast extent of the satrapy. — Parthia identi- 



fied with the mountains north of Khorassan.^ — ^Chorasmia with Kharasm, 
or Khiva.- — Sogdia with Sogd, or Bokhara. — Aria with Khorassan and 
western Afghanistan. — Arians and Medes the same race. — Caspian 
Gates. — Sah desert. — Remarkable plain described by Herodotus. — Con- 
tained the sources of the Aces. — Tm-ned into a lake by the king of Per- 
sia. — Difficulties in the geography : Herodotus's apparent confusion 
between the Helmund and the Oxus. — 15. East Caspian Provinces, 
comprising Sacae and Caspii. — Sacae the Persian name for Scythians : 
their costume. — Amyrgian Sacae to be considered as a Scythian tribe, 
conquered by Persia. — Situated between the Oxus and Jaxartes.- — Caspii 
north of the ancient course of the Oxus. — 12. Bactria. — General de- 
scription. — Identified with Balkh between the Hindoo Koosh and the 
Oxus. — Herodotus's account. — Bactria, a penal settlement. — Costume of 
the Bactrians. — Aeglae, probably the Ghiljies. — 7- Gandara, comprising 
the Sattagydae, Gandaiii, Dadicae, and Aparytae. — Merely named by 
Herodotus. — Probably answered to eastern Afghanistan.- — -Gandarii iden- 
tified vidth the people of Candahar. — Dadicae with the Tadjiks. — Satta- 
gydae with the Zhats. — 14. Carmania, including Sagartii, Sarangees, 
Thamanaei, Utii, and Myci, and the isles of the Erythraean. — Sarangees 
identified vidth the people of Zarang or Sehestan. — Herodotus's account. 
— Costume of the Sagartii. — Mode of fighting with lassos. — Thamanaei 
unknown. — Costume of the Sarangees, Utii, and Myci. — 17. Asiatic 
Aethiopia, with the Paricanii. — Herodotus's account. — Equipment of 
Paricanii. — Aethiopians of Asia contrasted with those of Libya. — 
Strange head-dress. — Identification of Asiatic Aethiopia with Gedrosia, 
or Beloochistan.- — 20. Northern India, or the Punjab. — Extent of the 
satrapy. — Herodotus's account of the people. — Enormous ants. — Ant- 
hills of sand and gold-dust. — Mode of carrying off the gold. — Identifica- 
tion of the people with the Rajpoots of the Punjab. — Indian camels. — 
Costume of the people. — Revenue of the twenty satrapies. — Herodotus's 
en-or whilst reducing the Babylonian talent to the Euboic standard. — 
Attempts to account for it. — EiTor in the sum total : perhaps included 
taxes paid in kind, tolls, gifts, etc. — The money and gold-dust melted 
down into ingots. 



bounded on 
the west by 
the frontiers 
of Asia Mi- 
nor ; north, 
by the Pha- 
sis, the Cas- 
pian, and 
the jax- 
artes ; east, 
by the In- 
dus ; south, 
by Syria, 
Cissia, Per- 
sis, and the 

Divided into 
twelve sa- 

In accordance with our plan of classifying the 
geography of the Asia of Herodotus according to the 
several degrees of his knowledge, we once more re- 
turn to the mountains of Armenia, near the eastern 
frontier of Asia Minor. In the previous chapter we 
described the countries westward of the Tigris, and 
Cissia and Persis to the south-east of that river. We 
have now to treat of the immense territory north 
and east of this region, extending from the eastern 
boundary of Asia Minor to the basin of the Indus, 
and stretching breadthways, at its eastern quarter, 
between the banks of the Jaxartes and coast of the 

Twelve satrapies are included in this region, which 
we shall describe in the following order, commencing 
at the western extremity. 1. Eastern Pontus, or 


the tribes along the south-eastern shore of the Eux- asia. 
ine, now called Trebisonde. 2. Armenia, or Erz- chap. iv. 
roum and part of Kurdistan. 3. Matiene and the 
country of the Saspeires, comprising the mountains 
of Kurdistan and valley of the Aras or Araxes. 4. 
Media, or Azerbijan and Irak Ajemi. 5. South Cas- 
pian districts, or Grhilan, Mazanderan, and Astrabad. 
6. Parthia, Chorasmia, Sogdia, and Aria, or Khoras- 
san, western Afghanistan, Khiva, and Bokhara. 7. 
East Caspian district, comprising Amyrgian Sacae 
and Caspians, or the country north of the ancient 
course of the Oxus. 8. Bactria, or Balkh and Budak- 
shan. 9. Gandara, or eastern Afghanistan. 10. 
Carmania, or Kerman. 11. Asiatic Aethiopia, or Be- 
loochistan. 12. Northern India, or the Punjab. This 
arrangement is based upon the actual geography of 
Asia ; it includes the seventh satrapy, and the tenth 
to the twentieth inclusive ; and in order to reconcile 
them with the geographical order laid down, we 
must take them as follows: viz. 19, 13, 18, 10, 11, 
16, 15, 12, 7, 14, 17, and 20. 

XIX. Eastern Pontus, or the territory along the xix^ast- 
south-eastern shore of the Euxine, now called Trebi- tus com- 
sonde, seems to have composed the nineteenth sa- Mosdfi,*Ti- 
trapy, which consisted of the Moschi, Tibareni, Ma- ^^^j^m, Ma- 
crones, Mosynoeci, and Mares. They paid 300 synoeci.and 

, 1 , ^ 1 "^ ' -^ ^ Mares, au- 

talenXS. swerlng to 

Herodotus tells us but very little concerning these HeredoSs 
tribes. They all joined the army of Xerxes, and account 
with the exception of the Mares they all wore the gref"^^ 
same equipment, namely, wooden helmets, small 
bucklers, and large pointed spears.^ The Macrones 
were neighbours of the Cappadocian Syrians, who 
dwelt about Thermodon and the river Parthenius, 
and at a recent period learnt the practice of circum- 
cision from the Colchians,^ who apparently bordered 
them on the north. The Mares wore helmets plait- 
ed after the fashion of their country, and carried 
small leathern shields and javelins.* 

1 iii. 94. ~ vii. 78. ^ „_ io4. * vii. 79. 


ASIA. According to the above description of the Ma- 

CHAP. IV. crones, this satrapy appears to have consisted of the 

~^^^^^ eastern half of the province subsequently called Pon- 

the satrapy: tus, and may approximate to the modern province of 

?nciud«i Trebisonde. Here also we may include the Chalybes, 

£sancf^' ^^ ^^^ follow Wcssoling's conjocturo, and identify 

Ligyes. tliom with the nation whose name has been lost/ 

The Chalybes carried small shields made of raw 

hides, and each had two javelins used for hunting 

wolves. On their heads they wore brazen helmets, 

and on the helmets were the ears and horns of an 

ox made of brass. On the top of the whole was a 

plume of feathers. Their legs were wrapped in 

pieces of purple cloth. This people possessed an 

oracle of Ares.^ In this same satrapy we may also 

place the Ligyes, who probably were a branch of the 

same widely spread nation which were to be found 

in Europe, and who wore the same equipment as 

Older of the the Paplilaffonians.^ Xenophon in his way towards 

nations ac- , ji -ii i i • - 

cording to tho wost passcQ succcssivcly through the territories 
Xenophon. ^£ ^^^ Macroncs, the Mosyiioeci, the Chalybes, and 
the Tibareni, between the rivers Phasis (or Phion) 
and the Thermodon (or Thermeh). The Moschi 
are also said to be situated between the sources of 
the Phasis and those of the Cyrus (or Kur). We 
may therefore describe this satrapy as consisting of 
the maritime district between the lofty chain of Ar- 
menian mountains and Euxine Sea ; and having the 
Phasis and Cyrus on the east, and the Thermodon 
on the west.* 
by xlno^ The manners of some of these tribes, as described 
phonas by Xeiiophoii,^ sufficiently assure us of their half- 
barbirous barbarous character ; and we learn that, protected by 
fndeplnd-^ their woods and mountains, they paid little or no 
ent of Per- regard to the authority of the Persian king, except 
when for the sake of plunder they chose to accom- 
pany his armies. The Mosynoeci were one of the 
wildest and most uncivilized nations of Asia. Their 
king or chief was maintained at the public expense 

' vii. 76. ^ Ibid. ^ vii. 72. ^ UcnneW, Gcor/. of Herod. \o\. \. 
5 Exped. V. 5, quoted by Heeren. 


in a wooden tower, which he was never permitted asia. 
to quit. They pitched their dwellings on the tops chap. iv. 
of the mountains at certain intervals, so that the ap- ~^ 
proach of an enemy might be telegraphed by signals 
from one to the other. Their food consisted of dried 
fish and boiled chestnuts, and we are told that the 
children of the principal men were so effectually 
fattened by the latter diet, that they were nearly as 
broad as they were long. They practised piracy in 
boats containing only three persons, namely, two 
fighting men and a rower ; and they dyed and tat- 
tooed their bodies with rejoresentations of flowers. 
The Tibareni were less barbarous. The Chalybes, 
or Alybes, were celebrated as early as the time of the 
Homeric poems for their silver-mines, and they con- 
tinued to work them in the time of Xenophon, but 
at that period could only obtain iron. Xenophon 
describes them as a warlike nation, but subject to 
the Mosynoeci. They probably derived their name 
from x"^'^^' which the Greeks also applied to iron 
or steel. Herodotus seems to make a mistake when 
he places them within the Halys.^ 

XIII. Armenia, or the thirteenth satrapy, included xiii. ar- 
the Armenians and the neighbouring people as far pactyica, 
as the Euxine,^ together with the district Pactyica. to ETz'i^um 
The territory which it occupied seems almost to an- ^^"\pf* °^ 
swer to the modern provinces of Erzroum and Kur- 
distan. It paid 400 talents.^ 

There is some difiiculty about Pactyica in this Difficulty 
satrapy. This district must have been situated to Pactyicaf 
the far east at the upper course of the Indus, for we 
find that Scylax embarked at Caspatyrus in Pactyica 
and sailed down the Indus. ^ Moreover, the Pactyes 
are described as wearing goat-skin mantles like the 
Utii, Myci, and Paricanii,^ who also dwelt in the 
eastern quarter of the Persian empire. Probably 
this is one of the cases alluded to by Herodotus, in 

1 i. 28. 

2 Herodotus here seems to make a mistake, as we have seen that the 
tribes included in the 19th satrapy, just described, occupied the naiTow 
tract between the Armenian mountains and the Euxine. 

3 iii. 93. " iv. 44. Cf. page 198. ^ ^i 68. 





from the 

Their coun- 
try the 
Sardis and 

"Watered by 
four rivers, 

the Tigris, 


Minor, and 
the Gyndes. 

Stream of 
the Gyndes 
by the 180 
canals of 

which distant tribes were included in the same sa- 
trapy/ though it is impossible to comprehend the 
reasons for such an arrangement. 

The Armenians were descendants of the Phry- 
gians, and were attired in Phrygian accoutrements 
in the army of Xerxes.^ Their country, which 
abounded in cattle,^ was situated to the north of As- 
syria, by which Herodotus probably meant Mesopo- 
tamia, and was separated from Cilicia by a river 
that was crossed in boats, namely, the Euphrates. 
The route from Sardis to Susa ran through Armenia, 
and Herodotus therefore tells us that the extent of 
this province was 56|- parasangs, or 1695 stadia, and 
that it included fifteen royal stages or resting-places. 
Four rivers flowed through Armenia that could only 
be crossed by boats. First, the Tigris ; then the 
second and third, which have both the same name, 
but flow from different sources ; finally, the Gyndes.* 
Herodotus does not name the second and third rivers, 
but it is evident that they were the Zabatus Major 
and the Zabatus Minor, now called the Greater and 
the Lesser Zab. Of these fom^ rivers, the Tigris rose 
amongst the Armenians,^ flowed by the city of Opis,^ 
and discharged itself into the Erythraean Sea near 
the city of Ampe.^ The second river (Zabatus Ma- 
jor) also rose amongst the Armenians. The third 
river (Zabatus Minor) rose amongst the Matienians.^ 
The fourth river, the Gyndes, (or Diala,) rose in the 
mountains of Matiene, and flowing through the 
country of the Dardanians, discharged itself into the 
Tigris. The latter people are unknown. Wlien 
Cyrus, on his march against Babylon, arrived at the 
river Gyndes, one of the sacred white horses plunged 
in from wantonness and endeavoured to swim across, 
but was carried away by the stream and drowned. 
Cyrus was so enraged with the river for this affront, 
that he threatened to weaken its stream so effectu- 
ally that women sliould be able to wade across it 
without wetting their knees. Accordingly he de- 

iii. H9. 
^ Ibid. 

" vii. 73. 
'•' i. 189. 


' vi. 20. 

* V. 52. 
V. 52. 


layed the expedition, and employed his army for an asia. 
entire summer in digging one hundred and eighty chap. iv. 
conduits, diverging every way from each bank of the 
river, and by these means he at length fulfilled his 
threat/ The mountains of Armenia also contained 
the sources of the river Halys.^ 

The Armenians carried on a commercial inter- commeixe 
course with Babylon by means of the river Eu- ion. "" ^' 
phrates. The boats they used for navigating the 
river were of a peculiar construction. They were 
round like a shield, without making any distinction 
in the stern or contraction in the prow. They were Peculiar 
made of plaited willows, covered on the outside with {JoaTsl'chief- 
leathern hides, and lined with reeds. ^ They were ^^^jf^^^^ted 
carried down the river by the force of the stream, wine. 
and every vessel was steered by two men, who each 
carried an oar, one drawing in whilst the other thrust 
out. The merchandise chiefly consisted of palm 
wine, and some of the largest boats would carry 
5000 talents' weight of freight. Each vessel had an 
ass on board, and the larger ones had several of 
these animals ; and when the conductors had reach- 
ed Babylon and disposed of their cargo, they sold 
the wicker fr-amework and reeds by public auction, 
and then loaded the ass with the leather and skins 
and returned to Armenia by land, as it was impossi- 
ble to navigate up stream because of the rapidity 
of the current.^ ^ 

1 i. 189. Rennell has pointed out that the river Gyndes, mentioned 
as being traversed by the royal road, is different from the river Gyndes 
whose stream was weakened by Cyrus. The former is identified with 
the Diala, which is a deep and large stream answering to Herodotus's 
description of the distances on the royal road, but totally out of Cyrus's line 
of march between Susa and Babylon. The Gyndes weakened by Cyrus 
seems to have been the Mendeh, which flows more to the south-east. He- 
rodotus seems to have confused the Mendeh with the Diala, and to have 
called them both by the same name of Gyndes. They certainly both took 
their rise in the mountains of Matiene. ^ i. I'l- 

3 Similar boats are still used on the Tigris. Porter (vol. i. p. 259) de- 
scribes two kinds, the kelet and the kufa. The kelet consists of a floor- 
ing of osiers based on two trunks of ti-ees ; the whole being wattled and 
bound together with wicker-work, and attached to bladders filled with aii-, 
to prevent their sinking. The kufa is a boat perfectly circular, made of 
wicker-work and coated with bitumen, and exactly resembling a large 
bowl. ^ i. 194. 

5 The market-boats of Germany which go down the Danube to Vienna, 


ASIA. The Ai'menia of Herodotus was confined within 

CHAP. IT. very different limits to the Armenia of later times. 

j,^^^^^ ^^ In the first place, it did not include the yalley of the 

theAime- Araxcs, or Aras, which Herodotus assigns to the Sas- 

rodo°tus. ^' peires. On the other hand, it is evident from the 

description of the four rivers that flowed through it, 

that it must have included a considerable portion of 

Kurdistan east of the Tigris ; probably as far soutli 

as the Gryndes or Diala. On the west it was bounded 

by the Euphrates,^ and on the north it contained the 

sources of that river. ^ 

XVIII. XVIII. Matiene and the country of the Saspeires 

withthe^ and Alarodii formed the eighteenth satrapy, and 

SSirro- P^^^ ^^^ talents.^ 

dii. The Matiene of Herodotus has occasioned con- 

western^'^' sidcrablo difficulty to commentators. We find Ma- 
Sentioned ^ioni in Asia Minor on the right bank of the Halys ; * 
byHeiodo- and Aristagoras describes Matiene as coming be- 
tween Armenia and Cissia,^ and including four of 
the stations on the great highway between Sardis 
and Susa;^ and we now see this same j)eople as- 
sociated with the Saspeires, who lay to the north of 
Media. ^ These contradictions may, to some extent, 
be cleared up by a general survey of the country. 
Eastern Wo liavo already described the mountain chain 

identm'ed aucicntly called Zagros, which runs in a south-east- 
mountains ^^^J dircction from the elevated peaks of Ararat to 
ofzagiosor the head of the Persian Gulf. It apparently divided 
Ma«eni1-e- Armenia from Media, and is now best known under 
by'^thenfo- thc collcctive title of ''mountains" of Kurdistan. 
dern Kurds, ^lie long tcrracos of this extensive range, and the 
verdant pastures of the underlying plains, appear in 
all ages to have formed the country of a pastoral 
and wandering race. The modern Kurds, who have 
taken the place of the Carduchi of Xerxes, arc al- 
most all " dwellers in the field." ^ 

like those of Armenia, never return, but are sold with the commodities 
they convey. 

1 V. 52. 2 i. 180. ^ iii. 94. * i. 72. '' v. 49. 

^ V. 52. Rennell wishes here to read Sittacene for Matiene, as he would 
place the latter in Media Magna to the north of the Zagros mountains. 

' iv. .37. 

^ The wandering tribes of Persia arc comprehended under the general 


Here then we would place the eastern Matieni, asia. 
and identify the mountains of Matiene with those of chap. iv. 
Kurdistan. In the northern part of this chain rose 
the river Aras, or western Araxes,^ whilst towards the 
south the river Cryndes and the Greater and Lesser 
Zab flowed into the Tigris. Thus the Matieni were 
connected with the Saspeires on the north, and also 
inhabited the southern district between Armenia 
and Cissia, which Herodotus more especially calls 

The western Matieni on the right bank of the western 
Halys have next to be considered. They apparently Asia mLot. 
occupied the mountains of Anti-Taurus, and were 
most probably a pastoral people, presenting many 
points of similarity to the eastern Matieni on the 
Zagros range. How far they were of a kindred 
race it is impossible to say ; Armenia certainly came 
between the two nations ; but the question may be 
safely left to the conjectures of the reader. 

The Matieni in the army of Xerxes wore the costume. 
same costume as the Paphlagonians of Asia Minor, ^ 
and seem to have belonged to the same stock as the 
Armenians, with whom they were doubtless to some 
extent intermingled, and who were equipped in a 
similar manner.^ 

The Saspeires dwelt above the Modes, and south saspeires 
of the Caspians,* and consequently must have occu- dS, in thr 
pied the valley of the Aras, or western Araxes. The "'^^}^/ °^^^^ 
Alarodii are unknown, but were probably a neigh- 
bouring tribe, as we find that both they and the 
Saspeires were equipped like the Colchians.^ 

X. Media, or the tenth satrapy, comprised Ecba- x. media, 
tana (or Agbatana '^) and the rest of Media, and the ParicSli, 
Paricanii and Orthocorybantii. It paid 450 and ortho- 

^ _ "' J^ corybantii. 


The Paricanii may be identified with the Pare- Difficulty 
taceni, one of the Median tribes,^ as we find the lh?pairca- 

term of Iliyats, and are divided into Shehr-nishin, or dwellers in cities, 
and Salira-nishin, or dwellers in the field. 

1 i. 202. 2 vii_ 72. 3 Yii. 73. i iv. 37. " vii. 79. 

•5 Herodotus and Ctesias both spelt it 'Ay^drava. 

1 iii, 92. 8 iii. 101. 




: CHAP. lY. 

bantii un- 
General de- 
Media, or 
to Azerbi- 

Media, or 
Media Mag- 
na, answer- 
ing to Irak 

Two capi- 
tals, each 
named Ec- 

Media of 

Paricanii mentioned again in the seventeenth sa- 
trapy, associated with the Asiatic Aethiopians, much 
farther to the east. The Orthocorybantii are un- 

Media was divided by the later geograj)hers into 
two parts, viz. (1.) Northern Media, or Atropatene, 
a wild, momitainous, and unfertile region, west of the 
Caspian, and bounded on the north by the western 
Araxes or Aras, and answering to the modern country 
of Azerbijan. (2.) Southern Media, or Media Magna, 
a spacious and fertile table land, south of the Cas- 
pian, and including, especially in the neighbourhood 
of the city of Nisa, wide tracts of pasture abounding 
in the herba medica of the ancients, probably the 
same with our clover.^ Here were reared the cele- 
brated Nisaean breed of horses, which are especially 
noticed by Herodotus, and which were remarkable 
for their pure whiteness, and for their size, speed, 
and sureness of foot. This Media Magna answers to 
the modern Irak Ajemi. Each of these divisions 
appear to have had a capital bearing the same name 
of Ecbatana, a word which probably signifies in its 
original form " treasure," or " treasure city."^ The 
Ecbatana of northern Media is identified with the 
site of Takhti-Soleiman : that of Media Magna, with 
the modern Hamadan. This subject will be more 
fully discussed further on.'* 

Media as described by Herodotus was generally 
level, but the region to the north of Ecbatana, and 
towards the Saspeires and the Euxine Sea, was very 

^ The conjectures of commentators respecting these two nations are 
various. The identification of the Paricanii with the Paretaceni is cer- 
tainly doubtful, for if they were really Medes, they did not require 
naming at all, being included under the general title of Medes. (See 
Baehr's note to vii. 92.) The Orthocorybantii are supposed by Rennell 
to be the people of Corbiana, now called Kummabad, in the southern 
part of the satrapy. 

'•* Heeren, Asiat. lies. vol. i. 

3 See Colonel Rawlinson's Memoir on the site of the Atropatenian 
EcbatJina, in the .Journal of the Royal Gcog. Soc. vol. x. p. 65 ; to which, 
and to Rennell's Geography of Herodotus, I must generally refer as my 
authorities for the present description. 

' It need scarcely be mentioned that there was also a town in Syria 
bearing the name of Ecbatana. (iii. 62.) It was situated on Mount Car- 
mel, and was probably a treasure citadel. 



mountainous, and covered witt forests, and abound- asia. 
ing in wild beasts, yet including some pastures wliicli 
were favourable to the grazing of cattle.^ This is 
the only passage in our author which will really as- 
sist us in discovering the territory to which he 
referred. Rennell supposes that Media Magna, or g^^^^^^^^J^ 
Irak Ajemi, only is meant, because that would leave with irak 
more room for the Saspeires,^ and was in accordance ^Sba^'^ 
with his theory that the territory of Matiene, which g^^^j*^^ 
Herodotus assigns to another satrapy, came between 
Media Magna and northern Media or Azerbijan. 
He therefore identifies the Ecbatana of Herodotus 
with the site of the modern city of Hamadan. 
Colonel Rawlinson however contends that only J^'^^oionti 
northern Media or Azerbijan is meant, and that the Rawiinson 
site of Takhti-Soleiman represents the Ecbatana of bJn,'^anT 
Herodotus.' It is certain that our author's descrip- ^^^^^^^^ 
tion already quoted refers to northern Media, and Takhti-^ 
there are mountains to the north of Takhti-Soleiman, 
but none to the north of Hamadan. It is however p^I^JJ^^ 
difficult to believe that Herodotus does not also }arg^ por-'' 
allude to the spacious plains of Media Magna, when '^Z^.^et^ 
describing the country as generally^ level. The 
limits of course cannot be distinctly laid down, as it 
is certain that some parts of Media were given to 
different satrapies, and besides Matiene ^ already 
mentioned, we shall find that the mountaineers of 
the southern shore of the Caspian were also ex- 
cluded. The border country along the south of 
Media and north of Persis was filled up by the 
Zagros mountains, and occupied by tribes of robbers, 
of whom the Paretaceni were the most consider- 

Within the Median territory was the extensive Nisaean 

1 i. 110. 2 Seep. 199,201. 

3 Colonel Eawlinson shows that the ruins of Takhti-Soleiman are not 
later than Timur's invasion in A. D. 1389; that they probably derived 
their present name from Soleiman Shah Abuh, a local ruler of Kurdis- 
tan, who hved in the early part of the thirteenth centuiy A. D. ; that pre- 
vious to the Moguls, the city was known as Shiz in all Oriental authors, 
and that Shiz is the same place as the Byzantine Canzaca. A concise 
outline of his investigations is to be found in Dr. Smith's Diet, of Geog. 
art. Ecbatana. 





plain and 

Ecbatana as 
described by 

Stoi-y of its 
walls consi- 
dered to be 
a fable of 
Sabaean ori- 

plain called tlie Nisaean, celebrated for its breed of 
large and excellent horses,^ which even surpassed 
those of India. ^ Ten of these horses were taken by 
Xerxes in his expedition against Greece.^ The Ni- 
saean pastures appear to have lain between Casvin 
and Teheran.^ 

We now turn to Herodotus' s description of Ecba- 
tana. The Medes were originally distributed into 
a number of villages,^ and rapine and lawlessness 
were generally prevalent.^ At length Deioces, hav- 
ing induced the people to make him king, obliged 
them to build him Ecbatana. This was erected upon 
a mountain, and consisted of seven strong and lofty 
walls, each one rising in a circle within the other. 
The ground was of an easy ascent, and each inner 
wall displayed its battlements above the other. The 
outside wall was therefore the lowest, and was about 
equal in circmnference to the city of Athens. The 
innermost wall was the highest, and within it was 
the king's palace, and also his treasury. The bat- 
tlements of all these circular walls were of different 
colours. The first were white, the second black, the 
third purjile, the fourth blue, the fifth bright red, 
the sixth plated with silver, and the seventh or in- 
nermost one plated with gold.^ The people dwelt 
outside all round the walls. ^ 

Such is Herodotus' s extraordinary description of 
Ecbatana. The story of the seven walls is considered 
by Colonel Rawlinson to be manifestly a fable of 
Sabaean origin, the seven colours being precisely 
those employed by the Orientals to denote the seven 
great heavenly bodies, or the seven climates in which 
they revolve." The hill of Takhti-Soleiman which 

' vii.40. 2 ijj, 105. 3 vii. 40. 

* Manncrt, V. p. 170. Ilennell places them near Kermanshah. Heeren 
remarks that Porter, thouf^h stnick with the same groundless notion, was 
struck with the heauty and lleetness of the horses of the plains of Casvin, 
when he rode across them in the suite of the crown prince. Abbas Mirza, 
Aniat. Nat. vol. i. 

■' i. 9(5. « i. 97. "• i. 98. » i. 99. 

'•' Colonel Rawlinson quotes from a poem of Nizami, who describes a 
seven-dyed palace in nearly the same terms as Herodotus. In this the 
palace dedicated to Saturn was black ; that to Jupiter, orange, or more 


Colonel Rawlinson identifies with Ecbatana, rises asia. 
one hundred and fifty feet above the plain, and its chap. iv. 
brow is still crowned with a wall thirty feet high, 
and having thirty-seven bastions in a circuit of a 
little more than three quarters of a mile.^ 

The Modes originally consisted of six tribes, Meciesdi- 
namely the Busae, the Paretaceni, Struchates, Ari- ^x tribes^ 
zanti, Budii, and Magi. These were all formed into pare^sTcTni 
a single nation by Deioces.^ At an earlier period struchates,' 
the Medes were all called Arians.^ In the army of Budfi^'and 
Xerxes they wore turbans and loose trousers, and Anfientiy 
their bodies were protected by variously coloured ^JJe^ 
Ibreastplates, with sleeves or armlets, and with iron Costume. 
scales like those of a fish. They used short spears, 
long bows, and arrows made of cane, and had dag- 
gers on the right thigh, suspended from the girdle. 
Instead of shields they had bucklers of osiers curi 
ously twisted, and under these bucklers they hung 
their quivers.* Of their language the word spaca. Language. 
signifying '^ a bitch," ^ is alone preserved by He- 

XI. The South Caspian districts seem to have g]\pf°^^" 
formed the eleventh satrapy, which comprised the provinces, 
Caspii, Pausicae, Pantimathi, add Dareitae. It caTp^irpIu- 
paid 200 talents.^ f^^^^,^ 

The Caspii m Xerxes army wore goat-skm man- andDarei- 


strictly speaking, sandal wood colour ; that to Mars, scarlet ; that to the 
Sun, golden ; that to Venus, white ; that to Mercury, azur* ; and that to 
the Moon, green, a hue which is applied by Orientals to silver. These 
particulars would almost seem to indicate that the story in Herodotus 
was originally derived from Chaldaean sources. The order however of 
the coloured walls of Ecbatana will not agree with that of the orbits of 
the heavenly bodies, according to Chaldaean or Aegyptian notions. If 
however we might suppose that the colours of the first and second ram- 
parts, and those of the third and fifth, have been interchanged in Hero- 
dotus's description, we shall then get an order corresponding with that 
of the deities presiding over the days of the week. 

^ I have shown elsewhere that I do not beUeve that Herodotus ever 
visited Ecbatana, otherwise he would never have compared its extent 
with that of Athens. Mr. Blakesley however has pointed out that the 
circumference of the hill of Takhti-Soleiman is sufficiently near to that 
of the acropolis at Athens to allow of a comparison between the two to 
be made in such a caravan story as may have reached the ears of om* 

2 i. 101. 3 vii. 62. * vii. 61; v. 49. ^ i nO. 

« iii. 92. 


ASIA, ties, and carried bows made of cane peculiar to their 
CHAP. IV. country, and scimetars.^ This peculiar cane was 
Costume of probablj the bamboo. The other nations are not 
the caspii. mentioned as having joined the expedition. 
identifica- Tliis satrapy, according to the generally received 
JatrapyStii opiuion amoug commentators, lay along the south 
Ghiiau,Ma- ^j^d eastom shore of the Caspian Sea, and thus occu- 

zanderau, •ii p ^^ •• ij i-i' ^ 

and Astra- picQ tlic lertile scmicircular tract which is shut up 
on the inland side by the ridge of mountains now 
called Elburz. It constituted one natural division 
of the country, and answered to the modern pro- 
vinces of Ghilan, Mazanderan, and Astrabad. E,en- 
nell identifies the Pausicae with the Pasicae of 
Strabo, and Aspasiacae of Ptolemy, to the north- 
east of Chorasmia ; this would extend the satrapy 
into the desert of Khiva as far north as the present 
mouth of the Oxus.^ We would rather consider it as 
being bounded on the north by the ancient course of 
this river, which would leave room for the Amyr- 
gian Sacae and Caspians of the fifteenth century. 
XVI. Par- XVI. The Paethians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, 
Chwiasmi- and Arians composed the sixteenth satrapy, which 
b^Tn^ Tnd P^^^ ^^^ talents.^ All these nations wore the Bac- 
arians, au triaii equipment ; the Arians however are mentioned 
BactrL-fn as caiTyiug Mcdic bows.^ It will be presently seen 
costume. ^^^ ^^ Hyrcanians may be included in the same 

Vast extent The vast region thus pointed out would appear 
tra^t ''^' to extend from the Carmanian satrapy at Lake Zur- 
rah, or Aria Palus, and the river Helmund north- 
ward to the banks of Jaxartes, or modern Sirr-deria. 
We will endeavour to explain the country occupied 
Parthia by thcsc uatioiis in detail. The Parthia of He- 
wfth^the rodotus uudoubtcdly included only the original 

1 vii. 67. 

2 Major Rcnncll also remarks upon the general similarity in the 
armour of the Bactrians, Caspians, Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, 
Gandarians, and IJadicae, from whence it would appear that all the na- 
tions situated to the north and east of Media bore a sufficient resem- 
blance to each other to show their common origin, which, he says, was 
doubtless from Scythia. ( Gcorf. of Ilerod. vol. i.) The latter question 
requires further consideration. 

••' iii. 93. '' vii. 60. •' iii. 117, 


country of the Parthians previous to its extension by asia. 
conquest ; and we may gather from the words of ^^^^- 1^- 
Justin and Strabo, that this was nothing more than mountains 
the mountainous tract between Hyrcania, Mar- ^^^°^^^ 
giana, Aria, and the desert of Chorasmia,^ answer- 
ing on the modern map to the mountains in the 
north of Khorassan, which form a continuation of 
the Elburz range. Chorasmia may be taken for chors^mia 
the deserts of Khiva or Kharesm, which form the resm or 
south-western quarter of Independent Tartary. Sog- sogafa with 
dia, or Sogdiana, included the country still called ^^^^^.^ 
Sogd, or Samarcand, but perhaps better known as 
Bokhara, or the south-eastern quarter of Independent 
Tartary, between the rivers Oxus and Jaxartes. 
Lastly, Aria comprised nearly all Khorassan and Aria with 

, "^ A n ^ • r 1 J -n 'j * Khorassan 

western Afghanistan, and still preserves its name m and western 
the modern Herat. The Arians and Medes were ttS^^' 
originally the same race, as Herodotus tells us that f/^?'^^^^^ 

oJ 'ii 1 f \ • 9 Medes the 

the Medes anciently bore the name oi Arians."^ same race. 
Either this union was dissolved by the dynasty of 
the Medes, or the Persians considered it expedient 
to weaken a people so powerful by forming them into 
separate satrapies. The passage from Media into Caspian 
this territory was through the Caspian Gates, a 
strong and narrow strait lying between the two 
countries, and so called because it led through the 
Caspian mountains, now called Elburz, down to the 
sea. Western Aria is a waste so impregnated with sait desert. 
salt that it has received the name of the Salt Desert. 

^ This has been ably pointed out by Rennell, from whom we now ex- 
tract the principal authorities for the original seats of the Parthians. 
Justin says that the Parthians were Scythian exiles who possessed them- 
selves of the places between Hyrcania, the Dahae, Arii, Spartans, and 
Margianians. (Lib. xli. c. 1.) For Spartans read Aparytae. (Herod, iii. 
91.) Strabo (p. 511) places Parthia between Margiana and Ai-ia ; and 
in p. 514 says, that being originally of no great extent, it was increased 
in after-times by the addition of Camisene, Chorene, and other districts 
(formerly belonging to Media) as far as the Caspian Gates. In p. 509 
he says that the river Ochus flows near Parthia. Pliny (vi. 25) 
places Parthia between Media and Aria, Carmania and Hyrcania ; 
and as he extends Hyrcania eastward to Margiana, it is certain that his 
Parthia agrees with that of Ptolemy. Moreover he says that Hecatom- 
pylos, the capital of Parthia, lies in the middle of it. RenneU, Geoff, of 
Herod, vol. i. 

^ vii. 62. 

u 2 


ASIA. A remarkable account is to be found in Herodotus 


of a large plain in the vicinity of the present satrapy 
Remark- ^i^cl tlio uatious includcd in the fourteenth, which 
able plain gecms to rcfcr to Sehestan. He describes this plain 
Herodotus, as sliut ill by mountains, and situated in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Chorasmians, Hyrcanians, Parthi- 
ans, Sarangees, and Thamanaeans. It originally 
belonged to the Chorasmians, but of course, after the 
establishment of the Persian empire, it fell under the 
Contained sway of the Great King. In ancient times a large 
of*^theTc^el ^ivor named the Aces rose in this plain, and flowing 
through five ravines in the mountain barrier, irri- 
gated the lands of the surrounding nations already 
Turned into montioncd. After the Persian conquest, the king 
the^Sng^of dammed in the river by fixing sluice-gates in the 
Persia. ravincs, and thus turned the plain into a sea. 
This act of tyranny threw the people into the great- 
est distress. The rains only fell in the winter ; and 
during the summer, when the millet and sesame 
were put in the ground, and the land stood in the 
greatest need of water, there was none to be had. 
Accordingly both men and women would travel all 
the way to Persia, and make a great outcry before 
the royal palace ; and Herodotus was informed that 
the Persian king exacted large sums of money in 
addition to the tribute, before he would consent to 
open the gates. ^ This story seems in perfect keep- 
ing with other accounts which have been preserved 
of Asiatic despotism, though to Rennell the relation 
Difficulties appeared improbable. It is difficult however to re- 
Kraphy^:*^" coiicilc tlic gcogTaj^liical dcscriptioii with the actual 
iierodotus's g^^to of the countrv. The country of Sehestan is a 

apparent ,,, iii • i i 

confusion hollow tract, surrounded by mountains and watered 
Hcimund by tlic rivcr Helmund, and it includes the lake 
and oxus. ^urrali,^ into which the Helmund discharges itself. 

' iii. 117. 

'■' This lake consists of a body of brackish water about 160 miles in 
circumference. In the centre is a hill upon which is built the fort of 
Rustam. Its shores are overgrown to a considerable distance with 
rushes and reeds, interspersed with pools of standing water. The banks 
of the Helmund are well cultivated and fruitful, and the country pos- 
sesses a fine rich soil, which is irngated by the river. This fertile land 
however nowhere exceeds two miles in breadth, and the great valley of 


This lake however and the neighbouring country is asia. 
an immense distance from Chorasmia and Hyrcania. ^"^^- ^^- 
Most probably Herodotus has confused the Helmund 
with the Oxus, and this would account for his ap- 
parent contradictory description.^ 

XV. The East Caspian Provinces seem to have xv- east 
formed the fifteenth satrapy, and comprised the Provinces 
Sa,cae or Amyrgians, and the Caspii, and paid 250 §33 
talents.^ ^ <^^^p"- 

Sacae was a name applied by the Persians to all Sacae, the 

-ClJr 1 1 • ji f> Persian. 

Scythians, but those who marched m the army oi name for 
Xerxes, and who we may presume were those in- fhS?"''''" ' 


eluded in the present satrapy, were called Scythian 
Amyrgians. They wore stiff hats with pointed 
crowns and loose trousers ; and they carried bows 
peculiar to their country, daggers, and battle-axes 
called sagares.^ A modern geographer* considers Amyrgian 
that the name of Sacae was not originally that of a coSered^ 
nation, but probably pertained to religion and cul- t^^jf^n^e 
ture ; and that hostile tribes who gradually extended conquered 
to the Tanais, and practised common rites and bore ^ 
the common name of Sacae, were separately called 
the stock of the Greloni, Budini, Sauromatae, and 
others. From the description in Herodotus we may 
therefore deduce, that a tribe of the Sacae called 
Amyrgians were subdued by Persia, and thus satis- 
fied her pride. Their seats were probably between situated te- 
the upper courses of the Oxus and Jaxartes, to the oxusaud 
north of Sogdia. In the time of Alexander the J^^^^*"^^- 
Great immense hordes of these Scythians traversed 
Sogdia, ready at all times either to seize a booty, or 
on the approach of superior forces to fly back to 
their native steppes and deserts.'^ 

the Helmund therefore presents that remarkable contrast which in the 
East is the result of the presence or absence of water. Elphinstone's 
Cabid, vol. ii., and Capt. Christie in Pottinr/er's Travels, p. 407, both 
quoted by Col. Chesney. 

1 Herodotus distinctly says (iii. 117) that he derived his information 
from hearsay. 

■' iii. 93. 3 yii_ 64. 

* Ritter, quoted by Baehr in his note on iii. 93. 

^ Arrian, quoted by Heeren, Asiat. Nat. vol. i. Arrian makes a 
broad distinction between the Sogdians living in cities and the wander- 


ASIA. The Caspians in this satrapy have been a great 
cHAv. IV. difficulty to commentators. Caspii have abeady 
Caspii north hoon mentioned in the eleventh satrapy, in the dis- 
ofthean- trict along the south and south-eastern shores of the 
of the oxus. Caspian Sea ; and efforts have therefore been made 
to substitute a different reading.^ But no authority 
can be quoted from the manuscripts for such devia- 
tions from the text, and we still prefer to read 
Caspii; not indeed confusing them with those to 
the south of the Caspian, from whom they were 
separated by the ancient com^se of the Oxus,^ but 

ing hordes of Scythians. In the same way the Bucharians are still dis- 
tinct in their character and habits from the Usbeck Tartars. 

^ Reizius would read Caspeiri, relying upon the authority of Stephen 
of Byzantium, who cites from the third book of Herodotus, Caspeiron, a 
city of the Persians bordering on India. Rennell and Larcher would 
read Casii, or the inhabitants of the country called Casia by Ptolemy, 
which lies to the north-east of Sogdia or Samarcand, and ansAvers to the 
modern Kashgar. Maltebrun refers us to the inhabitants of the Indian 
Caucasus or Hindoo Koosh, in the neighbourhood of the city of Caspa- 
tyrus, which we shall presently see was identical with the city of Cabul. 
Cf. Baehr, note on Herod, iii. 93. 

2 Ancient geographers describe the river Oxus as flowing, not into the 
Aral, as at present, but as running from east to west into the Caspian. 
Strabo and Pliny always suppose this to be the fact, and it is expressly 
asserted by Ptolemy. We are told, however, that about the year 1719, 
Peter the Great, having heard that gold was contained in the sands of 
one of the tributaries of the Oxus, sent 3000 men under Beckewitz to take 
jiossession of the surrounding countries. Meantime the suspicion of the 
Tartars was aroused, and they dammed up the Oxus by a strong d)^ke, 
and conducted its waters through three canals into the lake Aral. The 
khan then marched a large army to meet Beckewitz, but was defeated by 
the Russian artillery. Beckewitz subsequently attempted to turn the 
Oxus into its ancient channel, but his army, having separated into small 
parties, was cut to pieces by the Tartars. 

Such is the ancient account and modern tradition, but, in opposition to 
the latter, we find that 700 years before the Russian expedition under 
Beckewitz, Ebu Haukal describes the Oxus as falling into the lake Aral. 
(See Ouseley's translation of Ebu Haukal's Geogi'aphy, p. 239, where the 
Oxus is called the Jihoun, and the Aral is named ihe lake of Kharezm.) 
It is therefore impossible to believe that the Tartars, in A. D. 1719, turned 
the Oxus fiom the Casjnan into the Aral. Moreover we may even doubt 
the general possibility of damming up so large a river in a country of 

The researches of recent travellers however confirm the accounts of the 
ancient geogi*aphers, that the Oxus did actually at one time flow into the 
Caspian. I'he dry channel has been seen at different points, and we ai'e 
even told that an embankment actually exists : the problem is best 
solved by a consideration of the general physical geography of the 

In ante-historical times central Asia must have been an immense sea, 
but a constant drying up of the waters has gradually changed a great 


placing them still higher on the eastern shore of the asia. 
Caspian, and in the northern part of the desert of ^"^^'- ^^'- 

XII. Bactria formed the twelfth satrapy, and ex- xii. bac- 
tended from the Bactrians as far as the Aeglae. It 
paid 360 talents.^ 

The province of Bactria lay between the Hindoo ^^?°^':^J/^®" 
Koosh and the river Oxus, and is still known by the identified 
name of Balkh.^ The descent from the great range beJwewfSe 
of mountains is very rapid, and the lower parts of f ^oJ^°j^nd 
Balkh towards the Oxus are much lower and the Oxus. 
hotter than the elevated regions on the south. 
The hills in the latter quarter are generally stony, 
but have many good and well-watered valleys, and 
they secure a supply of water to the central part of 
the country, which is plain and fertile. The north 
towards the Oxus is sandy and barren.^ Bactria 
may also be said to include the mountainous terri- 
tory to the east, which is now called Budakshan. 
The Bactrians were a brave and hardy race, who 
were reckoned amongst the best soldiers in the Per- 
sian service ; and the province is still celebrated for 
a strong and active breed of horses, which are ex- 
ported in considerable numbers. 

part of this sea into a desert of sand, under which are numerous springs, 
generally salt and bitter, whose waters either lose themselves in the sand 
or are carried off bj^^ evaporation. In very remote ages, therefore^ the 
Aral may have formed only an inland lake of the Oxus river, and that 
branch of the river towards the Caspian which is now dried up, was pro- 
bably the outflow of the Aral. As the Aral became more shallow the 
ijiass of water no longer required this outflow, and the branch towards the 
Caspian gradually dried up. Water however is a precious element in a 
sandy region, and when the old outflow became too shallow to irrigate the 
land, the inhabitants threw a dam or embankment across it to prevent 
the Oxus from merely losing itself in the sands, and probably to turn its 
waters into canals of greater utility. This dam was probably the one 
seen by Beckewitz, and was not recently constructed, but may have existed 
prior to the time of Ebu Haukal. For a further account see Memoir 
communicated by Humboldt to Captain Moria, and ascribed to the Graf 
von Cancrin, printed in Morier's Memoir of the Countries about the Cas- 
pian and Aral. 

1 iii. 92. 

2 Balkh is probably only the name of the principal city of this region, 
but is generally applied by geographers to the entire tract. Elphinstone 
also uses it in this general sense, though he acknowledges that it is in- 

3 Elphinstone, Account of Cauhil, vol. ii. 

the Buctri 


ASIA. Bactria, according to Herodotus, was the usual 
CHAP. IV. place of banisliment for enslaved nations. Thus the 
Herodotus's Porsiau gouorals threatened the lonians that thej 
account. would nialvO eunuchs of their sons and carry their 
peudTetde- virgins to Bactria;^ and the enslaved Barcaeans 
^^'^^' from Libya were also carried there, and built a vil- 
lage which they named Barca, and which still ex- 
isted in the Bactrian territory in the time of Hero- 
costumeof dotus.^ Tho Bactriaus in the army of Xerxes wore 
turbans on their heads very much like those worn 
by the Medes ; they also carried short spears, and 
bows made of a cane, which was peculiar to their 
country.^ They would seem to be the most im- 
portant people in this part of Asia; and we find 
that many of the surrounding nations wore the same 
equipments, viz. the Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdi- 
ans, Grandarians, Dadicae, and Arians; only the 
latter carried a bow which bore more resemblance 
to the Median. 
Acgiae, Of the Aeglae nothing is known for certain. Een- 

fheGhlyies. nell would place them in the eastern extremity of 
Bactria, where he says that the most remote pro- 
vince is named Kil, Gril, or Kilan.* We would 
rather identify them with the Ghiljies, who were in 
former times the most celebrated of the Afghan 
tribes, and are to be found in the neighbourhood of 
Cabul, and along the valley of the Cabul river as far 
as Jellallabad.^ 
VII. Can- yii, Gandara, or the seventh satrapy, comprised 
prising the tlio Sattagydac, Gandarii, Dadicae, and Aparytae. 
GaiSii!'' It paid IT'O talents.^ Herodotus says nothing fur- 
Sd A ri'r ^^^^^^ about thoso people, excepting that the Gandarii 
tao. and Dadicae wore the same accoutrements as the 

named^by BaCtriaUS.^ 

ivSd •''' The name of Gandara is applied by later oriental 
answciudto wxiters to Candahar, and we have therefore thought 

1 vi. 9. '' iv. 204. ■> vii. 04. 

■* In Stephen of Byznntium we find A'lyrjXoi 'iOvog MrjdiKov, to which 
some commentators refer. Ijillerbeck, (juotecl l)y Eaehr, for AlyXajv would 
read 'Aptiojv. Sec Baehr's nole on llerod. iii. D2. 

^ Elphinstone, Account ofCaubul, vol. ii. 

f' iii. yi. ^ vii. 66. 


proper for the sake of clearness to use it as a general asia. 
name for the country of the Gandarii and other na- chap. iv. 
tions included in the present satrapy. This col- eastern Af 
lective territory is to be identified with eastern ghanistan. 
Afghanistan. Strabo places the Gandarii to the identiiied 
east of the Indus, but Hecataeus fixes them on the peopie^o^f 
western bank of that river, and this latter statement Candahar. 
seems most in accordance with the arrangement of 
Herodotus. The Dadicae were probably the Tad- Dadicae 
jiks, a people of ancient Persian race, who are now T^iS? 
widely scattered throughout the countries east of 
Persia. The Aparytae we cannot identify. The sattagydae 
Sattagydae have been identified by Colonel Raw- zLts. ^ 
linson with the modern Zhats of Candahar.^ 

XIV. Caemania, the modern Kerman, seems to xiv. cak- 
have been included in the fourteenth satrapy, though ciud/ng ^"' 
not named. This government comprised the Sagar- lafangees 
tii, Sarangees, Thamanaei, Utii, and Myci, together Thamanaei, 
with the islands in the Erythraean, to which the Myci, and 
king used to transplant those individuals whom he J^e Eiy-°^ 
condemned to banishment. It paid a tribute of 600 tj"-aean. 

- „ -•• barangees 

talents. identiiied 

The Sarangees and the Erythraean islanders are peopi?of 
the only people whose localities can be at all identi- fe^gs\|°^' 
fied, but we may regard these as forming two of the 
extremities of the satrapy. The Sarangees were 
apparently the people of Zarang or Sehestan, a rich 
alluvial tract in the western part of Afghanistan, and 
lying to the south of Lake Zurrah, or Aria Palus, 
and the river Helmund. The other tribes mentioned 

^ Rennell places the Gandarii in Margiana, because he finds in Isidore 
the towns of Gadar and Apabartica between the towns of Nisaea, which 
he takes for the country of Naisabour, and Antiochia of Margiana, which 
he takes for the country of Meru. Hence he concludes that the Ganda- 
rii occupied the country of Gadar, and the Aparytae that of Apabartica, 
especially as he says Herodotus (vii. 66) gives the name of Gardarians 
to those whom he had elsewhere called Gandarians. Larcher has how- 
ever pointed out Rennell's mistake. All the MSS. consulted by Larcher 
and Wesseling have Gandarians, and never Gardarians, to say nothing of 
the weighty testimony of Strabo and Hecataeus quoted above. Baehr 
has a long note upon Herod, iii. 91, in which he quotes the opinions of 
different geographers, but without expressing any very decided opinion of 
his own. 

2 iii. 93. 


ASIA, may be placed in the region between Sehestan and 
CHAP. IV. the coast opposite the Erythrean isles, thus answer- 
ing to the modern provinces of Kerman and Laris- 
tan. None of these isles are of great extent except- 
ing Kishm. 
Herodotus's Tlic Sagartii were nomades ^ of Persian extraction 
CoTtllme of and speaking the Persian language ; they wore a 
theSagaitii. (.Qstume of a fashion half Persian and half Pactyan. 
They furnished eight thousand horse to Xerxes, and 
carried no arms either of brass or iron excepting 
daggers, but were provided with lassos made of 
Mode of twisted thongs. Their mode of fighting was by 
■v\§th b^sos. throwing the lasso, which had a noose at the end, over 
an enemy, and then dragging down either horse or 
man, and despatching with daggers all that they could 
Thamanaei tlius entangle.^ The Thamanaeans are unknown. 
cStame'^of The Saraugocs, or Sarangae, were distinguished 
the saran- for tlicir beautifully coloured garments,'' and wore 

£r6Gs U til "^ 

andMyei.' busMus reaching up to the knee, and carried bows 

and Medic javelins.* The Utii and Myci were 

equipped like the Pactyes.^ '^ 

aStic XVII. Asiatic Aethiopia, or the seventeenth sa- 

aethiopia trapy, seems to answer to the country between Car- 

Paricanii. mania and the Indus. It comprised the Paricanii 

and the Aethiopians of Asia, and paid 400 talents.^ 

account.'' Tho Paricanii were armed like the Pactyes.^ The 

Spa?Si. eastern Aethiopians, or those from the sun-rise, as 

1 i. 125. 

2 vii. 85. The Csikos in the late Hungarian war were said to have 
fought with lassos having an iron bullet at the end, and as there 
seemed some strange similarity between their name and that of the 
Sargatii, I made some inquiry concerning them. I find, however, that 
Csiko merely means a colt; that the Csikos are simply herdsmen belong- 
ing to no nationality whatever ; and that the story that they formed a 
corps in the Hungarian army was a mere invention of the German 
papers. I have not, however, been able to learn whether they preserve 
any traces of having formed an hereditary caste. 

^ Kerman still produces the finest wool; and Kerman, the metropolis, 
is celebrated throughout all Asia for its manufacture of shawls, which 
are as fine, but not so soft, as those of Cashmere. Heeren, Asiat. Nat. 
vol. i. 

■> vii. 67. ■' vii. 68. 

'■' Bobrik thinks that the Pactyes were also probably included in this 
satrapy, and that their name was omitted because the Utians and Mycians 
dwelt in Pactyica. Geor/. des Ilerodot. § TQ, 

' iii. 94. ' vii! 68. 


Herodotus calls them, were marshalled with the Indi- asia. 
ans, and differed from the Libyan Aethiopians only chap. iv. 
in their language and their hair, which was straight, Aethiopians 
whilst that of the Libyan Aethiopians was curly, of Asiacon- 
These Asiatics were accoutred like the Indians, ex- those of ' 
cepting that they wore on their heads skins like stSge 
masks which had been stripped from the heads of iiead-diess. 
horses with the ears and mane ; and these horses' 
ears were fixed so as to stand erect, whilst the mane 
served for a crest. For defensive armour they used 
the skins of cranes instead of shields.^ 

The region inhabited by these Aethiopians seems identifica- 
to be identical with Gedrosia, and therefore to have AsLtic 
included Mekran and other provinces in that quarter, 4^t?Gedro- 
which now bear the general name of Beloochistan. siaorBeioo- 
The Paricanii, however, cannot be identified at all.^ 

XX. Northern India, which formed the twentieth xx. 
satrapy, comprised what may be called the tributary india"o?^ 
Indians, to distinguish them from those tribes who '^^^i^^- 
were independent of the Persian power. They were 
the most numerous people known to Herodotus, and 
paid a tribute proportionably large, viz. 360 talents 
of gold-dust ; ^ which, reckoned at thirteen times the 
value of the usual silver talent, were equal to 4680 

Herodotus describes these tributary Indians as Extent of 
being settled to the north of the other Indian '^^'^^'^p^- 
tribes, and on the borders of the city of Caspatyrus 
and country of Pactyica ; and we may infer that 
their country was not far from that of the Bactrians, 
whom they resembled in their mode of life. In their 
neighbourhood was a sandy desert.^ : We have al- 
ready identified Caspatyrus and the country of Pac- 
tyica with the modern territory of Cabul,^ and the 
desert here alluded to is no doubt that of Gobi or 
Sliamo. We have therefore no hesitation in extend- 

' vii. 70. 

^ Rennell thinks it possible that they may have lived in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Purah of the historians of Alexander, which he identifies 
with the town of Paraj or Fahraj. This however is pure conjecture. 

3 iii. 94, 102. * iii. 95. 

5 iii, 102. « See page 199. 


ASIA, ing this satrapy in a north-easterly direction from 
CHAP. IV. the confines of Gandaria and Bactria towards the 
' desert of Shamo, thus approximating to the country 
now called the Punjab. 
Hciodotus's The Indians of this satrapy were the most warlike 
thriTopie. of all the Indian nations. The desert abounded in 
Enormous r^uts, rather less than dogs, but larger than foxes, of 
which the king of Persia possessed some specimens.^ 
These ants formed their habitations under ground, 
and heaped up the sand in a similar manner to the 
ants of Hellas, which they much resembled in shape. 
Ant-hills of Tlio saud tlius hcapcd up was mixed with gold, which 
^oid-duft. ^^^^ "^^^^^ obtained by the Indians. Each man took 
Mode of Avith him three camels, viz. a male on each side to 
the'goid. carry the gold, and a female in the centre on which 
he sat ; and he took care that the latter should be 
one that had recently foaled.^ During the hottest 
part of the day the ants burrowed themselves in 
their subterranean dwellings, and accordingly the 
Indians chose this time for carrying off the gold. 
On reaching the spot they filled their sacks and 
hastened away with all possible despatch ; for the 
ants would discover them by their smell, and being 
the swiftest of animals, would overtake and destroy 
them, unless the gold-stealers had got a good start. 
It was thus, according to the Persians, that the In- 
dians obtained the greatest part of their gold; at 
the same time the metal was found, though in less 
quantities, in mines and rivers.^ 
idcntifica- Hcrodotus's remark already quoted, that the In- 
^'co^,k with tl^i^'iTLS comprised in this satrapy were the most war- 
thc uaj- like of all the Indian nations, at once leads us to 
i°imjab. *^ identify them with the warrior-caste of Hindostan, 
the ancestors of the Rajpoots, of whom the Mahrattas 
and Sikhs are branches. The upper class of the 
inhabitants of the Punjab still consists of Rajpoots, 
who arc stout and handsome, with aquiline noses 

^ Marco Paulo relates that the Indians sent stuffed monsters into 
foreign countries to give countenance to the stories respecting them. If 
this fraud was practised in the time of Darius, it will account for the 
stuffed ants in the museum at Susa. 

2 iii. 102. ^ iii. 106. 


and Jewish features. The lower class consists of the asia. 
little, dark-complexioned, and unsightly Jauts, who chap. iv. 
are plainly alluded to in Herodotus' s account of the ' 

Independent Indians.^ 

In connexion with the account of India, we have Indian 
a notice of the Indian camels. These were as swift 
as horses, and much better able to carry burdens.^ 
The males however were inferior in speed to the 
females, and in the race from the ant-heaps were the 
soonest tired, whilst the female, being anxious to re- 
turn to her young, never slackened her pace. As 
the camel was known to the Greeks, only two other 
facts are mentioned, namely, that it had four thighs 
and four knees in the hinder legs, or rather two 
thighs, two shins in each leg, and that the genitals 
of the male were turned towards the tail.^ 

The Indians in the army of Xerxes wore cotton costume of 

, •11 ^ n /I ^"'^ Indians. 

garments, and carried bows made oi cane, (or bam- 
boo,) and arrows of the same material, but tipped 
with iron/ Their cavalry were equipped in the 
same manner, and besides saddle-horses, had chariots 
drawn by horses and wild asses. ^ 

This account of the Indians who paid tribute to Revenue of 
Darius concludes the geography of the twenty satra- satrapies- ^ 
pies. The revenue of the whole may be summed up as 
follows ; it being remembered that Herodotus does 
not include sums smaller than a talent. 


1. Western and south-western Asia Minor . . . 400 

2. Lydian Asia Minor . . . . . 500 

3. Northern Asia Minor . . . . . 360 

4. South-eastern or CiUcian Asia Minor . . . 500 

Also 360 white horses. . , . . 

5. Phoenicia, Palaestine, and Cyprus . . . 350 

6. Aegypt and Libya ...... 700 

Also 120,000 measures of com and fish from Lake Moe- 
ris : the latter producing one talent a day for six months, 
and 20 minas a day for the remaining six months. 

7. Sattagydae, Gandarii, Dadicae, and Aparytae . . 170 

8. Cissia, or Susiana ..... 300 

Carried forward 3280 

1 See chap. v. « iii. 102. ' iii. 104. 

* vii. 65. 5 vii. 86. 





Brought forward 
9. Assyria, including Babylon 
Also 500 eunuchs. 

10. Media, including the Paricanii and Orthocorybantii 

11. Caspii, Pausicae, Pantimathi, and Dareitae 

12. Bactria, including the Aeglae and the nations intervening 

13. Armenia from Pactyica to the Euxine 

14. Sagartii, Sarangae, Thamanaei, Utii, Myci, and Ery- 

thraean isles ...... 

15. Sacae and Caspii ..... 

16. Parthi, Chorasmii, Sogdi, and Arii 
17- Paricanii and Asiatic Aethiopia . 

18. Matieni, Saspeires, and Alarodii 

19. Moschi, Tibareni, Macrones, Mosynoeci, and Marsi 

Babylonian talents, each equal to 70 Euboic minas 

20. Indians . . 360 talents of gold-dust, 13 times the value of 

silver, and therefore equal to Euboic talents of 60 minas 
each ....... 








Herodotiis's TliG silvGr taleiits paid by the first nineteen satra- 
redudngthe pi^s Were accorcling to the Babylonian standard, 
Sent to the w^^ich Herodotus calculates to be equal to 70 Euboic 
Euboic minas. ^ But we have now to deal with one of those 
arithmetical errors so frequent in our author, and 
which are generally laid to the charge of faulty 
transcribers. The sum total paid by the first nine- 
teen satrapies, reduced to Euboic talents, he calcu- 
lates at 9540 talents. Now the Euboic talent^ was 
equal to 60 minas, being a pro]3ortion of 7 to 6 in 
comparison with the Babylonian talent. Conse- 
quently the case stand thus. 

7740 Babylonian talents according to Herodotus's calculation 

equal to ....,, 

Ditto, according to our calculation, as 6 to 7 





Attempts to It is really impossible to account for this discre- 
account for ^qj^qj^ tliough it may be somewhat lessened by sup- 
posing, as Aelian assorts, that the Babylonian talent 
was really equal to 72 Euboic minas, and therefore 

1 iii. 89. 

2 The P^uboic talent was really slightly heavier than the Attic talent, 
70 Euboic minas being equal to 72 Attic minas. This however makes 
not the slightest diflerence in the calculation, as we reckon by Euboic 
and not by Attic minas. 


stood in proportion to the Eult5oic talent as 5 to 6 ; asia. 
and that Herodotus merely said 70 minas for the chap. iv.. 
sake of using round numbers, though in his calcula- " 

tion he reckoned it at 72 minas. This however will 
not explain the whole error, as, according to Herodo-: 
tus's calculation, the Babylonian was to the Euboic 
talent nearly in the proportion of 4 to 5. 

Close upon the foregoing we have another unac- Error in the 
countable mistake. Herodotus calculates the 360 perhaps in- 
talents of Indian gold-dust to be thirteen times the pjUdinS 
value of silver, and accordingly reckons the' gold as toils, gifts, 
equal to 4680 Euboic talents. Here, for a wonder, 
he appears to be correct ; the gold was to be paid in 
according to the Euboic talent, and thirteen times 
360 is really 4680. Next, in order to arrive at the 
sum total collected from the twenty satrapies, he 
adds the 4680 talents to the 9540 talents. The 
result ought to be 14,220 talents, but he makes 
it 14,560 talents.^ Some commentators have endea- 
voured to reconcile this difference, by supposing that 
Herodotus tacitly included in the sum total the 360 
white Cilician horses mentioned in the fourth satra- 
py; the 240 talents produced by the fish in Lake 
Moeris, and the 120,000 measures of corn, mentioned 
in the sixth satrapy ; the 500 eunuchs sent from the 
ninth satrapy ; together with the exactions levied 
from the nations of the fourteenth and sixteenth, 
who dwelt round the enclosed plain, and paid toll 
for the water they obtained through the sluice-gates 
which blocked up the five mountain ravines.^ 
Amongst these additions might perhaps be included 
that branch of the revenue which was received in 
the shape of gifts, and was sent by the following na- 
tions. The Aethiopians on the borders of Aegypt, 
who were subdued by Cambyses, took every 3 years 
2 choenices of unmolten gold, 200 blocks of ebony, 
5 Aethiopian boys, and 20 large elephants' tusks. 
The Colchians and neighbouring nations, as far as 
Mount Caucasus, which bounded the Persian empire, 
furnished every five years 100 boys and 100 virgins. 

1 iii. 95. 2 See page 292. 


ASIA. The Arabians also sent every year 1000 talents of 
CHAP. IV. frankincense. Subsequently the islands (probably 
those in the Aegean) paid tribute, together with the 
inhabitants of Europe as far as Thessaly. The Per- 
sians alone occupied their land without paying taxes, 
though indeed they brought gifts, ^ which were pro- 
bably regarded as voluntary marks of homage. 
The money Wliou the tribute was all collected it was melted 
dust^mdted and pom^ed into earthen jars ; and these moulds 
•^Tts"^*'' were afterwards removed, and the king had the 
metal cut off as occasion required.^ 

' iii. 96, 97. ^ iij, ge. 




Three Asiatic nations independent of the Persian empire, viz. South- ASIA. 
ern Indians, Colchians, and Arabians. — I. Southern India. — General chap v 

description of the India of Herodotus. — Morning the hottest part of the . ' 

day. — Superior size of the birds and quadrupeds. — Camels. — Dogs. — 
Gold. — Cotton-trees. — Two nations of Indians. — Southern Indians of 
Northern Hindostan. — The most easterly of all the Asiatic nations. — 
Divided into tribes who spoke different languages. — Four tribes men- 
tioned by Herodotus. — Herodotus's superior and correct knowledge of 
India derived from the report of Scylax. — Great merit of Scylax. — In- 
dian fishermen on the marshes of the Indus. — Identified with the pulla- 
fishers of Sinde. — Singular coincidence between the report of Scylax 
and that of Lieut. Wood. — Nomade Indians or Padaei. — Killed and 
ate their sick relations. — Identified with the barbarous tribes of the 
deserts of Sinde. — Vegetarian Indians, who lived chiefly on rice. — 
Identified with the Hindoos. — Calatians, who ate their parents. — Pro- 
bably the same as the Padaei. — Shameless manners and black com- 
plexion of the Indians. — Probably referred to the Jauts of Rajpootana. 
II. Colchis. Description of the country. — Political relations with Persia. 
— Costume. — Manufacture of linen. — Gifts to Persia. — Colchians be- 
lieved by Herodotus to be of Aegyptian origin, from their complexion 
and hair, their practice of circumcision, their manufacture of Unen, and 
their hfe and language. — Value to be placed on his testimony. — III. 
Arabia. General description of the country. — Herodotus's description. — 
African mountain range between the Nile valley and Arabian Gulf, in- 
cluded in Arabia. — Land of frankincense. — His account of the Arabian 
Gulf. — Supposed it to be much narrower than it is in reality. — Causes of 
his error.— More correct as to its length. — His real knowledge of Arabia 
confined to Arabia Petraea. — Assigns the Philistine territory to the Arabs. 
— Nature of the soil. — City of Patumos. — River Corys. — Defile near Buto 
containing the bones of winged serpents. — Fabulous story concerning the 
serpents. — Rare productions of Arabia. — Frankincense guarded by ser- 
pents. — Cassia guarded by bats. — Curious manner of obtaining cinna- 
mon from the nests of large birds. — Ledanum obtained from the beards 
of goats. — Sheep with enormous tails. — Political relations of the Arabians 
with Persia — Costume. Manner of making contracts. — Worship of 
Dionysus, named Orotal, and of Urania, called Alilat and Alitta. 





Three Asia- 
tie nations 
ent of the 
Persian em- 
pire, viz. 
and Ara- 

I. South- 
ern India. 
General de- 
scription of 
the India of 

the hottest 
])art of the 

size of the 
birds and 



Under the name of Independent Asia we purpose 
developing our author's geography of those three na- 
tions which to some extent were independent of the 
Persian empire, namely, the Southern Indians, the 
Colchians, and the Arabians, Of these the South- 
ern Indians were never subject to Darius,^ and 
though we find that both the Colchians and Arabi- 
ans sent gifts to the Persian king, and served in the 
army of Xerxes, yet they were not included in the 
satrapical arrangement ; and, indeed, their geogra- 
phical position would have defied every effort to 
reduce them to absolute submission. 

I. The India of Herodotus appears to have in- 
cluded the valley of the Indus, and to have stretch- 
ed eastward as far as the sandy desert of Shamo on 
the north, and that between Moultan and Guzerat 
towards the south. This country our author de- 
scribes as being characterized by many peculiarities. 
Here the hottest period of the day was not at noon, 
but in the morning, and continued until about the 
same hour that the Greeks left their markets. At 
this time the sun was much hotter in India than it 
was at mid-day in Greece, and it was reported that 
the Indians were accustomed to refresh themselves 
during these hot mornings by standing in water. 
Noon in India was about as warm as noon elsewhere, 
but the afternoon became as cool as the morning 
in other countries. Thus the warmth decreased as 
the day declined, and at sun-set it was exceedingly 

The birds and quadrupeds of India were much 
larger than those of any other country, but the 
horses were an exception to this rule, as they were 
surpassed by the Nisaean breed of Media. ^ The 
camels have been already noticed.* The dogs were 
greatly esteemed by the Persians. The satrap of 
Babylon kept such an immense number, that four 

^ iii. 101. 

2 iii. 104. This ;iccoiint is probably based upon Scylax's reports of 
the morning lustrations of the Indians, and of the great heat of the coast 
country, from sun-rise until the forenoon, when the sea-breezes set in. 

■■' iii. 106. " See page 301. 


considerable towns were exempted from taxation, asia. 
on condition of supplying them with food ; ^ and we chap. v. 
learn that an immense nmnber followed in the army 
of Xerxes.^ Grold was obtained in large quantities, Gom. 
partly by digging, but mostly by robbing the ant- 
heaps in the manner already described.^ Curious Cotton trees. 
wild trees also grew in India, bearing wool (or cot- 
ton) instead of fruit ; and this wool surpassed that of 
sheep in beauty and quality, and was used by the 
natives as a material for their clothing.^ 

The Indians themselves were the most numerous Two nations 
people known to Herodotus.^ We have followed °^ i'"'^^'^""- 
Herodotus in dividing them into two nations, viz. 
1. The Northern Indians, who formed the twentieth 
satrapy, and lived in the neighbourhood of Bactria 
and Cabul.® 2. The Southern Indians, who occu- Southern 
pied Northern Hindostan. The latter people are Northern 
those which now demand our attention, as we are Hindostan. 
assured by our author that they were never subject 
to Darius.^ 

The Indians of Sinde, who thus maintained their The most 
independence, were the most easterly of all the authe Asia- 
Asiatic nations known to Herodotus, for beyond ^''^ "^^^^o"^^- 
them the country was desert by reason of the sands. 
They were divided into a variety of tribes, who Divided into 
spoke different languages.^ Of these Herodotus spoke dlffer- 
describes four, viz. 1. The Fishermen, who lived on ^^^^l^' 
the marshes of the Indus. 2. The nomad Padaeans, i^our tribes 
farther to the east. 3. The Vegetarians. 4. The ™y He^'^do- 
Calatians. *^®- 

Before, however, we proceed further to develope Herodotuss 

j_i 5 1 i» j^i T T i superior and 

our author's geography oi the Indians, we cannot correct 
but remark, upon the striking contrast between his o^inJ-a^e- 
graphic pictures of these distant tribes and the rivefi froi" 
meagre notices of the nations of Khorassan and ofscyiax. 
Afghanistan, included in the geography of the satra- 
pies. But a ray of light had been cast upon these 

1 i. 192. 2 vii. 187. ' See page 300. * iii. 106. 

s iii. 94. 

^ The country of these Northern Indians approximated to the Punjab, 
and the people have been already described at page 299. 
■' iii. 101. 8 iii, 98. 

X 2 


ASIA, far-off regions by the exploring expedition of Scylax 
CHAP. V. down the mysterious stream of the Indus.' We are 
at once carried away to the royal archives of Susa. 
The eager curiosity of the laborious traveller had 
enabled him to master the list of the satrapies of 
Darius, and to catalogue the nations in the armament 
of Xerxes. But his mind was weary of the dry de- 
tail. The mere names of barbarous tribes called up 
no new ideas or pleasing visions. At last the report 
of Scylax is before him. He reads the narration of 
the voyage with the fullest conviction of its truth. 
No Aegyptian priest is misleading him with absurd 
stories ; ^ no cunning Phoenician merchant is puff- 
Great merit ing off liis commoditics by lying fables.'^ He at 
'^^^^' once adopts the report as the groundwork of his 
description. And whilst we gladly testify to the 
truth-loving genius of Herodotus by comparing his 
geographical details with the researches of later 
travellers, we would also place the name of Scylax 
of Caryanda high on the list of those noble labourers 
in the cause of geographical discovery, who have 
been but too often the martyrs to that science of 
which they themselves were the originators. 

With this tribute to the memory of an almost 
unknown discoverer, we proceed to enter upon the 
geography of those four tribes of Indians already 
named, viz. the Fishermen, the Nomades, the Ve- 
getarians, and the Calatians. 
Indian fish- The Fislicrmen, Herodotus informs us, lived on 
thTmar^hes tlio marslics of tlic rivcr Indus, and subsisted on the 
of the In- fjg|-^^ which they ate raw, and took by means of 
canoes made of canes. A single joint of this cane 
was sufficient to form a canoe. These Indian fish- 
ermen made garments of river plants, which they cut 
and beat, and then plaited lil^e a mat, and wore as a 

•fid ^-^^^^^^^^-^ 
with the The position of these people is here distinctly 

ofSinS^" pointed out. They inhabited the marshes of the 

' The particulars of this expedition are already commented on at 
page 198. 

2 See ii. 2S, 121—123. ^ iii. Ill, 115. " iii. 98. 


Indus, by which we understand the country in the asia. 
lower course of that river.* Many of the Sindians chap. v. 
at the present day still live chiefly by fishing. The • " 
lower course of the Indus is portioned out into sec- 
tions, where the right of pulla-fishing is strictly con- 
fined to their respective villages. The season for 
taking the puUa fish commences in March, and ends 
in September. The fishermen launch out upon the 
river, supported only by earthen jars, or dry reeds. 
The latter soon become sodden, and the fisherman 
can then only keep his head above water ; otherwise 
the bark costs him no care, and at every trip he sets 
forth upon a new one. Upon the banks of the river 
grows a gigantic grass which attains the height of 
twelve and eighteen feet, and is often so dense that 
it is difficult to force a path through it. It has a 
graceful stalk, often three-eighths of an inch in 
diameter, from the top of which droops a fringe re- 
sembling a feather. The Sindian name is Cana. 
The stalk is jointed like the bamboo, but one-third of 
its whole length, measuring from the top, is con- 
tinuous. This portion is called teli, and used in 
the construction of baskets, while of the other part 
a useful description of mat is fabricated, known by 
the name of Keri.^ 

The reader will scarcely believe that we have ex- singular 

..i.TT • n .- -I -If, -, coincidence 

tracted the above miormation, nearly word lor word, between the 
from Lieut. Wood's Personal Narrative. All further scyiaxfnd 
comment is unnecessary. The description of He- ^^^^ °*" 
rodotus, written more than two thousand years ago, Wooi. 
is almost identical with that of Lieut. Wood, written, 
as it were, yesterday; and yet the gallant English 
officer neither quotes nor alludes to Herodotus 
throughout his valuable volume. Strange, that the 
log books of Lieut. Wood and Scylax of Caryanda, 
the last and the first of Indus navigators, should thus 
bear ample testimony to the truth of each other's 

1 The delta of the Indus must have been anciently a marsh, for the 
whole country is alluvial, and some of its spontaneous productions ex- 
hibit the growth of a century. See Wood's Journey up the Indus to 
the source of the Oxus. (London, I84I.) 

^ Wood's Journey, pp. 15, 45. 


ASIA, statements, and yet be equally ignorant of each 
CHAP. V. other's discoveries. 

Nomade In- ^^^ ^^ retiu'n to Horodotus. Eastward of the 
diansor Fishermeii lived the Nomade Indians, who subsisted 
on raw flesh, and were called Padaei. They were 
Killed and Said to obsorvo tlic following customs. When any 
theh-^s'ic°k ^^^ ^^ their community was attacked by sickness his 
relations, noarcst coiinoxions put him to death, saying, that if 
they waited until he was wasted by disease his flesh 
would be spoilt ; and if he denied being sick, they 
killed and feasted upon him just the same. If a 
woman fell ill, her female companions treated her 
in a similar manner. Those who happened to reach 
old age were also killed and eaten, but this was of 
rare occurrence, as each one was put to death di- 
rectly he was seized with any distemper.* 
Identified The Padaoi must thus be placed to the east of the 
barbarous Fishormon, but whether their name is connected with 
tribes of the ^}jg^^ of ^j^g rivcr Ganffcs, of which Padaei is the 

desert of . i -i rN • i i 

sinde. propor or banscrit name, whilst Granges is only the 
appellative;^ or with the town of Pader, in Little 
Thibet ; ^ or with the river Paddur, which separates 
Cutch from Gruzerat ; * must still remain a matter for 
conjecture. I am disposed to regard it as a general 
name for the nomade Indians of north-western Hin- 
dostan. The desert between Guzerat and Moultan 
has been in all ages haunted by lawless Indian 
tribes, who also inhabit a large portion of the penin- 
sula, almost in a state of savage nature. Whether 
they were really cannibals, as stated by Herodotus, 
may be doubted, but the tradition is of genuine 
Indian growth, and is repeated by Thevenot and 
Marco Polo. 
Vegetarian Otlicr Iiidians aro described by Herodotus, who 
lived chidiy may be called Vegetarians, and who observed totally 
on rice. dift'cront customs. They never killed anything that 
had life, nor sowed anything, nor dwelt in houses ; 
but they lived upon herbs, and especially upon a 

1 iii. 99. 2 Renndl, Georj. of Herod, vol. i. p. 410. 

^ Make Bnin, vol. ii. p. G27, Eng. edit. 
* Hceren, Asiat. Nations, vol. i. 


kind of grain about the size of millet, enclosed in a asia. 
husk, which sprung up spontaneously, and which ^"^^- ^- 
they boiled and ate with the husk. If any one 
amongst them was attacked by a malady, he retired 
into the desert, and there laid down, and no one 
gave a thought about him, or cared whether he re- 
covered or died.' 

It is impossible to fail in recognising this Indian J^^^{J*J^f 
race who lived on a vegetable diet, and abstained Hindoos, 
from every species of animal food. The Hindoos 
generally abstain from meat, and the same distaste 
for it may be traced amongst the Mahrattas to the 
south of Gruzerat. Neither can there remain a 
doubt as to the species of grain which is here de- 
scribed, as we know that rice is the principal diet of 
these tribes, and may be regarded as indigenous to 
the country. 

Lastly, Herodotus mentions the Calatians, an In- ^^^^"^^ 
dian people, who were accustomed to eat their their pa- 
parents. Darius asked them what sum would induce ^®^*^' 
them to consent to burn the dead bodies of their 
fathers; but they replied with loud exclamations, 
and prayed him to speak less impiously.^ They are 
said to have subsisted on the same grain as the 
Libyan Aethiopians.^ 

These people can certainly not be identified now. J[e°saSJas 
Rubruquis says that the inhabitants of Thibet once the Padaei. 
practised the abominable custom of eating the bodies 
of those relations who died of old age, and that this, 
when given up, was replaced by that of drinking out 
of the skulls of their ancestors. The moderns make 
no mention of either of these customs.* Heeren 
would place them with the Padaei, and considers 
their name as having been immediately derived from 
their Indian appellation of Collar, Coolier, or 
Cooleries.^ These, in their native coimtry, are a 
most untameable race of plunderers, who delight in 

^ iii. 100. 3 iii. 38. 

3 iii. 97. In this chapter they are named Calantian Indians. 

* Malte Brun, vol. ii. Eng. edit. ^ Heeren, Asiat. Res. vol. i. 


ASIA, blood and nastiness, and despise every approach to 

CHAP. T. ciyilized habits. 
Shameless ^^ concluding liis account of the Indians of north- 
^anners wcstem Hindostan, Herodotus informs us that they 
complexion wore as shameloss as cattle in their intercourse with 
ans-proba- womon,^ a sufficiont proof of the low state of civil- 
*^L^"^^f ^.*^ ization amono-st these people in ancient times. He 

to the Jauts o ,.-'-^,. iii i 

ofRajpoo- also adds, that their complexion was black, and 
strongly resembled that of the Aethiopians ; ^ and 
even in the present day, the Jauts, or common peo- 
]3le of Rajpootana, are described as black, little, and 
wretched in their appearance.^ 
II. Col- II. The CoLCHiANS, who are the next people 
Sscriptiou to bc doscribcd, were situated to the south of the 
of the coun- pa^ge of Caucasus, and their territory thus an- 
swered to the modern Georgia. According to He- 
rodotus, Colchis extended along the Pontus, about 
the mouth of the river Phasis, and was thirty days' 
journey for a well-girt man from Lake Maeotis.* 
The Saspeires, in the valley of the Aras, were the 
only nation which separated it from the Modes. ^ 
Political re- The ColcHans were thus seated on the northern 
Persk.^^^*^ frontiers of the Persian empire, but though the 
Persian sway is said to have extended to Mount 
Caucasus, yet the Colchians were independent of 
the satrapical arrangement, and merely sent pre- 
sents every five years,'' and furnished contingents 
Costume, wlieii required to the Persian armies.'^ Their cos- 
tume included wooden helmets like the other bar- 
barous nations in their vicinity ; and they also car- 
ried small shields of raw hides, short lances, and 
^^""fiinen ^words.^ They were celebrated for their manufac- 
ture of linen,''' but the other productions of their 
country seem to liave been held in small estimation, 
Pei?ia. foi" vfe find that their presents to the Persian court 
consisted only of 100 boys and 100 virgins.'" 

' iii. 101. 2 i^^ia. 

^ See page 301. Comp. also Malte Brun, vol. ii. Eng. edit, 

* i. 104. ' iv. 37. « iii. 97. ' vii. 79. 

8 Ibid. » ii, 105, >» iii, 97, 


The Colchians appeared to Herodotus to be most asia. 
undoubtedly of Aegyptian descent. The idea struck chap. v. 
him before he heard it from others ; and he was so coichians 
much interested in the question, that he made in- Jj^^jf^'^^^'J ^^ 
quiries amongst both people, and found that the Col- to be of 
chians recollected the A egyptians better than the Ae- mS*'^^ 
gvptians remembered the Colchians ; yet even the 
Aegyptians considered that the Colchians were de- 
scendants from those Aegyptian soldiers whom Se- 
sostris detached from his army, and left to settle in 
the country. Herodotus himself tells us that he 
based his conjecture, not only upon the fact of the from their 
Colchians being swarthy and curly -headed, for that, compSfon 
he says, amounted to nothing, as other nations were and hair, 

J ' c3' . ^ but prmci- 

the same, but upon other and more important marks paiiy from 
of resemblance. First, the Colchians, Aegyptians, tice oE' 
and Aethiopians were the only nations who origin- cumcision, 
ally practised circumcision ; for the Phoenicians 
and Syrians of Palestine confessed that they learnt 
the custom from the Aegyptians, and the Syrians 
around the rivers Parthenius and Thermodon, to- 
gether with their neighbours the Macrones, adopted 
it at a late period from the Colchians.^ Secondly, their mami- 
the Colchians manufactured their linen, which the ifnenl^lnd 
Greeks called Sardonic, in the same manner as the ^a kn^^ 
Aegyptians. Lastly, the mode of life, and even the guage. 
language, of both nations were identical.^ 

From the foregoing paragraph it seems probable ^acedon^° 
that Herodotus visited Colchis, and his account of his testi- 
the people is therefore peculiarly trustworthy. He ™°'^^" 
considered them to be of Aegyptian descent, and 
whatever doubts may be thrown upon most of the 
proofs which he brings forward, yet he could scarcely 
have been mistaken in the similarity between the 
mode of life of the two nations. The Colchians were 
certainly a civilized and instructed people, living 
among tribes remarkable for their rudeness ; ^ and 
no other cause for this similarity seems so natural 

1 ii. 104. 2 ji_ 105. 

^ Bochart, Geogr. Sacr. iv. 31. Quoted b}' Kenrick, Anc. Acgypt, 
vol. ii. 





III. Ara- 
bia. Gen- 
eral descrip 
tion of the 

range be- 
tween the 
Nile valley 
Gulf, in- 
cluded ill 

Land of 

as an Aegyptian settlement established on the shores 
of the Euxine by some of the weary stragglers from 
the army of Sesostris. 

III. Arabia is a vast peninsula, extending into 
the Erythraean in the shape of a hatchet, and con- 
sisting of a high table-land supported by mountain 
ranges. On the north-east it slopes down gradually 
to the banks of the Euphrates, but on the other sides 
it descends more or less abruptly, in a series of 
mountain terraces, to a flat belt of sandy ground 
which runs round the whole coast from the mouth 
of the Tigris to the Gulf of Akabah. A mountain 
chain which may be regarded as a continuation of 
the Lebanon range, runs in a southerly direction, 
nearly parallel with the Arabian Gulf, and is con- 
tinued towards the last in a line parallel to the shore 
of the Indian ocean as far as Oman. 

The Arabia of Herodotus, however, comprised a 
region within very different limits from those of the 
Arabia of modern times. The Arabian Gulf, which 
we now call the Red Sea, and regard as the great 
separation between Africa and Asia, was considered 
by him as a long and exceedingly narrow bay, run- 
ning inland from the great sea which he called the 
Erythraean, and having Arabia on both sides of it.^ 
In short, the mountain which ran along the eastern 
coast of Africa, between the Nile valley and the 
Red Sea, towards the southern sea, was considered 
by Herodotus to form a part of Arabia,^ and imme- 
diately adjoining it on the south-west was Aethiopia.^ 
Herodotus had heard that this mountain extended 
a distance of two months' journey, and that its 
eastern confines produced frankincense ; and he 
considered that it ran in a south or south-westerly 
direction, though he says in the same chapter, fi-om 
the east towards the west.* Here, as elsewhere, too 
much reliance must not be j)laced upon his state- 

^ Indeed, if we were only to judge from the position and phj'sical 
character of Arabia, we might assign it to Africa ; for if the Red Sea did 
not interpose a narrow interruption, one almost continuous tract of sandy- 
deserts would extend from the shores of the Atlantic to the Persian Gulf. 

- ii. 8. 3 jii. 114; vii. 69. ^ ii. 8. 


ments respecting the bearing of places. His know- asia. 
ledge of Arabia Proper was evidently confined to chap. v. 
Arabia Petrsea ; and when he says that Arabia is 
the farthest of all inhabited countries to the south, 
he evidently alludes to the African Arabia, as we 
may call it, between the Nile valley and the Red 
Sea, extending far on to the mysterious land of 
frankincense, and adjoining the other distant coun- 
try of Ethiopia. ^ The African land of fi:'ankincense, 
according to Bruce,^ begins south of Abyssinia at 
Babelmandeb, and stretches eastward almost to Cape 
Guardefui ; and it thus includes the tract of eastern 
Africa occupied by the Somaulies, who are probably 
a very ancient offset of the Arab race. 

The Arabian Gulf was a bay branching from the His account 
Erythraean Sea. Its length was a 40 days' voyage bkn Gtm' 
in a vessel with oars, but its width in the widest 
part was only half a day's voyage. It had an ebb 
and a flow daily. Herodotus says, " Should the 
Nile turn its stream into this gulf, what could pre- 
vent the latter from being filled with soil, within 
20,000 years." '' For my part," he adds, " I think 
it would be filled in 10,000 years."^ 

The Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf, here described. Supposed it 
is in reality from 150 to 200 miles across; Herod- narrower''^ 
otus therefore laboured under an evident miscon- reauty '* ^" 
ception when he said that it was only half a day's 
voyage. The cause of his error is manifest. He 
himself was only acquainted with the north-western Causes of 
arm of the Red Sea, which is at present called the 
Gulf of Suez. Here he himself had probably crossed 
over, and hence he regarded the entire sea as equally 
narrow. In fact, he thought it little better than a 
river which might be compared with the Nile, and 
which had no better claim to be considered as a line 
of division between the two great continents. Con- More cor- 
cerning the length of the gulf he was better inform- length. 
ed. Taking a day's voyage in a vessel with oars as 

^ vii. 69. - Bruce, vol. i. p. 356. See his map. 

3 ii. 11. 




His real 
of Arabia 
confined to 
Arabia Pe- 

Assigns the 
territory to 
the Arabs. 

Nature of 
the soil. 

City of 


about tlie same length as a day's journey on foot,' 
namely 200 stadia, we shall find that he supposed 
the giilf to be about 8000 stadia, or 1000 English 
miles in length. Now the real length from the head 
of the Gulf of Suez to the Straits of Babelmandeb is 
not 1-100 English miles, and we cannot therefore 
see much discrepancy between the loose estimate of 
Herodotus and the real measurement. 

From the foregoing description of the Arabian 
Gulf, we have seen that our author's actual know- 
ledge of Arabia coidd scarcely have extended south- 
ward beyond the limits of Arabia Petraea ; but he 
includes in the Arabian territory that maritime por- 
tion of Palaestine which lay between Phoenicia and 
Jenysus, and which has been always attributed to 
the Philistines.^ 

He expressly tells us that from Phoenicia to the 
confines of the great city of Cadytis, and again from 
Cadytis to the city of Jenysus, all the jDorts belonged 
to the Arabian king ; but that Cadytis itself belonged 
to the Syrians of Palaestine as well as the country 
between Jenysus and the Lake Serbonis, where 
Aegypt begins.^ The soil was clayey and flinty,* 
but the tract between Jenysus and Lake Serbonis 
was a desert of about three days' journey long, and 
totally destitute of water. ^ The Arabian city of 
Patumos was situated near the canal dug by the 
Aegyptian king Neco.^ A large Arabian river 
called Corys is also mentioned, which discharged it- 
self into the Erythraean; and the Arabian king, 
who formed an alliance with Cambyses, is said to 
have sewn together three pipes of ox-hides and other 
skins, and thus to have conveyed water from the 
river to the arid region already mentioned, which 
was twelve days' journey distant, and where large 
reservoirs were dug to receive and preserve it.^ 

' This is M. Niebuhr's conjecture, and we readily adopt it. 
^ On the identification of the Philistines with the maritime Ai'abs 
mentioned by Herodotus, see note to page 250. 
•■' iii. 5. ■ -» ii. 12. ^ ijj. 5. jj. 128. 

■^ iii. 9. This stoiy appeared to our author to be as much of a fiction 


In Arabia there was also a district very near the asia. 
Aeg-yptian town of Buto, which Herodotus visited chap. v. 
in order to learn somethino; about the wing^ed ser- 

t5 & Defile near 

pents. It was a narrow pass between two moun- Buto con- 
tains, leading into a spacious plain which was con- bone" of 
tiguous to the plain of Aegypt. In this pass geipeSs. 
Herodotus saw an immense mass of bones and spines 
of serpents, scattered in heaps of different sizes, but 
in indescribable quantities. It was reported that 
in the commencement of spring, winged serpents 
flew from Arabia towards Aegypt, but that a kind 
of bird, named the ibis, met them at the pass and 
killed them to prevent their entrance ; and both the 
Aegyptians and Arabians united in saying, that this 
was the reason why the ibis was so highly venerated 
in Aegypt.' It was these same serpents, small in 
size, and variegated in appearance, that guarded the 
frankincense trees in great numbers, and could only Fabulous 
be driven away by the smoke of burning gum-sty- fermn'g°the 
rax.^ ''If," says Herodotus, ''they multiplied as ^^'p^'^*^- 
fast as their nature permitted, no man could live 
there. But it is the same with them as with vipers, 
for whilst they are coupling together, the female 
seizes the male by the neck, and will not relax her 
hold until she has eaten it through. The offspring 
however avenge the death of their father, for they 
make their way into the world by gnawing through 
her womb. Vipers," he adds, " are found in all 
parts of the world, but winged serpents only in 
Arabia, where indeed they are very numerous."^ 

as it does to the modern reader. He was most inclined to believe that the 
Arabian king filled an immense number of camels' skins with water and 
sent them to the arid region on the backs of living camels. The story 
of the pipes and reservoirs, however, he says he thought it right to re- 
peat, though less credible. In fact, we may safely say, that all the skins 
in Arabia would be insufficient to form three pipes, each twelve days' jour- 
ney long. To attempt to identify the river Corys under these circum- 
stances would be ridiculous. There is no large river in all Arabia Pe- 
traea. The Arabic word khor, signifying a valley or creek, is frequently 
applied to dry water-com-ses, and Abulfeda mentions a torrent called 
Core. This then was doubtless the origin of the name, and it was called 
a large river, and placed a long way ofi" and falling into the Erj'thraean, 
to assist in throwing an air of credibility over the narrative. 
1 ii. 75. ^ iii. 107. ' iii. 109. 




Rare pro- 
ductions of 

guarded by 
guarded by 
fierce bats. 

manner of 
from the 
nests of 
large birds. 

That Arabia was considered by Herodotus to be 
the most southerly of inhabited countries, has 
already been mentioned,^ and he believed that the 
extremities of the earth, India, Arabia, and Aethio- 
pia, possessed the most excellent productions.^ 
Thus Arabia was the only region in which grew 
frankincense, myrrh, cassia, cinnamon, and ledanum. 
All these with the exception of the myrrh were 
attained with great difficulty. The frankincense 
was guarded by winged serpents which were driven 
away by the smoke of styrax.^ The cassia grew in 
a shallow lake, and in and around this lake lodged 
a number of winged animals very like bats, which 
made a horrible screeching, and were exceedingly 
fierce. The Arabians obtained the cassia by en- 
veloping all their body and face, except the eyes, 
with hides, and other skins; and by continually 
striking the animals away from their eyes, they 
were enabled to obtain the plant.* The cinnamon 
they collected in a still more wonderful manner. 
They did not know where it was produced, though 
some stated that it grew in the land (Aethiopia)'^ 
where Dionysus was nursed. Large birds were 
said to bring those rolls of bark, which the Grreeks 
learnt from the Phoenicians to call cinnamon, 
and to carry them to their nests, which were built 
with clay on the sides of precipitous mountains that 
were inaccessible to man. The Arabians having 
cut up the limbs of dead oxen, asses, and other 
beasts of burden into large pieces, laid them in the 
vicinity of the nests and retired. Then the birds 
carried up the large pieces of meat to their nests, 
and the latter broke down with the weight, and 
enabled the people to gather up the cinnamon.^ 

1 iii. 107. "" iii. 106. 

3 iii. 107. '' iii. 110. 5 ii. 146; iii. 97- 

' iii. 111. The story told by Herodotus is remarkably like the one 
related in the second voyage of Sinbad the sailor in the Arabian Nights; 
how the merchants obtained the diamonds from the terrible valley of 
diamonds, by throwing down from the mountains large pieces of flesh to 
which the precious gems adhered, and how enormous birds carried the 
meat up again to their nest,s, but the merchants drove them off with fear- 
ful outcries, and obtained the diamonds which stuck to the meat. 


The ledanum was still more wonderful. The Ara- asia. 
Hans also called it ladanum, and though it came chap. v. 
from the most stinking place, yet it was most fra- Ledanum 
grant. It was found sticking like gum to the ^^^^^^^^ 
beards of he-goats,' and was useful for many orna- beards of 
ments, and also burnt very generally by the Ara- ^°'^*''" 
bians as a perfume.^ In consequence of these pro- 
ductions the whole land of Arabia breathed a divine 

Arabia was also famous for its sheep. There were sheep with 
two species, which could be seen nowhere else. One tails. 
sort had large tails, three cubits long, which would 
ulcerate if suffered to trail along the ground ; and 
the shepherd therefore used to make little carts and 
fasten one under the tail of each. The other sort 
had tails one cubit broad. ^ 

The Arabians never submitted to Persia, but were Political re- 

n • 1-1 , 1 /^ 1 r lations of 

on mendly terms, and gave (Jambyses a tree pas- the Araw- 
sage into Aegypt.* They also sent every year a p^'grsTa* 
thousand talents of frankincense as a present to the 
Persian king;^ and they marched in the army of 
Xerxes, wearing cloaks fastened by a girdle, and Costume. 
carrjdng on their right sides long bows which bent 
backwards.^ Some of them rode on camels, which 
were as swift as horses. '^ 

They kept their contracts as religiously as any Manner of 
people. When two persons wished to pledge their ^ntiafts. 
faith, a third stood between them and made an 
incision with a sharp stone in the palm of each of 
the contractors and near the longest finger. He 
then took some of the nap from the garment of each 
and smeared seven stones, which were placed be- 
tween them, with the blood, and whilst doing this 
he invoked Dionysus and IJrania. The man who 

1 The " ledum " is an odoriferous shrub which grows to the height of 
two or three feet. Goats browse on the leaves of it, upon which a gum- 
my matter adheres to their beards. The peasants of the Levant carefully 
collect this, with wooden combs made for the purpose ; they then melt 
it, and run it into a mass. This is what is called ledanum or labdanum. 
Tournefort, as quoted h/ Lurcher. 

2 iii. 112. a'iii. 113. * iii. 88. ^ jii. 97. 
« vii. 69. vii. 86. 


ASIA, pledged his faith, then bound his friends to be his 

CHAP. V. sureties ; and the latter held themselves to be 

,J^r;^JT~^ equally obliged to observe the contract. Dionysus 

Dionysus, aud Urauia were their only deities. The people cut 

tXandoT" their hair in a circular form, shearing it round the 

S^Ainat'^^^' temples in the same way, as they said that Dio- 

andAiitta. uysus had liis hair cut. Dionysus they called 

Orotal, and Urania they named Alilat,^ and Alitta.^ 

They observed the same custom, after intercourse 

with their wives, as the Babylonians ; especially 

washing themselves in the morning, and never 

touching any vessel until they had done so. 


1 iii, 8. ^ i. 131. ^ i jgg. 



Two Persian documents illustrative of the geography of Asia. — I. ASIA. 
Catalogue of nations in the army of Xerxes, with description of their chap. vr. 

equipments. — Hellenic costume : general description. — Heavy-armed 

warrior with the tunic, greaves, cuirass, sword, shield, helmet, and spear. 
— Light-armed soldier with darts, stones, and bows and arrows, or slings. 
— Herodotus's account. — Shield and helmet borrowed from Aegypt. — 
Crests, devices, and shield-handles invented by the Carians. — Hellenic 
costume prevalent amongst the Aeolians, lonians, Dorians, Hellespon- 
tines, Pamphylians, and Lydians. — Worn by Carians with falchions and 
daggers. — Hellenic helmet worn by Phoenicians andSjTians, with linen 
breastplates and shields without rims. — Barbarous costume in southern 
Asia Minor. — Lycians with caps encircled by feathers, goat-skin cloaks, 
cornel-wood bows, and cane arrows without feathers. — Cilicians with 
woollen tunics, national helmets, and bucklers. — Milyans with clasped 
garments and leathern helmets. — Cabalians and Lasonians like the 
CiUcians. — Northern Asia Minor. — ^Mysians in national helmets. — Bi- 
thynians in variously coloured cloaks, fox-skin caps, etc. — Moschi, Tiba- 
reni, Macrones, and Mosynoeci in wooden helmets. — Mares in painted 
helmets. — Chalybes with brazen helmets, and brazen ears and horns of 
an ox, crests, purple cloth leggings, and hunting javelins. — Phrygian 
costume of peculiar boots, plaited helmets, etc. : worn by Phrygians, 
Mariandynians, Paphlagonians, Matienians, Syri-Cappadocians, and 
Armenians. — Assyrian costume of linen cuirasses, helmets of brazen 
network, Aegyptian daggers, knotted clubs, etc. : worn by Chaldaeans 
and Babylonians. — Median costume of tiaras, variously-coloured cui- 
rasses, breastplates of iron scales, loose trousers, osier bucklers, etc. : 
worn by Medes, Persians, and Cissians. — Bactrian costume resembling 
the Median, but including bamboo bows, short spears, etc. : worn by 
Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians, Arians, and Parthians. — Wooden 
helmets, leathern bucklers, and short spears of the Saspeires. — Goat-skin 
mantles and peculiar bows of the Caspii, Pactyes, Paricanii, Utii, and 
Myci. — Peculian lassos carried by the Sagartians. — Beautifully dyed 
garments of the Sarangae. — Loose trousers, pointed hats, peculiar bows, 
daggers, and battle-axes of the Sacae beyond the Oxus. — Cotton gar- 
ments and bamboo bows of the Indians. — Crane-skin bucklers and 
horse-head helmets of the Asiatic Aethiopians. — Costume of nations not 
included in Persian Asia. — Cloaks and long bows of the Arabs. — Wooden 
helmets and leathern bucklers of the Colchians. — Plaited helmets, hol- 
low shields with large rims, pikes, and hatchets of the Aegyptians. — 
Hellenic armour and Persian head-dress of the Cyprians. — Libyan 
Aethiopians with bodies half white and half red, clothed in lion and 
panther skins, and carrying long bows, cane arrows tipped with stone, 



javelins tipped with horn, and knotted clubs. — Leathern garments of the 
Avestern Libyans. — Proposed comparison of Herodotus's description with 
the monuments of Persepolis and Nineveh. — IL Royal highway from 
Sardis to Susa. — Stations and caravanserais all the way. — Lydia and 
Phrygia : 20 stations, 94^ parasangs. — River Halys : gates and fort. — 
Cappadocia: 28 stations, 104 parasangs. — Cilicia: 3 stations, 15^ para- 
sangs. — Ferry over the Euphrates. — Armenia : 15 stations, 56^ parasangs. 
— Four rivers to be ferried: the Tigris, Zabatus Major, Zabatus Minor, 
and Gyndes. — Matiene : 4 stations. — Cissia : 1 1 stations, 42i parasangs. 

— Mistake in the sum total. — Hiatus in Matiene Probably never 

filled in by Herodotus. — Length of the whole journey from Ephesus 
to Susa. — Position of the nations in the map of Aristagoras. — Identifica- 
tion of the ancient road with the modern caravan route. 


Two Per- 
sian docu- 
ments illus- 
trative of 
the geogra- 
phy of He- 

I. Catalogue 
of the na- 
tions in the 
army of 
with de- 
scription of 
their equip- 

We have thus completed the geography of the 
Asia of Herodotus. Before however we turn to the 
last of the three continents, we have thought it ad- 
visable to devote another chapter to a further con- 
sideration of the two important Persian documents, 
of which our author has preserved either a copy or 
an abridgment, and to which we have continually 
referred whilst developing the geography of the 
satrapies. These documents are, first, the catalogue 
of nations in the army of Xerxes ; and second, the 
description of the royal road between Sardis and 
Susa. The first embraces not only a list of all the 
nations in the infantry, cavalry, and navy of Persia, 
but also includes an account of their equipments 
and origin ; and from this we shall endeavour to ex- 
tract what information we can respecting the cos- 
tume of the different people who inhabited the Asiatic 
continent. The second document contains a full 
description of the royal road through the western 
provinces of the empire, with an account of the 
countries that were traversed, rivers that were 
crossed, and stations that were passed through, 
along the whole extent of the route ; and this will 
be found of the utmost service in settling the topo- 
graphy of numerous important nations. 

The Catalogue of Nations is the first which we 
shall examine, and from this we obtain the following 
information. The Hellenic equipment was gener- 
ally adopted in western Asia Minor, Phoenicia, and 
Palaestine, but the rude mountaineers of the northern 
and southern provinces of Asia Minor, were armed 


in a more barbarous fashion. The Phrygian cos- asia. 
tume prevailed not only in Phrygia, but eastward chap. vi. 
along the mountains of Armenia as far as those of 
Zagros, or Kurdistan. Another style, in some re- 
spects similar to the Aegyptian, was worn by the 
Assyrian nations on the Euphrates and Tigris. Still 
more to the east, the Median costume prevailed in 
Media, Cissia, Persia Proper, and the nations gener- 
ally between the Caspian and Erythraean, with the 
exception of some mountaineers, who wore a dress 
more suited to an inclement climate. Lastly, be- 
yond these countries the Bactrian equipment was 
generally adopted as far as the Indus, though the 
Indians in the east, the Aethiopians in the south, 
and the Sacae in the far north, wore a different and 
peculiar costume. 

The Hellenic costume is not described by He- Hellenic 
rodotus. We learn, however, from Horner,^ that the general cie- 
heavy-armed warrior, having already a tunic around Heavy"arm- 
his body, put on, first, his metal greaves lined with ^. waiTior 
leather or felt ; secondly, his cuirass of metal, or tunic, 
hard leather, with the belt, ^u)vri, and the underneath fass^sword^ 
band, /xtVp?? ; thirdly, his short, straight, two-edged ^gf^^^^j^^®^' 
sword was hung on the left side of his body by means spear. 
of a belt which passed over the right shoulder ; 
fourthly, the large round shield made of wood, or 
wicker, covered over with ox-hides several folds 
deep, and bound round the edge with a metal rim ; 
fifthly, he put on his helmet ; sixthly, and lastly, he 
took his spear. The light-armed soldier carried no ^d^soicu™^' 
shield, and wore a much slighter covering than the ^'*^ '^'*''**',' 

' . i/*i 1 1 stones, and 

cuirass ; and, instead or the sword and spear, com- bows and 
monly fought with darts, stones, bows and arrows, sUnJ*' ""^ 
or slings. From Herodotus we learn that the shield ^^'1°!^'* ^ 
and helmet were borrowed from the Aegyptians,^ shield and 
and that the custom of fastening crests upon helmets, rowed from 
and of putting devices upon shields, was taken from crfit^,^de- 

1 II. iii. 328— 339 ; iv. 132—138; xi. 15—45; xvi. 130—142; xix.364— 
391. The Greek soldiers used nearly the same armour ever afterwards. 
They also put it on in the same order. Dr. Smith, Did. of Gr. and JRom. 
Ant., art. Anna. 

2 iv. ISO. 

Y 2 




vices, and 
dles, invent- 
ed by the 

amongst the 
tines, Pam- 
and Ly- 
Worn by 
with fal- 
chions and 
■worn by 
and Syrians, 
with linen 
and shields 
costume in 
Asia Minor. 
with caps 
encircled by 
cloaks, cor- 
bows, and 
cane arrows 
without fea- 

with wool- 
len tunics, 
and buck- 

the Carians.^ It also seems that in ancient times 
shields were carried without handles, and merely 
guided by leathern thongs fastened round the neck 
and left shoulder. This inconvenience was removed 
by another invention of the Carians, who introduced 
handles,^ consisting of a band of metal, wood, or 
leather, Avhich was placed across the inside from rim 
to rim, like the diameter of a circle. 

The nations in the army of Xerxes who wore the 
Hellenic equipment, were the Aeolians,^ lonians,^ 
Dorians,^ Hellespontines,^ and Pamphylians,^ who 
all served in the navy, and the Lydians,^ who be- 
longed to the infantry. The Carians^ also fought 
on board the fleet in the same accoutrements, but 
were armed with crooked swords or falchions, and 
two-edged knives or daggers. The Phoenicians 
and Syrians of Palaestine served likewise in the 
navy, wearing the Hellenic helmet, which we have 
already seen was borrowed from the Aegyptians : 
they however wore breastplates of wadded linen, 
and carried shields without rims, and javelins. ^'^ 

The equipments of the more barbarous tribes of 
Asia Minor presented a little more variety. In the 
southern provinces were the Lycians and Cilicians, 
who served in the navy ; and the Milyans, Cabali- 
ans, and Lasonians, who joined the infantry. The 
Lycians wore greaves and breastplates, and caps 
encircled with feathers instead of helmets. Over 
their shoulders were hung cloaks of goat-skins. Like 
their neighbours, the Carians, they were armed with 
falchions and daggers, and they also carried javelins, 
and bows and arrows. The bows were made of 
dog-wood, the cornelian cherry ; the arrows were of 
cane, and had no feathers." 

The Cilicians wore woollen tunics and helmets 
peculiar to their country. Instead of the usual large 
shield, they carried one much smaller and lighter, 
which may be called a buckler, and was made of 
raw hides. Each man was armed with two javelins. 

' i. 171. 

* vii. 95. 

'- Ibifl. 

3 vii. 95. " vii. 94. ^ vii. 93. 

vii. 74. ' vii. 93. "> vii. 89. '' vii. 92. 


and a sword very much like the Aegyptian scimetar.' asia. 
Of the three nations who joined the infantry, the 


Milyans wore garments which fastened with clasps, Miiyans 
and helmets made of tanned skins ; and they were g^'jji^entr'^ 
armed with short lances, and the Lycian bow of and^^ea-^^ 
cornel-wood.^ The Cabalians and Lasonians, who mets. 
seem to have been identical, wore the same costume S LaToni- 
as the Cilicians.' ^TL-'itV^" 

In northern Asia Minor, we have to notice the Northern 
Mysians, Bithynians, and races south-east of the MysiansT' 
Pontus, all of whom served in the infantry. Of these, H^^^l 
the Mysians wore helmets peculiar to their country, 
and carried small shields and javelins hardened by Bithynians 
fire.* The Bithynians, or Asiatic Thracians, as they coioureT^ ^ 
are called, wore tunics, and cloaks of various colours l^^^^' ^°''' 

m caps, 

over them. They also had buskins of fawn-skin on etc 
their legs, and fox- skins on their heads. ^ Their 
arms consisted of javelins, light bucklers, and small 
daggers.^ Much farther to the east, and along the 
south-eastern shore of the Euxine, were the Moschi, ^^jf 'r^'^j 
Tibareni, Macrones, and Mosynoeci, wearing wooden Macrones, 
helmets, and carrying light bucklers and spears nofcf fn^' 
with very large points ; ^ and the Mares with painted ^""f^'^^^^' 
helmets, bucklers, and javelins.^ The Chalybes Mares in 
also, who may be identified with that unknown na- me£^ 
tion which possessed an oracle of Ares," lived in the ^^thSen 
same quarter. They wore brazen helmets, and helmets, 

,,,•'• 1 T n Ti" 1 /> and brazen 

also the ears and horns oi an ox, likewise made oi ears, and 
brass, and over these were crests. Their legs were ox™ie°ts!'^ 
wrapped in pieces of purple cloth. They carried Firj^ie cioth 
bucklers of raw hides, and two of the javelins used and hun't- 

for hunting wolves.^" lag.iave ms. 

' vii. 91. 2 vii. 77, ^ Ibid, * vii. 74. 

5 Xenophon describes this dress as an eye-witness. " There fell," he 
says, " a great deal of snow, and the cold was so severe that the water 
which the servants brought in for the repast, and even the wine in 
the vessels, was all frozen, and many of the soldiers had their noses and 
ears frost-bitten. We then found that the Thracians were right in wrap- 
ping up their head and ears in fox-skins, and in wearing, when on 
horseback, instead of the chlamys, tunics which cover not only their 
breasts, but their thighs, with long robes which hang down to their feet." 
Anab. vii. 4. 

6 vii. 7o. ^ vii. 7S. 8 vii. 79. ' Comp. p. 2S0. '" vii. 76. 





costume of 
boots, plait- 
ed helmets, 
etc., worn 
by Phrygi- 
ans, Mari- 
nians, Ma- 
docians, and 
costume of 
linen cui- 
rasses, hel- 
mets of 
brazen net- 
work, Ae- 
clubs, etc., 
worn by 
and Baby- 

Median cos- 
tume of 
tiaras, vari- 
ously co- 
loured cui- 
plates of 
iron scales, 
loose trou- 
sers, osier 
etc., worn 
by Medes, 
and Cissi- 

The Phrygian costume comes next in geographical 
order, and extended along Anti-Tam-us, from the 
frontiers of Lydia to the mountains of Zagros, or 
Kurdistan, being worn by the Phrygians, Marian- 
dpiiaus, Paphlagonians, Matienians, Syri-Cappa- 
docians, and Armenians. All these nations served 
in the infantry. They wore peculiar boots reaching 
up to the middle of the leg, and plaited helmets ; the 
latter being probably made of brass net-work, or 
twisted leather. They carried small shields, and 
not large spears, besides javelins and daggers.^ 

The Assyrian costume belonged to the Chaldaeans 
and Babylonians, who occupied the country between 
the Euphrates and Tigris. These people served in 
the infantry. They wore cuirasses of wadded linen, 
and helmets of brazen net-work, twisted in a bar^ 
barous manner, which our author says is not easy 
to be described. They were armed with shields 
and spears, and with daggers similar to those of the 
Aegyptians. They also carried wooden clubs point- 
ed with, or, rather, studded with, knots of iron.^ 
Similar clubs were carried by the Aethiopians of 
Libya. ^ 

The Median costume belonged not only to the 
Medes, but was also adopted by the Persians and 
Cissians, and these three nations served in both the 
cavalry and infantry. On their heads they wore 
caps not stiffened, called tiaras.'^ Their bodies were 
protected by a cuirass consisting of variously co- 
loured sleeved breastplates, formed of iron scales 
like those of a fish. On their legs were loose trousers. 
Instead of shields they carried bucklers made of 
osiers, covered perhaps with leather, and, judging 
from the descriptions given of their use,^ were frirn- 
ished with a spike for fixing them upright in the 

1 vii. 72. 2 vii. 63. ^ vii. 69. 

* The scholiast on Aristophanes {Av. 487) says, " All Persians were 
allowed to wear the tiara, hut not erect. The king of the Persians 
alone had an upright tiara, called the citaris. The rest wore it bent 
and projecting over the forehead." Quoted by Mr. Cooley, in his edition 
of Larcher's Notes. 

5 Cf. ix. 99, and Thirlwall in he. 


ground. Beneatli the buckler was hung the quiver, asia. 
The other arms consisted of short spears, long bows, ^hap. vi. 
and arrows made of cane ; and a dagger was sus- 
pended from the girdle over the right thigh. ^ 

The Cissians did not wear the tiara, but a mitra.^ 
Some of the Persian cavalry also wore ornaments of 
brass and wrought steel on their heads. ^ The in- 
habitants of the islands in the Erythraean likewise 
wore the Median costume, but served only in the 
infantry,^ and we shall presently see that it was 
adopted, with some modifications, by the nations 
farther to the east. 

The Bactrian equipment prevailed over a still Bactrian 

' ^ iij^j_j?i •j_ ij 1 costume re- 

more considerable extent oi territory, but scarcely sembiedthe 
differed fr-om the Median, though Herodotus dis- l^ciuded^* 
tinctly points out those nations who wore the one tamboo 
from those who wore the other. The present cos- spear's, etc., 
tume existed amongst the Bactrians, Sogdians, Cho- Bacu-J,ns, 
rasmians, Arians, and Parthians, and the unknown n?f'^'^g^j' 
races of eastern Afghanistan. These people wore ans, Ariaas, 
a tiara very much like that of the Modes, and car- ans. 
ried peculiar bows made of bamboo and short 
spears.^ The Arians, who, as we have already seen, 
were closely allied to the Modes, ^ are said to have 
worn the Bactrian costume, but to have carried 
Medic bows.'' All these nations served in the in- 
fantry, but the Bactrians likewise furnished cavalry 
attired in an exactly similar manner.^ 

A mixed costume was worn by the nomades and ^1'°'^^'^ 
other nations on the borders of the empire. The leathern 
Saspeires in the valley of the Aras wore wooden and short 
helmets, and carried only small shields of raw hides, |pearsof the 

11 1 Til- "11 1 /^ 1 Saspeires, 

and short lances, like their neighbours the Col- 
chians, and the races to the south-east of the Euxine.^ 
The Casioian tribes, and the Pactyes, Paricanii, Utii, mantles and 
and Myci, whose seats can only be conjectured, but H'l^^oi the 
who served in both the infantry and cavalry, wore f'^^P'J;^^*'" 
goat-skin mantles, peculiar bows, and either daggers canil, utii, 

and Myci. 
1 vii. 61. 2 vii_ (32. 3 yyi 34 i ^^^ gg. s y^i 64. 

« Comp. page 291. "> vii. 66. « vii. 86. 

9 vii. 79, comp. 78. 


ASIA, or scimetars.^ The Sagartians, a race of Persian 

CHAP. VI. nomades, wlio probably wandered through the salt 

Pecuii^ deserts of Khorassan, furnished a large body of 

lasso carried cavalrv drossod in a fashion half Persian and half 

by the Sa- ._ »/ __,. . - - 1 

gartians. Pactyan. i hen^ only weapons, however, were tne 

dagger and a lasso. The latter was made of twisted 

thongs with a noose at the end, and the Sagartian 

mode of fighting was to throw the lasso over an 

enemy, whether on horse or foot, and entangling the 

victim in its coils, to put him to death with the 

Beautifully dagger.^ The Sarangae, or people of Sehestan, were 

ments^of the rendered conspicuous amongst the infantry by their 

Sarangae. i^eautifully dycd garments ; they also wore buskins 

reaching to the knee, and were armed with bows 

and Medic javelins.^ The Sacae, a Scythian race 

Loose trou- f^-Qni bevond the Oxus, wore loose trousers like the 

sers, point- -r^ . "^ , i • i i j_l 

ed hats, pe- Jb^ersians, but on their heads were caps, or rather 

daggLr^^' hats, which came to a point and stood erect. They 

axes of"the foi^glit Only in the infantry, and were armed with 

sacae, be- bows pocuHar to tlicir country, daggers, and battle- 

o°xus. ^ axes called sagares.* The Indians of the Punjab 

served in both the infantry and cavalry, the latter 

riding on saddle-horses, or driving chariots drawn 

Cotton gar- by horscs and wild asses.^ They were clad in cotton 

bLmboo" garments, and armed with bamboo bows, and arrows 

indilns*^^ of the same material, tipped with iron.^ The Asiatic 

Aethiopians of Gedrosia, or Beloochistan, were 

Crane-skin accoutrcd iu tho samc manner, but carried crane- 

an?horse- skius iustcad of shiclds. On their heads they wore, 

head hei- instead of a helmet, the skin of a horse's head, in 

mets of the i • i t t n i i 

Asiatic Ae- whicli the mauc served for a crest, and the ears 
uopians. ^gj.g fixed crcct. They served only in the in- 
Costume The costumo of the nations not included in Per- 

not'incTuded sian Asia, must also be mentioned here in reference 
Ask!"''''^ to the general subject. Of these we find that some 
of the Arabians and Colchians, who were considered 
Cloaks and ^q })q independent nations, served in the infantry of 

long bows ^-^ 1 A 1 p 1 T • 1 1 I' 1 

oftheArabs. Acrxcs : tlic Arabs, from the south, m cloaks lasten- 

' vii. 67, 68. 2 vii. 8.5. ^ yH ($7. 4 vii. 64. 

' vii. 86. « vii. 0.1 ' vii. 71. 


ed by a girdle, and carrying on their right sides long asia. 
bows which bent backwards ; ^ the Colchians, from ^chap- ^^■ 
the far north, in wooden helmets, and carrying wood^ 
small shields made of raw hides, short lances, and f4\"ijgj'/'''^ 
swords,^ being thus accoutred in all respects like bucklers 
their neighbours the Saspeires. The Aegyptians chians. 
and Cyprians served on board the fleet. The former ^""l^^^ ^^^- 
wore plaited helmets, probably of a similar fashion low shields 
to those of brazen net- work already described as be- rims,pike\ 
longing to the Assyrians ; and they carried hollow g^g'^of th?" 
shields with large rims, pikes fit for a sea-fight, and Aegyptians. 
large hatchets, and most of them had breastplates 
and larg-e swords.^ The Cyprians were attired like HeUenic ar- 

o . J r ^ mour and 

the Hellenes, excepting that their kings wore the Persian 
tiara, and the common people the citaris.* The oftheCy-^ 
Aethiopians above Aegypt were clothed in the skins ^^^^l^ ^g. 
of lions and panthers, and when they were going thiopians 
to battle smeared one half of the body with chalk, half whitT 
and the other half with red ochre. They carried ^ed, dothed 
long bows, not less than four cubits in length, ^'^^'^'^^^'^*^ 
made from the branches of the palm tree, and used skins, and 
short arrows made of cane, and tipped with sharp lonj^bows, 
stone of the same sort as that on which seals were tf""g^"°^ir 
engraved. They also had javelins tipped with stone, and 
antelope's horn, and made sharp like a lance, and i^d^with'^" 
used knotted clubs,^ which probably resembled those knotted"^ 
of the Assyrians.^ The Libyans in the western ciubs 
part of the Libyan continent wore leathern garments, garments of 

1 vii. 69. 2 vii. 79. ^ vii. 89. 

* vii. 90. Literally, " their kings had their heads wrapped in turbans ; 
the rest wore tunics, and were in other respects attired like the Hellenes." 
De Pauw, therefore, jestingly asks if the Cyprians wrapped their heads 
in tunics, and substitutes Ktraptae for KiOwvag ; a very slight alteration, 
and. which appears founded on Julius Pollux, (x. segm. 162,) who cites 
Kirapiv as from Herodotus. Wesseling would have approved of this 
change had not the " citaris " been peculiar to the Persians. Larcher 
suggests that the Cilicians might have borrowed this article from the 
Persians. I have always hesitated to offer any opinion upon different 
readings, but would here greatly prefer to understand that the Cilicians 
wore the " citaris " which had an upright peak. In Persia, as was pro- 
bably well known, and as we have already seen, page 326, note, the king 
wore the citaris and the people the tiara ; but from this passage in He- 
rodotus we may understand that in Cyprus the king wore the tiara and 
the people the citaris. 

^ vii. 69. ^ See page 326. 





the western 
of Herodo- 
tus's de- 
■with the 
of Persepo- 
lis and Ni- 

II. Royal 
from Sardis 
to Susa. 

Stations and 
serais all the 

Lydia and 
Phrygia : 
20 stations, 
941 para- 

River Ha- 

lys, gates 
and fort. 

28 stations, 
104 para- 

Cilicia : 
3 stations, 
151 para- 

and carried javelins which had been hardened by 

Such then are the contributions of Herodotus to 
this important branch of archaeology. They might 
perhaps have been further illustrated by a careful 
and minute comparison of the description of each 
nation, with the various details of costume repre- 
sented on the walls of Persepolis, and recently 
recovered monuments of Nineveh. But such an 
illustration would be foreign to the purpose of the 
present volrnne, even supposing the author capable 
of satisfying himself in its execution ; and indeed the 
work could only be well done by one who had him- 
self seen and studied the monuments of Persepolis, 
and was not obliged to trust to mere engravings. 
Probably Col. Rawlinson, in the new version of 
Herodotus, already promised to the public, will 
supply this desideratum in Asiatic antiquities. 

II. We now turn to the second important docu- 
ment in Herodotus, namely, the description of the 
road between Sardis and Susa, which the historian 
brings forward in explanation of the proposal made 
by Aristagoras to Sparta, for the conquest of the 
Persian empire.^ 

"From Sardis to Susa," says Herodotus, ''there 
is a road which passes all the way through an inha- 
bited and safe line of country, and all along it are 
royal stations and excellent caravanserais. First on 
leaving Sardis we pass through Lydia and Phrygia, 
which comprehend twenty stations, or ninety-four 
parasangs and a half. Leaving Phrygia we come 
to the river Halys, at which there are gates pro- 
tected by a fort, and these gates must be passed 
through before crossing the river. On the other 
side of the Halys we enter Cappadocia, and the 
road leads us through this country to the borders of 
Cilicia, comprehending twenty-eight stations, or one 
hundred and four parasangs. We penetrate Cilicia 
through two defiles or gates/ which are each ])yo- 

' vii. 71. ^ V. 49. 

■'' The Greeks called these nairow passes -rrvXat, "gates:" hence Thcr- 


tected by a fort. In Cilicia are three stations, and asia. 
fifteen and a half parasangs. The river Euphrates, ^"^^- ^i- 
which can only be crossed by a ferry, separates perry over 
Cilicia from Armenia. In Arnienia there are fifteen t^e^Eu- 
stations, or fifty-six and a half parasangs. There are ^^^^^^nia:^ 
here also four rivers, which can only be crossed in s'ei'p™'' 
boats. The first is the Tigris. The second and 'C^^'Viyers 
third have the same name, though they are not the ^ be fer- 
same river, nor flow from the same country, as the Tigris, za- 
first comes out of Armenia, and the other out of j^^f ""l^^^t^^ 
Matiene. [Unquestionably the Zabatus Major and ^^^"^^f^*^ 
Zabatus Minor, or Greater and Lesser Zab, of which 
the first springs fi-om the mountains of Kurdistan, 
and the other from the mountains of Armenia.] The 
fourth river is the Gyndes [which we have already 
shown to be the Diala']. From Armenia into Ma- 
tiene there are four stations and from Matiene.- 

Matiene through Cissia, as far as the river Choaspes cLlaT'" 
on which Susa is built, there are eleven stations, or IgfpST-'' 
forty-two and a half parasangs." ^ ^^"^s^- 

Herodotus next says, that the total number of mstaj^in 
stations between Sardis and Susa are one hundred total." 
and eleven, and that the total number of parasangs 
is four hundred and fifty. But if we add up those 
mentioned in the text, we find only eighty-one sta- 
tions and three hundred and thirteen parasangs, thus : 

stations. Parasangs. 

Lydia and Phrygia . . . .20 94-i- 

Cappadocia 28 104 

Cilicia 3 15^ 

Armenia 15 56^ 

Matiene 4 

Cissia 11 421 

Total 81 313 

The hiatus may occur in the account of Matiene, g||fiene!' 
where even the number of parasangs are not men- 
tioned. It has been therefore proposed, instead of 
four stations, to insert "thirty-four stations and one 

mopylae, or " hot-gates." The nvXai, however, on the Phrygian side of 
the Halys seems to refer to actual gates constructed on a bridge. Per- 
haps, also, there were flood-gates, which could be opened or shut at 

1 See page 283. ^ v. 52. 





never filled 
in by Hero- 

Length, of 
the whole 
from Ephe- 
sus to Susa. 

Position of 
the nations 
in the map 
of Aristago- 

hundred and thirty-seven parasangs," which will 
exactly reconcile the apparent contradiction. 

We have however already seen,' that Herodotus 
considered Armenia to include Western Kurdistan, 
and Matiene to comprise the Kurdistan mountains, 
together with a small territory between Armenia 
and Cissia ; and consequently there could not be 
more than four stations in Matiene, though there 
may have been more in Armenia. But Herodotus 
is certainly very obscure in mapping out these two 
countries, and his obscurity probably arose partly 
from his ignorance. He also trusted too much to 
his memory, and this may account for his putting 
down sum totals from recollection, without proving 
them. It really is not impossible that in describing 
the road between Sardis and Susa, he saw that there 
was some mistake about Matiene, and left a hiatus 
to be subsequently filled up. But, being unable to. 
get correct information at Thurium, he died without 
making the necessary insertion. 

Herodotus calculates the parasang as equal to 
30 stadia. The whole distance from Sardis to Susa, 
according to his measurement, would be 13,500 
stadia ; and he adds that those who travel 150 stadia 
a day would spend 90 days on the journey.^ Cal- 
culating however from the Hellenic Sea (or Aegean) 
to Susa, 540 stadia more must be reckoned in, as 
the distance between Ephesus and Sardis. The 
whole journey therefore from Ephesus to Susa was 
14,040 stadia, or three days more than the three 
months mentioned by Aristagoras.^ 

Tlie words of Aristagoras respecting the positions 
of the principal nations, should be also compared 
with Herodotus's account of the route. " Next the 
lonians are the Lydians, who inhabit a fertile coun- 
try, and abound in silver ; then towards the east are 
the Phrygians, who are the richest people in cattle 

^ See page 2S4. 

^ In another place (iv. 101) Herodotus calculates 200 stadia to the day's 
journey, but here he is evidently desirous of reconciling the distance with 
the words of Aristagoras, that the journey would occupy three months. 

3 V. 53, .54. 


and corn ; next are the Cappadocians, whom we call asia. 
Syrians ; bordering on them are the Cilicians, who ^^^^- ^i- 
extend to the sea, in which the island of Cyprus is 
situated ; then come the Armenians, who also abound 
in cattle ; then the Matienians ; and, lastly, the Cis- 
sians, where the city of Susa is situated on the river 

In concluding this chapter, we may mention that J^^^^J^^^- 
the great road already described is still used by andentrold 
caravans from Smyrna to Ispahan. Only the latter ^.oJeJu'ca- 
half has varied, for the traveller now proceeds north- ravan route, 
east, in order to be in the direction of Ispahan, 
whilst the ancients inclined more to the south, and 
followed the course of the Tigris. The ancient and 
modern roads however agree in one particular, they 
both took a circuitous course through inhabited 
countries, for the sake of security. A more direct 
road would have led the traveller through the steppes 
of Mesopotamia, occupied then as now by roving 
predatory hordes ; he therefore preferred taking the 
northern route, along the foot of the Armenian 
mountains, where he enjoyed security from all mo- 
lestation, and an abundant supply of all necessaries.^ 

1 V. 49. 

2 Heeren, Asiat. Res. vol. i. Tavernier's account of the caravan routes 
to Ispahan is graphic, though somewhat long-winded and gossipping. 
I made an abstract of his description of the route through Armenia in the 
hope that it would illustrate that of Herodotus, but the result, though in- 
teresting, was too unsatisfactory for me to insert in the present volume. 



AFRICA. Imperfect state of the geography of Africa. — Considered by Herodotus 
CHAP. I. to be surrounded by water, excepting at the Isthmus of Suez. — Story of 

, its circumnavigation by Phoenicians sent out by Neco. — Evidently be- 

heved by Herodotus and his contemporaries. — Voyage of Sataspes. — 
Possibihty of circumnavigating Africa, subsequently denied by Plato, 
B. c. 360; Ephorus, B. c. 340; Polj^bius, B. c. 150; Strabo, A. D. 1 ; and 
Ptolemy, A. D. 150. — Difficulty in deciding whether the Phoenicians did 
or did not accomplish the circumnavigation. — Herodotus's account of the 
voyage. — Examination into its possibihty. — Nature of the ships. — Cha- 
racter of the voyage. — Extent of coast to be traversed by circumnavi- 
gators. — Mean rate of sailing. — Aggregate length of the voyage. — 
Description of the supposed circumnavigation by the light of modern 
geography. — B. c. 613, August. — Suez. — Monsoon in the Arabian Gulf 
blowing from the north. — October. — Straits of Babel-mandeb. — Cape 
Guardafui. — Land of frankincense. — Monsoon of the Indian ocean blow- 
ing from the north-east.— Sun perpetually on the right hand. — Current 
of the Mozambique channel running round the Cape of Good Hope. — 
B. c. 612, January. — Tropic of Capricorn. — April. — Doubhng of the 
Cape of Good Hope. — Atlantic Ocean. — "Wind from the south blowing 
along the coast. — July. — St. Thomas's island. — Unfavourable wind and 
cmTent lasting till October. — General com-se of the currents of the At- 
lantic. — October. — Wind blowing from the north-east: slow westward 
progress against the current. — B. c. 611, March. — River Senegal. — Stay 
for the September harvest. — Slow progress against the current to the 
limits of the north-east trade wind. — Favourable winds through the 
Pillars of Heracles to the mouths of the Nile. — Story of the Phoenicians 
obtaining suppUes on their voyage by sowing corn and waiting for the 
harvest, not incredible. — Probably well victualled as far as Sofala, and 
again fresh supplied at Angola. — Bank of the Senegal river, the most 
likely spot for the Phoenicians to have chosen for sowing corn. — Ex- 
amination into the credibihty to be attached to Herodotus's relation. — 
Story of having the sun on the right hand no evidence of its tinith. — 
Failure of Sataspes no evidence of its falsehood. ^ — Phoenicians assisted 
by monsoons and currents, which would have been adverse to Sataspes. 
— Enterprising character of Neco in perfect keeping with his having 
organized such an expedition. — Convincing reasons for believing in the 
circumnavigation, and in the truth of Herodotus's narrative. — Herodo- 
tus's general knowledge of the African continent. — Considered it to be a 


great acte, spreading out from Asia at the Isthmus of Suez. — Extreme 
heat of the climate.— Difficulty in discovering Herodotus's boundary line 
between Asia and Africa. — Probably arose from a confusion between 
the country of Libya and the continent of Libya. — Division of the 
Libyan , continent into three tracts, viz. Aegypt, Aethiopia, and Libya 

The continent of Africa is a A^ast peninsula, con- afeica. 
nected with the main-land of Asia by the Isthmus chap. i. 
of Suez. Its immense deserts, its unbroken coast imperfect 
line, and the peculiar nature of the climate, have state of the 

_.,' ,■•■, , ,. f, . . i . geography 

hitherto rendered a large portion oi its interior m- of Africa. 
accessible to European travellers ; and, notwithstand- 
ing all that has been done by ancient and modern 
research, we cannot reduce the physical features of 
this quarter of the globe to any general arrangement, 
but must confine ourselves strictly to the illustration 
of those regions which were known to our author. 

Africa, or Libya, as it is called by Herodotus, considered 
was considered by him to be entirely surrounded by tustobe°sur- 
water, excepting at the part where it bordered on ^°ateJfex^^ 
Asia, for he describes Libya as having been cir- ^^f jffj^^*^ 
cumnavigated under the direction of the Aegyptian of suez. 
Neco. This king sent out some Phoenicians from ^^^^^^l^^l 
the Erythraean Sea, by which we may understand fjj,g^^f^j^g 
the Arabian Gulf, whose waters were included in sent out by 
the Erythraean. After an absence of three years, 
the adventurous navigators returned through the 
Pillars of Heracles, and declared that during the voy- 
age round they had had the sun on their right hand.^ 
This last fact appeared incredible to Herodotus ; ^ Evidently 
but it is evident that both he and his contemporaries Herodotus 
believed in the circumnavigation. He himself says, trmpm^a^^sl 
that the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the Ery- 
thraean are all one sea;^ and he relates, upon the 
authority of the Carthaginians, that Xerxes, yield- 
ing to the popular belief that the southern quarter of 
the continent of Libya was surrounded by water, 
ordered Sataspes, as a punishment, to sail through J°^^s^ °^ 
the Pillars "of Heracles, and attempt the circumnavi- 
gation of the continent by returning through the 
Arabian Gulf. Sataspes came back without accom- 

1 iv. 42. " Ibid. 3 i. 202. 





of circum- 
Africa, sub- 
denied by 
Plato, B. c. 

B. C. 340. 

B. C. 150. 

A. D. 1. 

A. D. 150. 

Difficulty in 

plishing tlie circumnavigation, not however because 
it was impossible, but because he dreaded the length 
and desolation of the voyage. It was necessary 
however to assign some other cause for his return, 
and he therefore declared that his vessel had been 
stopped, and could proceed no farther. Xerxes dis- 
believed this excuse, and Sataspes was impaled.^ 

This belief in the circumnavigation of Libya did 
not exist in after-times. Plato virtually denies the 
fact, for he says that the Atlantic Sea was neither 
navigable nor to be traced out, being blocked up by 
the mud produced by the sunken island of Atlantis.^ 
Ephorus expressly rejects the notion, for he says 
" that they who would sail to the island of Cerne 
from the Red Sea, are not able from the extreme 
heat to pass beyond certain columns."^ Polybius, 
who had himself explored the western coast of Africa,* 
tells us that '' Africa lies between the Nile and the 
Pillars of Heracles," but he adds that '' it has never 
yet been known whether Aethiopia, which is the 
place where Asia and Africa meet together, be a 
continent extending forwards to the south, or whe- 
ther it be surrounded by the sea."^ Strabo be- 
lieved that Africa terminated in a southern cape, 
though he erroneously imagined that its eastern 
coast formed a right angle with its northern, and 
that its western was the hypotenuse of the triangle ; 
but he disbelieved in the cfrcumnavigation, for he 
says that no one had advanced more than 5000 
stadia beyond the entrance of the Red Sea, now 
called the Straits of Babel-mandeb, and considered 
that after a certain distance an isthmus interposed. 
This isthmus is laid down by Ptolemy as stretching 
away from the coast of Africa, south of the equator, 
to the eastern verge of the world.^ 

The question, therefore, still remains undecided, 

' iv. 4.3. 

^ Timaeas, § 6, iii. 25. It must be acknowledged, however, that the 
whole story of the island of Atlantis ought, perhaps, to be considered as 
a mere myth. 

3 Pliny, Nat. Hist. vi. 31. * Ibid. v. i. ^ Polyb. lib. iii. 

•^ Strabo and Ptolemy, quoted by Kenrick. 


whether the Phoenicians sent out by Neco did or africa. 
did not double the Cape of Grood Hope, and return chap, i. ' 
to Aegypt through the Pillars of Heracles; and as .whether the 
the subject must necessarily be of great interest to J^°^"^^^j^f ' 
all students in ancient geography, we shall first ex- not accom- 
amine into the possibility of the achievement, and circumnlvi- 
then endeavour to point out the degree of credibility s^tion. 
which ought to be attached to the narrative of He- 
rodotus.^ Our author's own account is as follows : 

'' The Phoenicians, setting out from the Ery- Herodotus's 
thraean, navigated the southern sea. When autumn the°TOyage. 
came they sowed the land at whatever part of 
Libya they happened to be sailing, and waited for 
the harvest ; then, having reaped the corn, they put 
to sea again. Two years thus passed away. At 
length, in the third year of their voyage, having 
sailed through the Pillars of Heracles, they arrived 
in Aegypt, and related what does not seem credible 
to me, but which may be believed by others, that as 
they sailed round Libya, they had the sun on their 
right hand." ^ 

In order to arrive at the practicability of the Examin- 

1 • 1 n v» • ' 1. ±r\ J. ation into 

undertaking, we shall iirst examine into the nature its possi- 
of the ships and means of navigation, and then fol- ^'^'''^' 
low in the route which we may suppose the voy- 
agers to have taken, and remark upon their means 
of procuring sufficient supplies of provisions. 

The vessels in which the Phoenicians sailed were Nature of 
undoubtedly not war galleys, but merchant ships, 
carrying a sail, and not propelled by oars excepting 
in cases of emergency.^ The voyage must neces- 

^ Rennell and Larcher believed in the circumnavigation : Mannert 
and Gosselin doubted it. More recently the writer of the article on 
Africa, in the Penny Cyclopaedia, and Mr. Cooley, in his edition of 
L archer's Notes, have decided on rejecting it altogether. 

2 iv. 42. 

3 The Phoenician vessels that resorted to the Piraeus are admirably 
described by Xenophon. " I remember," said Tschomachus to Socrates, 
" I once went aboard a Phoenician ship, where I observed the best ex- 
ample of good order that I ever met with : and, especially, it was sur- 
prising to observe the vast number of implements which were necessary 
tor the management of such a small vessel. What numbers of oars, 
stretchers, ship-hooks, and spikes, were there for bringing the ship in 
and out of the harbour ! What numbers of shrouds, cables, halsers, 





of the voy- 

Extent of 
coast to be 
by the cir- 
Mean rate 
of sailing. 

length of 
the voyage. 

sarily have been performed along the shore, and only 
during the day-tmie, especially as the nature of the 
coast must have been totally unknown. 

The eutii^e distance from Suez, round Africa, 
coastwise, through Gribraltar, to the mouth of the 
Nile, is calculated by Rennell ^ to be about 224 de- 
grees of a great circle, or 13,440 geog. miles. The 
mean rate of sailing, judging from the rate at which 
Nearchus proceeded in his exploring voyage from 
the Indus to the Euphrates, was about twenty-two 
and a half miles per day.^ According to this esti- 
mate, the voyage itself would occupy about twenty 
months, and if a twelvemonth more is added for the 
harvest, for repairs of vessels on the way, and for 
rest and refreshment, the aggregate would be only 

ropes, and other tackling, for the guiding of the ship ! With how many- 
engines of war was it armed for its defence ! What variety, and what 
numbers of arms, for the men to use in time of battle ! What a vast 
quantity of provisions were there for the sustenance and support of the 
sailors ! And, besides all these, the loading of the ship was of great 
bulk, and so rich, that the very freight of it would gain enough to 
satisfy the captain and his people for their voyage : and all these were 
stowed so neatly together, that a far larger place would not have con- 
tained them if they had been removed. Here, I took notice, the good 
order and disposition of everything was so strictly observed, that, not- 
withstanding the great variety of materials the ship contained, there was 
not anything on board which the sailors could not find in an instant ; nor 
was the captain himself less acquainted with these particulars than his 
sailors : he was as ready in them, as a man of learning would be to 
know the letters that composed the name Socrates, and how they stand 
in that name. Nor did he only know the proper places for everything 
on board his ship ; but, while he stood upon the deck, he was consider- 
ing with himself what things might be wanting in his voyage, what 
things wanted repair, and what length of time his provisions and ne- 
cessaries would last : for, as he observed to me, it is no proper time, when 
a storm comes upon us, to have the necessary implements to seek, or to 
be out of repair, or to M'ant them on board ; for the gods are never 
favourable to those who are negligent or lazy ; and it is their goodness 
that they do not destroy us when we are diligent." Oecon. c. 8. 

1 Geog. of Herod, sect, xxiv., concerning the circumnavigation of 
Africa by the ships of Neco, to which I am indebted for many par- 
ticulars upon the subject. 

- The mean rate of Nearchus during his whole voyage was only 
twenty-two and a half miles per day ; and even when he was sailing 
through the Persian Gulf it was only thirty miles. This indeed is an 
unusually low rate, Ijut is preferred in the present case because the ex- 
pedition of Nearchus was performed under somewhat similar circum- 
stances to the voyage of the Phoenicians. Rennell adopts it, but quotes 
other examples of the rate of sailing, by which he would raise the mean 
to thirty-five or thirty-seven miles per day, but they are all cases in which 
the route was well known. 


two years and eight months, or four months within africa. 
the three years specified. _ ^"^^•^- 

We will, however, now follow in the route which De^eiiption 
we may suppose the voyagers to have taken, and "^^^^^f ^^j^P" 
in order to do this effectually, we shall describe cumnaviga- 
the voyage as having actually taken place, without Jg^t of mo- 
expressing any opinion upon its truth. ^ grapiw"" 

The Phoenician expedition probably left Suez in ^^-J^-^^^' 
the beginning of August, b. c. 613.^ We specify an suJT " 
approximate date for the sake of clearness, and fix 
upon the month of August, because at that time the 
monsoon of the Arabian Gulf would be blowing fi:'om JJ^^^^mbian 
the north. We may also take it for granted that ouif, biow- 
the voyagers were experienced in the navigation of north?"" 
this sea ; that they knew it would take them at least 
40 days to arrive at the Straits of Babel-mandeb ; ^ 
and that consequently they would reach the Indian 
Ocean about October, when they could either pro- 
ceed southward, along the eastern coast of the un- 
known continent, by the assistance of the monsoon 
of the Indian Ocean, which at this time begins to 
blow from the north-east, or they might turn back 
under the influence of the monsoon of the Arabian 
Grulf, which chops round at the same time, and 
through the winter months blows from the south. ^ 
We may next presume that the Phoenicians actually g^fa^tfof 
did reach the Indian Ocean about the latter end of Babei-man- 


^ A date for the voyage may be arrived at thus. Neco ascended the 
throne, b. c. 617. His first recorded acts were to dig the canal fi'om the 
Nile to the Arabian Gulf, and to build the two fleets. His expedition 
against Assyria, which was attended with the defeat and death of Josiah, 
took place B. c. 610; and we may suppose that the Phoenician voyage 
of discovery started in B. c. 613, and returned E. c. 610, whilst Neco was 
engaged in foreign conquest ; and this presumption would account for 
the fact of such a very meagre account of the voyage having been pre- 

2 See Herodotus's own calculation of the distance, at page 315. It 
must however be remarked, that if the voyage was performed in 40 days, 
this would be at the rate of 32 miles per day. 

3 The Indian Ocean and the Arabian Gulf have each of them pecu- 
liar monsoons, which differ in their directions. In the Indian Ocean 
south-westerly winds prevailed during the summer, and north-easterly 
during the winter. On the other hand, in the Arabian Gulf northerly 
winds prevail during the summer, and southerly during the winter. 
These facts must have been well known to the intrepid seamen, who 
had reached Tarshish and Ophir. 

z 2 


AFRICA. October, and that having doubled Cape Guardefui 
CHAP. I. and passed by the land of frankincense, they found 
Cape the monsoon of the Indian Ocean favourable to their 

LancSf""'' enterprise, and resolutely proceeded towards the 
frankin- Mozauibique Channel ; being probably encouraged 
Monsoon of by tlic fact, wliicli they may very well have be- 
OManf ''^'^ lieved, that should they find themselves impeded in 
blowing their course, the monsoon would certainly change 
north-east, again the ensuing March, and could easily waft 

them back again to the Straits of Babel-mandeb. 
Sun perpe- Ouward tlicn we may suppose the intrepid voy- 
ri'Sian^L agcrs to havc proceeded. After crossing the equator, 
they would observe that the remarkable phenomenon 
which had sometimes taken place in the more south- 
erly quarter of the Arabian Gulf was now perpetual, 
and that the sun was always on their right hand, or 
Current of ratlicr to the north of their vessels. On reaching 
bique GIL'S- the 10th degree of south latitude, they would begin 
round'thl'^° to fccl thc currcut of the Mozambique Channel, 
Cape of which would run in their favour the whole way 
B."a642T^' round the Cape of Good Hope. By the end of 
TropiTof January, b. c. 612, that is, in the midst of the sum- 
Capricorn. ingp of tlic southcm hemisphere, they might have 
reached the tropic of Capricorn. They would thus 
have a great part of the summer and autumn before 
them, for accomplishing the most difficult part of 
their voyage, namely, the doubling of the southern 
Doubiin of P^o^iontory of Africa. We must of course presume 
the Cape of that iu about two months and a half more they 
°^^' achieved this dangerous undertaking; the current 
of the Mozambique Channel carrying them safely 
round the Cape, at the most favourable season of the 
year, which, according to the above calculation, we 
Atlantic fix al^out the middle of April. The Phoenicians 


AVind from ucxt cutcred the Atlantic Ocean, and turned their 
Wowi'n* prows towards the mysterious north. It must here 
along the }yQ remarked, that in the Atlantic, from the 30th 

COfiSt. ^ 

degree of south latitude northwards to the equator, 
there prevails in the open sea a regular south-cast 
wind, which is called the trade wind ; but that off 
the coast and within the influence of land, a south- 


erly wind prevails, varying only some points to the africa. 
eastward or westward, according to the season or chap. i. 
time of day. This is more particularly the case in 
April and May, and consequently during this part 
of the voyage the Phoenicians would find a fair 
wind and but little bad weather. Three months 
more, at the least, would elapse before they could 
reach the equator and St. Thomas's island, and this 
would bring them to the middle of July ; but as July. st. 
they may have been delayed by the state of their li^^i'^ ^ 
ships, or by prolonged attempts to procure water or 
provisions, the probabilities are that they did not 
reach St. Thomas's until much later in the year. 
One thing however is certain, that whether they 
reached St. Thomas's in July, in August, or in 
September, they could not leave it and commence 
the westward voyage along the coasts of Guinea 
and Sierra Leone before the beginning of November ; 
for in this quarter a south-west wind, accompanied Un^'^'*'?"^- 
by rainy weather, blows until October, when it is and current 
succeeded by a north-east wind and dry weather, octoblf ^^ 
which would be more favourable to their progress. 
A brief notice of the currents of the Atlantic would 
also give the reader a further insight into the cir- 
cumstances of the voyage. 

There are two great counter -currents on the west- General 
ern coast of Africa, one coming from the north, and the currents 
the other from the south, and these two apparently lai.tic.'^* 
meet near St. Thomas's island, and form together 
the great equatorial current which runs westward 
towards the opposite coast of South America. By 
a glance at the map of Africa, it will be seen that 
the northern current, keeping along the coast, must 
take an easterly course through the Gulf of Guinea 
before it meets the southern stream ; and that the 
great equatorial current running out due west, ne- 
cessarily flows parallel with it, though in an oppo- October. 
site direction. As however the Phoenicians would ingfromthe 
be sure to keep close to the coast, they woidd avoid ^Yo'i\yli- 
the danger of being carried out into the open Atlantic ward pro- 
by the equatorial current ; at the same time, in their thfcu^rent. 



AFRICA, westward voyage from St. Thomas's, they would 
have to contend against the northern current, which 
runs close along the shore. Giving them therefore 
the advantage of the north-easterly wind, already 
mentioned, they would make but slow progress 
against the current, and lowering the mean rate of 
sailing to 18 miles a day, it must have taken them 
at least four calendar months to get from St. 
B. c. 611, Thomas's to the mouth of the river Senegal.^ This 
Eiver sene- briugs US to the Senegal by the beginning of March, 
fOTthrU- ^- ^' ^^^^ when 19 months of the voyage were com- 
tember bar- pletcd. At this rivcr the Phoenicians may have 
waited until the harvest in the ensuing September, 
and may then have again set sail and proceeded 
Slow pro- towards the Pillars of Heracles. The first part of 
the^cufreut this voyagc would be very slow, for they would 
ofthenortb- ^^^'^^ ^o contcud both agaiiist the northern current 
east trade and the uorth-cast trade wind ; and not less than 
40 days of sailing, at the rate of 15 miles per day, 
can be allowed them for clearing the limits of this 
Favourable trade wiud. Haviug passed beyond the trade, the 
throug^i the prevalent winds would be fair the whole way through 
Heiacie^to ^^^^ PiUars of Hcraclcs to the mouth of the Nile, a 
the mouths distaucc of about 2800 miles, which would occupy 
about 110 days, at the rate of 25|- miles per day. 
The voyage from the mouth of the Senegal to that 
of the Nile would therefore occupy 150 days, or 
about five months, and the Phoenicians would thus 
return to Aegypt in February, b. c. 610, being the 
third year of the entire voyage, and after having 
been absent for a period of two years and six 
story of the In f^nncxiou with the voyage, we have to deal 
obtaining witli thc subjcct of provisious. Herodotus's account 
thei?voy°° ^^ ^hc sowiug of the seed and waiting for the har- 
?ge ^y^'^^^ vest seems at first sight to be a mere fiction. But 
waiting for tlic iutcrval bctwccn seed-time and harvest in the 

1 A very long and learned, but most bewildering, account of the cur- 
rents of the Atlantic Ocean is given Ijy Major Renncll ; but it is to him, 
and to the valuable i)hysical Atlas of Mr. Johnstone, that I am indebted 
for all the actual facts 1 have brought forward to illustrate this presumed 
circumnavigation of Libya. 


tropical climate of Africa, would be only three africa. 
months ; and though the Phoenician vessels were chap. i. 
well fitted to carry a large supply of provisions/ yet the harvest, 
some extraordinary arrangements were doubtless notmcredi- 
made to enable crews to supply themselves during 
such a very long voyage as the one under consider- 
ation. That voyages did often extend over two or 
three years is proved from sacred ^ as well as from 
profane history, and the idea of travellers depending 
in some shape on a harvest of their own, is not con- 
fined to the present instance ; for in the preparations 
made by Tamerlane for his march into China, in 
A. D. 1405, were included waggon loads of seed- 
corn, to sow the fields on the road.^ With respect ^^"J'^J'cfu 
to the victualling of the Phoenician fleet, we may aUed as far 
observe that the power of the Aegyptian king Neco, and°agdA 
combined with their own experience, would enable ^'jj^^atAn- 
the navigators to obtain sufficient provisions through- goia. 
out the whole length of the Arabian Gulf; whilst 
their commercial relations with the people lower 
down along the eastern coast of Africa, would pro- 
cure them still further supplies, and they might be 
nearly as well victualled when they arrived at Mo- 
zambique or Sofala, as when they left the head of 
the Arabian Gulf. Between Sofala on the eastern 
coast, and Angola on the western shore, they might 
not have been able to secure a fresh supply ; but 
Angola is a fruitful and productive country, and 
here it is probable that they made their first long 
halt after leaving Aegypt. The Senegal river, we Bank of the 
have seen, was not reached before March, b. c. 611, river^the 
and probably not till much later, but this would "poffoJ'tS 
depend upon the length of their presumed stay at ^'^°^^J'''^''* 
Angola. This river is the most likely spot through- chosen for 
out the whole voyage, where the Phoenicians, having 
arrived by analogy at some idea of the probable 
length of the remaining part of their voyage, might 

^ See note to page 337- 

2 1 Kings X. 22, quoted by Rennell. The voyages of Hanno, of 
Scylax, and of Nearchus, beside those of the Phoenicians to the Cassi- 
terides, are too well known and authenticated to require mention. 

^ Sheref. Timur, vi. 28, quoted by Rennell. 



AFRICA, resolve to victual themselves for tlie whole of that 
^^^^- ^- interval. The harvests in this quarter are said to 
be in September, and the seed-time in June or the 
beginning of July ; but though this was a long time 
to wait, yet the people of the country might not 
have had a stock sufficient for themselves and the 
strangers also, without the aid of the expected har- 
vest ; and the time might also have been most 
profitably employed in repairing the ships and re- 
storing the crews to health and spirits. 

Examiua- ^g have thus proved that the circumnavigation 

tioii intotne r'x'i j*ii i i ' • 

credibility 01 Libya was practicable under certain circum- 
tached^to stanccs ; it now remains for us to ascertain the de- 
SiatTon^^'^^ gree of credit which ought to be attached to the 
narrative, which was evidently believed by He- 
rodotus and his contemporaries, but rejected by suc- 
ceeding authors, and doubted by many of the ablest 
story of geographers of modern times. The story which the 
suirof the Phoenicians told of their having had the sun on their 
n?evickn^e ^ig^t hand by no means obliges us to believe that 
of its truth, they did circumnavigate the continent, for the same 
phenomenon might have occurred at a certain time of 
the year northward of the Straits of Babel-mandeb. 
Failure of Neither, on the other hand, does the failure of Sa- 
evideuceof taspcs obligc US to coiiclude that the Phoenicians 
hood!^'^ were equally unsuccessful ; for we have already seen 
how much more easily the voyage might have been 
conducted from the eastern than from the western 
Phoenici- sidc. Tlic Phocnicians, who must have had some 
by mon- cxpcrience of the trade winds, might have been able 
cmrentr^ to take advantage of the monsoon of the Arabian 
which Gulf, then of that of the Indian Ocean, and then 
been ad- might liavc been carried round the Cape by the 
taspes!" ^^' Mozambique current ; and, in short, would have 
met with but little impediment beyond the proba- 
ble want of provisions and water until they arrived 
at the Gulf of Guinea. Sataspes, however, would 
no sooner have reached this latter station than all 
his troubles would have commenced. The strong 
current from tlie Cape, strengthened by tlic south- 
cast trade wind, would liave carried liim away in 


tlie equatorial current towards South America, if he Africa. 
once left the coast ; and even supposing that by the ^^^^- ^• 
assistance of oars he approached the Cape, it is cer- 
tain that it would have been morally impossible for 
him to have doubled this formidable promontory. 
There can also be no doubt but that the Phoenician 
expedition was really sent out. Neco was an enter- Enterpris- 
prising and powerful prince. He commenced the tef o/Neco 
canal from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf,* and built L^'ee^plng*"' 
two fleets of triremes ; ^ and it was he who defeated ^^J^^^^'^^j. 
King Josiah in the valley of Megiddo, and gained a ganized 
splendid victory over the Assyrian power on the pldition.''^" 
banks of the Euphrates. Was it therefore possible 
for the Phoenicians to have subsequently deceived 
him, and could they have transported their vessels 
from the Arabian Gulf to the Mediterranean, and 
after two or three years' absence have reached the 
Nile and claimed the reward which had been doubt- 
less offered ? Such a proceeding would be incredi- 
ble. The ships could not have been carried, and 
others would soon have been identified as never 
havinff been sent out with the voyagers. We must convincing 

^ *^ rGfisous lor 

therefore own ourselves firm believers in the circum- believing in 
navigation, and in the general truth of Herodotus's navigatiol^ 
narrative. The Phoenicians were notorious for their f''^J''i5f 

. , . T r 1 1 n T truth of He- 

commercial jealousy, lor the concealment oi dis- lodotus's 

p jS 1 r ' ' 1 i? J.1 narrative. 

coveries lor the sake oi enjoying a monopoly oi the 
commerce, and their report was therefore as brief as 
possible. Lastly, to those critics who urge that if 
the circumnavigation had been once effected, it 
would have been followed by some permanent re- 
sults, we can only say that, difficult and dangerous 
as the voyage must undoubtedly have been, it could 
have had no more effect upon the commerce of the 
ancients than the discovery of the north-west pas- 
sage is likely to have upon the trading voyages of 
modern times. India was to be approached from the 
Arabian Gulf, and the eastern and north-western 
coasts of Africa were already reached by the nearest 

1 ii. 158. 2 ii. 159. 





of the Afri- 
can conti- 

it to be a 
great acte 
out from 
Asia at the 
Isthmus of 

heat of the 

routes. Communications with the interior were 
sufficiently opened by the caravans from Carthage ; 
and no merchandise of any description could be ob- 
tained from Southern Africa which would at all repay 
the most adventm-ous and enterprising voyager, for 
any attempt to prove whether the story of the Phoe- 
nician expedition was true or mythical. Thus, 
after the lapse of ages, the narrative was either for- 
gotten or doubted, and the great geographical pro- 
blem still remained as though it had never been 

The next subject to be considered is, the character 
and extent of Herodotus's knowledge of the conti- 
nent at large. According to his map of Asia,^ he 
considered the Libyan continent as forming the 
second great acte which ran westward from Asia. 
At Aegypt the country was narrow, for between the 
Mediterranean and the Arabian Gulf the neck 
of land (now called the Isthmus of Suez) was only 
100,000 orgyae across ; but from this narrow neck 
the tract which was called Libya became very 
wide.^ The western extremity was formed by the 
promontory of Soloeis.^ The soil was reddish and 
sandy,* but watered by numerous rivers.^ The 
region above, or to the south of Aegypt, was exceed- 
ingly hot ; the winds were very heating ; and there 
was neither rain nor snow. The inhabitants also 
became black from the excessive heat; kites and 
swallows remained there the entire year, and the 
cranes, to avoid the cold of Scythia, repaired to these 
countries for their winter quarters.'' The air was 
always clear, the soil always hot, and the winds 
never cool ; ^ whilst the peculiar course of the sun ^ 
rendered the climate of Libya one eternal sum- 
mer.^ Thus the Libyans, and next to them the 
Aegyptians, were the healthiest of all men, be- 
cause they had nothing to suffer from the change 
of seasons.'" 

See page 200. 
ii. 22. ■' ii. 25. 

iv. 41. Mi. 32. 

" Sec page 12. 

* ii. 12. 

'■' ii. 2(j. 

■' ii. 20. 

'" ii. 77. 


It is difficult to decide where Herodotus would Africa. 
draw the boundary line between Libya and Asia. ^hap. i. 
We have already seen that the eastern tract between Difficulty m 
the Nile valley and the Red Sea was assigned to '^^l°J^^l^§ 
Arabia, and our author himself seems doubtful boundary 
whether Aegypt belonged to Libya or to Asia. tween^Asia 
Objecting, as he did, to the arbitrary continental ^"^"^ ^^"°^- 
divisions of the other Greek geographers, he seems 
more inclined to divide the world into tracts, or 
countries. He therefore says that the only line of 
division he knows between Asia and Libya is the 
frontier of Aegypt,^ but whether that frontier was on 
the east or the west, he nowhere specifies. Again, 
he certainly does say that Libya commenced from 
Aegypt, but then immediately afterwards he says, 
that from the narrow neck which joins the acte to 
the main-land, the tract which was called Libya 
was very wide : ^ thus in the same chapter imply- 
ing, first, that Libya commenced from Aegypt ; and, 
secondly, that it commenced from the Isthmus of 
Suez. We are therefore led to conclude that the ProbaWy 

/»-p., -,-, PT'T arose irorti 

continent oi Libya and the country oi Libya were a confusion 
two totally different things. The continent cer- country S^ 
tainly included Aethiopia ; ^ whilst Libya Proper, ^g^^ntt^ 
which was inhabited by the Libyans, comprised nent of li- 
only the northern territory between Aegypt and ' 
Cape Soloeis. That Aegypt was not included in the 
Libyan continent may be distinctly proved by the 
following passage. " Thus much I know," says 
Herodotus, " four nations occupy Libya, and no 
more ; two of these nations are aboriginal, and two 
not. The Libyans and Aethiopians are aboriginal, 
the former lying northward and the latter south- 
ward in Libya ; the foreign settlers are Phoenicians 
and Greeks."* This passage we shall ignore in obe- 
dience to modern geography, and consider the Ae- 
gyptians as included within the present quarter of 
the globe. 

The continent of Libya must be thus divided into Ji'jLibya°n 

1 ii. 17. - iv. 41. 3 ii. 17. vii_ 70. * iv. 197- 



AFRICA, three distinct tracts, viz. Aegypt, Aetliiopia, and 

^'^^^- ^- Libya Proper ; Aegypt and Aetliiopia including 

continent the countrics watered by the Nile, and Libya Proper 

tact?Tiz embracing the region of Mount Atlas and desert of 

Aegypt, Ae- Sahara: and this division we shall implicitly follow 

thiopia, and ' , i t i j 

Libya Pro- m tho succecamg chaptcrs. 




General description of Aegypt— a fertile valley, bounded on the east AFRICA, 
by the Arabian chain, and on the west by the Libyan. — Herodotus's chap. ii. 
account. — Situation and boundaries of the country. — Supposed to be a ^ 

gift of the Nile, as in the reign. of Menes, B. c. 2200, aU Middle Aegypt 
was a morass, and all Lower Aegypt was under water ; but in the time 
of Herodotus, B. c. 450, the whole had been filled up by alluvial soil 
brought down by the Nile. — Lower Aegypt said by the priests to have 
been anciently a bay, corresponding to the Arabian Gulf.^Three facts 
in favour of the hypothesis. — 1. Shells found on the mountains and 
sahne humour on the pjrramids. — 2. Contrast between the black soil of 
Aegypt and the rock and clay of Arabia and Syi-ia on the east, and the 
red sand of Libya on the west. — 3. Gradual rise of the land. — Ionian 
theory, that Aegypt Proper was included in the Delta, proved to be ab- 
sui'd, as the Aegyptians were an ancient people, but the soil of the Delta 
of recent formation. — Theory of Herodotus — that the Aegyptians had 
advanced northward as fast as fresh soil was formed, and that Aegypt 
properly included all the country inhabited by Aegyptians — -supported 
by the oracle of Ammon. — Voyage of Herodotus up the Nile, by Heli- 
opolis and Thebes, to Elephantine on the southern frontier of Aegypt. — 
Aegypt north of Heliopolis, (i. e. the Delta,) a broad flat. — Aegypt 
south of Heliopolis, a narrow valley between the Arabian and Libyan 
mountains. — Extent of the voyage.' — Error in Herodotus's calculation of 
the number of stadia. — Herodotus's personal knowledge bounded on the 
south by Elephantine. — Could learn but little concerning the Nile. — 
Three difierent causes assigned by the Greeks for its periodical over- 
flow. 1st, That it was occasioned by the Etesian winds. 2nd, That 
it was caused by the river Ocean. 3rd, That it was produced by the 
snows of Aethiopia. — Theory of Herodotus, the Nile drained during the 
winter by the sun, which is driven southward by Boreas ; but ovei-flowing 
in summer, when the sun returns to the centre of the heavens. — Origin 
of the three previous theories.^ — That of the Etesian wdnds, taught by 
Thales. — That of the river Ocean, by Hecataeus, though perhaps in 
part derived from the Aegyptian tradition of the revolution of the sun. — 
That of the melted snow, taught by Anaxagoras, and followed by Eu- 
ripides and Aeschylus. — Real cause of the inundation first discovered 
by Democritus and Callisthenes, viz. the very heavy rainy season in Ae- 
thiopia. — Period of the inundation. — Singular theory of the philosophers 
of Memphis as described by Diodorus. — Sources of the Nile : Herodotus 
unable to obtain any information concerning them. — Hoaxing story told 
by the bm-sar of the Athene temple at Sais.— Effects produced by the 
inundation. — Aegypt like a sea, and her cities like islands. — Navigation- 
carried on across the plain of the Delta. — Cities protected by mounds. — 





General de- 
scription of 
a fertile val- 
on the east 
by the Ara- 
bian chain, 
and on the 
west by the 

Seven mouths of the Nile, viz. Pelusiac, Canopic, Sebennytic, Saitic, 
Mendesian, Bolbotine, and Bucolic. — Their identification on the modern 
map. — Divisions of Aegypt not distinctly laid down by Herodotus. — 
Supposed by him to have included Lower Aegypt, or the Delta, and 
Upper Aegypt, or Heptanomis. 

Aegypt in primeval times consisted of a long 
rocky valley terminating in a deep bay. The river 
Nile, which flowed from the highlands of Aethiopia, 
traversed the entire length of the valley, and emp- 
tied its waters into the bay. In the time of Hero- 
dotus the Nile had covered the rocky valley with 
rich and teeming earth, and by its continual de- 
posits had filled up the bay, and transformed it into 
that extensive and fruitfiil territory known as the 
plain of the Delta. ^ Aegypt thus included, first, 
the long and narrow valley which follows the course 
of the Nile from Assouan, the ancient Syene, north- 
wards to Cairo ; and, secondly, the extensive plain 
of the Delta, which stretches from Cairo northwards 
to the Mediterranean. The two mountain ranges 
which enclose the Nile valley are called by an 
Arabian writer, '' the wings of the Nile." That on 
the east may be named the Arabian chain ; that on 
the west, the Libyan chain. In Upper and Central 
Aegypt they are each intersected by defiles, which 
on the eastern side lead to the shores of the Red 
Sea, and on the western side lead to the oases. As 
these two ranges approach the apex of the Delta 

' This opinion is in accordance with Herodotus's own theory, (ii. 5. 
See also Savanj's Letters on JEr/j/pt, Letter L) It has however been 
stoutly opposed by Sir J. G. Wilkinson and the learned writer of the 
article on Egypt in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, who, 
though it is admitted on all hands that the land of Aegypt and the bed 
of the river are both slowly rising, yet contend that the limits of the 
Delta to the north are the same now as in the remotest antiquity. But, 
even admitting that the northern limits of the Delta are the same now 
as they were in the days of Herodotus, it does not invalidate his state- 
ment, which we shall quote and remark upon further on in the present 
chapter, that the cultivated portion of Aegypt is the gift of the river. The 
chain of sand-banks, which skirt the Delta on the north, may have ex- 
isted long before the Delta attained its present form ; but, at the same 
time, there is no i-eason to doubt that the cultivable land of which the 
Delta is composed really and wholly consists of deposits brought down 
by the Nile, and that the lakes or lagoons, which lie along the shore to 
the south of the chain of sand-banks, are the last remains of the sea by 
'which the Delta was anciently covered. 

AEGYPT. 3-51 

near Cairo, they recede eastward and westward ; africa. 
one, named Gebel Nairon, stretching north-west to chap. n. 
the Mediterranean, and the other, named Gebel 
Attaka, running north-east to Suez, and both form- 
ing an angle of divergence of about 140°. A little 
to the north of the spot where the two ranges di- 
verge, the river divides into two large branches, one 
flowing to Rosetta, and the other to Damietta ; and 
these two branches thus contain between them the 
triangular piece of insulated land, which the Greeks 
called from its shape the Delta, a.^ The entire 
length of Aegypt from Syene to the Mediterranean 
is about 450 geog. miles, and the mean width of the 
valley which stretches from Syene to Cairo is about 
nine miles. Such was the country whose physical 
formation, whose history, and whose religion, at- 
tracted so much of the attention of our curious and 
inquiring author. It was divided into three parts : 
1. Northern Aegypt, or the Delta. 2. Middle 
Aegypt, or Heptanomis. 3. Southern Aegypt, or 
Thebais. And in reading Herodotus it is necessary 
to remember, that by Lower Aegypt he means the 
northern division, or the Delta ; and by Upper 
Aegypt he means the middle and southern division. 

Aegypt was supposed by Herodotus to lie under Herodotus's 
nearly the same meridian as Cilicia, Sinope, and sitaario'n 
the mouths of the Ister.^ Its northern boundary aries^oSe" 
was formed by that portion of coast washed by the country. 
Mediterranean, which lay between the bay of 
Plinthenites on the west, and Lake Serbonis on the 
east ; a distance of 60 schoeni, or 3600 stadia, the 
schoeni being an Aegyptian measure equivalent to 
60 stadia.^ Its southern boundary might be formed 
by a line drawn east and west at the city of Ele- 
phantine/ which was situated directly opposite 
Syene, and just below the lesser cataract ; and it 
should be remembered that from Elephantine north- 

1 It need scarcely be mentioned that to the Greeks, coming from 
Greece, Lower Aegypt presented the exact shape of the letter delta ; but 
that on the modern map, which points in an exactly opposite direction, 
Lower Aegypt appears like a delta npside down. 

■'' ii. 34. 3 ii. 16. i ii_ i8_ 

352 AEGYPT. 

AFRICA, wards to the Mediterranean, the Nile was navigable 
CHAP. II. the whole distance. 

^^^~~j^ The territory of Aegypt was considered by our 
be a gift of author to be a gift of the Nile.^ In the reign of 
in rtiTreigu Meuos, the whole of Aegypt, excepting Thebais, 
E!^aS, was a morass, and all the country north of Lake 
ail Middle Moeris was under water ; ^ whilst in the time of 
a morass^ ^^ Hcrodotus, this Lake Moeris was distant from the 
er A^egypr sca a scvcn days' voyage up the river Nile.^ It was 
Avasimder ^j^^^g ovidont to all wlio saw the country, that the 
irthe'time Delta, or that part of Aegypt which was visited by 
t^s!l!c°45"o, the Greek merchantmen, was a gift from the river, 
£d been ^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ parts for a three days' passage south- 
fiiied up by ward of the Lake Moeris were of the same descrip- 
brought^" tion. The actual existence of these alluvial deposits 
do^bythe ;^ig}jt however be proved by sailing one day's voy- 
age from the coast, and casting in a lead ; upon 
which the voyager would bring up mud, and find 
Lower himsclf in eleven fathoms water.^ Indeed, as the 
Aegypt said p^^gg^g j-^i^ Horodotus, and as also appeared to him 
blvfbeen ^o bc the casc, the Nile valley, as far as the coun- 
ancientiya try south of Mcmphis, was formerly a bay of the 
spJndTngto sea,^ extending from the Mediterranean towards 
^e^Arabian ^ethiopia, iu the same way that the Arabian Gulf 
extended from the south towards Syria ; and if the 
Nile were to turn its stream into the Arabian Gulf, 
as it did into the Aegyptian bay, the gulf also 
would be filled up in 20,000, if not in 10,000 years.^ 
Three facts That this was the ancient condition of the country 
thehy^o'-*' was perfectly evident to Herodotus, especially when 


1 ii. 5. 

2 The priests who gave this information to Herodotus spoke without 
any historical authority. They saw what Herodotus himself says was 
evident to any one who used his eye-sight, that the Delta consisted of 
land which had been brought down by the Nile ; but being ignorant of 
the rate at which such phenomena proceed, and conceiving the com- 
mencement of their own special history to be the commencement of 
everything, they declared that the formation of the Delta, which must 
have been the work of many thousands of years, began in the reign of 
Menes, because he was the first king of Aegjqit. The period however 
of those great physical changes which raised the Delta above the level 
of the sea, stretches far beyond the annals of the human race, and Menes 
did not found his capital that he might reign over a marsh. See Kenrick, 
Anc. Eqypf, vol. ii. 

3 ii. 4! ^ ii. T). •'"' ii. 10. " ii. 11. 

AEGYPT. 353 

he saw that Aegypt projected into the Mediterranean africa. 
beyond the adjoining land; that shells were found chap. n. 
on the mountains, and that a saline humour every- ^ gy^^^g 
where covered the surface, and even corroded the Jo^^d on 
pyramids ; whilst, on the other hand, the mountains tains, and a 
southward of Memphis consisted wholly of sand, mour on\e 
Moreover, the soil of Aegypt was quite different py^'amids. 
from that of the neighbouring countries, Arabia, / 
Libya, and Syria ; for it was black and friable, as if 2/contrast 
it were mud and alluvial deposit brought down by black sou of 
the river Nile from Aethiopia ; whilst the soil of ^g^j.^P^^JjJ 
Libya was reddish with a substratum of sand, and ciay of Ara- 
that of Arabia and Syria was clayey, with a sub- riaonthe^' 
stratum of rock,^ Another proof of the gradual ele- red sand*o/ 
vation of the country by alluvial deposits was also Jt^^y* ^"^ 

*J •J -L til6 west. 

brought forward by the priests, who assured Hero- 3. Gradual 
dotus that in the reign of King Moeris, if the Nile land?^*^^ 
only rose eight cubits it covered all Aegypt north 
of Memphis ; ^ whereas, at the time they gave him 
this information, which was only 900 years after the 
death of Moeris, the river could not overflow the 
country unless it rose sixteen cubits, or fifteen at the 
least. If therefore the soil of the Delta continued 

^ ii. 12. " Modern science," says Mr. Kenrick, " has added little to 
this simple hypothesis. Borings made in the Delta to the depth of forty- 
five feet, have shown that the soil consists of vegetable matter and an 
earthy deposit, such as the Nile now brings down ; but as no marine re- 
mains are found in the mud which covers the upper and middle portion 
of the Delta, it appears that the present alluvium must have been de- 
posited upon a surface previously elevated above the Mediterranean. 
That Aegypt has undergone changes not recorded in history, nor sur- 
mised by its ancient inhabitants or visitors, is evident from the pheno- 
mena of the peti-ified forest in the neighbourhood of Cairo. The platform 
on which it lies is considerably above the present level of the Nile, on 
the side of the Mokattam range. The trees, some of which are from 
fifty to sixty feet in length, are scattered over a space of three and a half 
miles wide, and four miles long ; their substance is in many cases con- 
verted into silex, agate, and jasper, and they are partially covered with 
rolled pebbles and sand. It is difficult to account for these appearances 
without supposing that they have been submerged subsequently to their 
growth, and again elevated to theii- present position. (Newbold, Geology 
of Egypt, Proc. Geol. Soc. 3, 2, 91. 1842.) If the agatized wood in the 
Bahr-be-la-Ma is of the same origin, and was deposited there before the 
valley of the Nile intervened, we are carried far back into that indefinite 
-antiquity which Herodotus prudently assumes." — Kenrick, Ancient 
Egypt under the Pharaohs, vol. i. 

^ The priests ' here exhibit their ignorance of the rate of progression, 
by which the physical changes first described were brought about. 

2 A 

35-1 AEGYPT. 

AFRICA, to grow in the same proportion, he considered thai: 
CHAP. II. the Nile would at length be unable to irrigate the 
land at all, and that the Aegyptians north of Lake 
Moeris would perish from drought.^ Meantime 
howoYor they had the least trouble in the world in 
obtaining the ft'uits of the earth. They neither 
ploughed nor hoed, but when the river had irrigated 
their fields and then subsided, each man sowed his 
own corn and turned in swine, who thereupon trod 
in the seed, and subsequently at harvest time trod 
out the corn, and saved the trouble of tin-ashing.^ 
Ionian the- The louians maintained that Aegypt properly 
gypt R^oper embraced only the Delta. They stated that its sea, 
edlitS'^' from west to east, was only forty schoeni in extent, 
Delta, prov- namely, from the tower of Perseus to the Taricheia 
surci°as%L' of Polusium ; and that from the coast into the in- 
here anTn- terior it only stretched to the city of Cercasorus, 

?e''butthe where the Nile divides. The rest of Aegypt they 
soil of the assigned partly to Libya, and partly to Arabia. 
?ent fofm'^ " But, liow thcu," says Herodotus, " if the Delta, 
ation. ^^ Aegypt Proper, were only created at a recent 
period, could the Aegyptians be such fools as to 
suppose that they were the most ancient of all peo- 
ple ? But taking it for granted," he continues, 
^' that the theory of the lonians be a correct one, I 
will show that neither they nor the Greeks gener- 
ally know how to count the divisions of the earth. 
At present, they tell us that there are only three — 
Em-ope, Asia, and Libya, and they add, that Asia is 
separated from Libya by the Nile ; but surely if 
Aegypt is included in the Delta, they ought to 
reckon it as a fourth division, for being enclosed by 
the Nile, it necessarily lies between Asia and Li- 
bya." ^ Herodotus himself therefore considered that 
the Aegyptians had existed as long as the human 
SroStm ^^^^ generally ; that they had advanced gradually 
thauhe ' northward as the land advanced ; and that Aegypt 

1 ii. 14. This notion of Herodotus is based upon a misconception. 
He forgot that the bed of the liver must necessarily rise by the same 
agency as the surface of the surrounding soil, so that the same relative 
level would be still preserved. 

2 ii.. 14. =' ii. 15, 16. 

AEGYPT. 355 

in ancient times, before the Nile had created the Africa. 
Delta, was included in the territory of Thebais, and chap. n. 
was only 6120 stadia in circumference. ^ Aegyptiaus 

Herodotus then places his own view, that Aegypt ^^d ad- 
included all the country inhabited by the Aegyp- northward 
tians, in opposition to that of the lonians, who con- frelh Ln 
sidered that all, except the Delta, was halved by the ^'"^^ {?T®'^' 

ATM 1 1 Tc • \ • 11 -11 ,„ and that 

JNile, and one halt given to Asia